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BOILER FURNACE

FIN-53851 Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland

bordbar@lut.fi

Abstract: Radiative heat transfer in the freeboard of large pulverized fuel utility

boilers was analyzed by applying one of the most accurate radiation models, the zone

method of analysis, to the prediction of incident radiative heat fluxes on the furnace

walls. Modeling the cooling water tubes in the freeboard was quite challenging and

using this method for unstructured mesh was leading to computationally demanding

calculations. By using this model, the behavior of temperature and heat flux within

the furnace and on the heat surfaces has been investigated. The velocity field of the

combusted fuel from burner has been modeled by using the existing formula for the

velocity field of turbulent jet exit from the burner orifice. The accuracy of the

method was tested by comparing its predictions with experimental measured

radiative fluxes on the walls. The final aim of the study was to find the needed

changes in boiler’s burners and load in order to change fuel quality from Mazut to

Methane without any damages in heat surfaces. By comparing the results of our

simulation for methane-state with experimental results for Mazut state, we found that

for preventing any damage in heat surfaces due to aforementioned fuel changes, the

load of the boilers should be decreased by 12%. By this fuel changing, the efficiency

of the boiler will increase and the boiler will work with a cleaner fuel.

numerical models for analyzing these enclosures. The

In recent years, many researches have been done in most usual numerical methods for analyzing the

the field of the performance optimization of large radiative spaces are Monte-Carlo method, heat flux

power plant boilers. The main aims have been at method and zone method. Indeed, by using these

extending the boiler’s lifetime, increasing the thermal methods the radiative heat transfer in an absorbing,

efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions in the emitting, scattering medium can be analysed.

boilers. A good design of the furnace, as the most In this article, the zone method has been employed

important part in energy conversion process in the for predicting temperature and heat flux on the water

boilers, has a key role in achieving aforementioned walls of steam boiler’s furnace. Hottel and Cohen

targets. A Furnace is the space that the fuel can burn have created this model first time in 1935 for

over there and the chemical energy is converted into analyzing the radiation heat transfer in an enclosure

heat to be transferred into the water walls of steam containing gray gas with certain properties. Later,

boilers. The temperatures in the pulverized fuel Hottel and Sarofim in 1967 used this method for

furnaces are high enough that the radiation becomes more complex geometries. Since that time, this

the most important mechanism in heat transfer. Due model has been widely used by researchers for

to complexity of radiation mechanism and its modeling the industrial radiative enclosures such as

dependence to enclosure’s geometry, the analytical boiler’s furnaces (Diez et al. 2004; Batu and Selcuk

solution does not exist except for very simple 2001).

problems. This fact along with expensive

In this research, zone method was employed for 2 RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN

predicting heat flux on the side walls of enclosures LARGE ZONES

and temperature distribution within the furnace. In

this method, whole space of the furnace is split into The heat transfer between a pair of zones depends on

zones and the enclosure’s walls are divided into some coefficients that are called heat flux area. For

finite surface parts (zones). The main assumption is example, the amount of heat transfer between a

using an existing uniform temperature and properties volume zone (i) and surface zone (j) will be:

within the volume and surface zones. After dividing → ←

the space and surfaces to finite zones, by using the Qi € j = Gi S j Eg ,i − Gi S j E j (1)

existing flow pattern and combustion model, the rate → ←

Where Gi S j and Gi S j are heat flux area between

of mass transfer from/to each volume zone to/from

other neighboring zones, the amount of combusted volume zone i and surface zone j, Eg , i is black

fuel, and convection coefficient (in the volume zone emissive power of gas and E j is black emissive

that have at least one neighbor surface zone) will be

power of surface. In the same way, we can write

obtained. By writing energy balance equation for all

following equations for radiative heat transfer

surface and volume zones in steady state, we will end

between surface-surface zones and volume-volume

up to nonlinear equations system for temperature

zones, respectively:

field on volume and surface zones. → ←

By solving this nonlinear equations system, we can Qi € j = Si S j Ei − Si S j E j (2)

find temperature distribution, heat flux on heat → ←

surfaces and total value of radiation heat transfer Qi € j = GiG j Eg ,i − GiG j Eg , j (3)

between the zones. Recall that the radiative emissive power of each zone

For pulverized fuel utility boilers, we can assume the

flow of combusted material as a free jet that exit depends to temperature (e.g. Ei = σ T 4 ; where σ is the

from an orifice. By using, experimental formulas that Stephan-Boltzman constant). The directed flux area

describe free jet from orifice we will end up to is calculated from some other coefficient which are

velocity field of gas within the furnace that will be called total exchange area, and this coefficient also

used for driving energy balance equations for zones. can be calculated from other coefficient has been

The updating existing furnace in the way that they called directed exchange area. In table 1 the symbols

can work with more efficient and cleaner fuel is very that are used for representing this kind of coefficient,

important for industry. The furnace that is modeled and the parameter that has effect on these coefficients

with zone method was originally fired with Mazut as has been shown.

the fuel. This fuel produced high level of pollutions,

so the final target of this research was to find a good Table 1 The important coefficients in

approximation for changing the boiler performance radiation calculation in zone method.

in a way that the furnace can work with methane as a Name of Symbol Effective parameters

main fuel without any damages in heat surfaces. Coefficient

The result of this research will be useful for Directed si s j , gi s j , Enclosure’s geometry,

investigating the heat transfer of boilers when fuel Exchange Absorption coefficient

properties are changed. The validity of this model has Area gi g j , of gray gas

been addressed by comparing the result of simulation

for Mazut with experimental data that are reported by Total Si S j , Gi S j , Enclosure’s geometry,

manufacturing company. By using this valid model Exchange Absorption coefficient

for new fuel, the amount of heat flux and temperature Area GiG j of gray gas,surface

on the furnace’s walls has been investigated. This emissivity coefficient

result will be useful for designing the new operation Directed → → Enclosure’s geometry,

range of a boiler, burners and the whole power plant. Flux Area Si S j , Gi S j , Absorption coefficient

In section 2, calculation of radiative heat transfer → of gray gas,surface

between zones by zone method will be explained. A GiG j

emissivity coefficient,

new method for calculating direct exchange area Temperature of

between zones - that have main role in amount of redatiobn source

radiation between the zones - will be explained in

this section. The experimental formulas that were The directed exchange area coefficients can be

used for investigating flow pattern and their result calculated according to following expressions:

will be reported in section 3. In section 4, the energy cosθi cos θ j exp(− krij )

balance equation for volume and surface zone will be si s j = ∫ ∫ dAi dA j (4)

explained. In section 5, the simplified model that was A A π rij2

i j

used for simulating our boiler’s furnace will be

k cos θ j exp(-krij )

interpreted. In section 6, the result of our model will gi s j = ∫ ∫ dVi dA j (5)

be explained. The conclusions and remark points of A V π rij2

j i

this research will be presented in the last section.

k 2 exp(-krij ) gray gases. In this method, the following expression

gi g j = ∫ ∫ dV j dAi (6) is considered for emissive coefficient of real gas:

VV π rij2 n

∑a

i j

εg = g ,i (1 − exp(ki PL ) (8)

In these equations, rij is the size of the vector that

i =0

connects center of two elements to each Where k , P and L represents the emissivity, partial

other, θ i and θ j are the angle between the normal

pressure and effective path length of the gray gases,

vector of surface elements and aforementioned respectively. Term i = 0 is related to limpid gas. By

vector, and k is emissivity coefficient of gas. The using the method that described in (Viskanta and

order of these integrals is so high that analytical Mengae 1987) and by considering the water vapor

solutions for them are not possible except of some and CO2 and a limpid gas as the main products of

simple states, so for calculating them we employed combustion the coefficients of ag ,i has been

some mathematical technique we decrease the order

of integrals in a way that they can be calculated by calculated for several states of partial pressures.

numerical method. For example for surface-surface These coefficients employed for calculating directed

zones and for parallel zones, if we assume the (0, 0, flux area from total exchange area by the following

0) and (a, b, c) as the coordinates of two point of expression, for surface-surface zones:

these zones, we can change the equation 4 to the → N

Si S j = ∑ a s,n (Ti ) SiS j

expression: k = k

n =1 n

c2 (9)

∑

( si s j ) 1 1

B2

=

π ∫ ∫ 0

dx dy × (1 − x)(1 − y )

0

f ( ± x, ± y )

← N

Si S j = ∑ a s,n (Tj ) SiS j

− k g B rij (7) k = k

12 n =1

and rij = ( x + a ) + ( y + b)2 + c 2

e 2 n

where f ( x, y ) = ,

rij4 For surface-Volume zones:

and ∑ f ( ± x, ± y ) = f ( x, y ) + f ( − x, y ) + f ( x, − y ) + f ( − x, − y ) → N

Gi S j = ∑ a g,n (Tg,i ) G iS j

k=k

In this equation B represents characteristic length of n =1 n

(10)

gray gas. Therefore by using this technique, the order ← N

Gi S j = ∑ a s,n (T j ) G iS j

of integral will decrease and the numerical k=k

n =1 n

calculations will be much easier and more accurate.

This technique has also been used for other state of For volume-volume zones:

→ N

GiG j = ∑ a g,n (Tg,i ) G iG j

surface-surface zones and surface-volume and (11)

volume-volume zones. During calculation of directed k = k

n =1 n

exchange area for some elements we will be exposed

to singularity points for solving this kind of problem 3 VELOCITY FIELD WITHIN THE

we separate the integrals into two separate parts, the FURNACE

first part consist of singular points which has been

solved by analytical techniques and second one was For calculating the convective heat transfer term in

an integral without singular points which was solved energy balances in surface zone we need to have

by numerical method. Between several formulations velocity field within the furnace. In this order, we

of Simpson method for calculating integrals calculated velocity field within the furnace by some

numerically, the Simpson 1/3 has been chosen experimental formula. Almost all industrial flames

because of its simplicity and generality. For verifying are in the form of turbulent jet that exit from burner’s

validity of directed exchange area values, we used orifice. By defining an equivalence diameter for non-

the analytically calculated value that was reported for isothermal condition, velocity distribution and inlet

a simple case (Hotel and Sarofim, 1967). By using mass from around to jet can be calculated from

the aforementioned methods and techniques the following equations (Beer, 1972):

values of directed exchange area has been calculated

numerically for different possible states (singularity), d e = do (Ts To )1 2

(13)

the calculated values showed very good conformity U 6.4

= exp( −82( y x ) 2 )

with aforementioned reference values. U o ( x de )

After calculating directed exchange area, the total (14)

exchange area can be calculated from these values by m& e m& o = 0.32 ( x d e )

(15)

using the method that Hotel and Cohen reported in Where d e is equivalence diameter , x, y is position of

1935. We know that that the main products of

calculated point related to center of orifice , do is

combustion ( H 2O, CO2 )are not gray gases and by

orifice diameter Ts is temperature of calculated

using gray gas assumption for them the large amount

of error will enter to our calculation, but the exponent point, To is inlet temperature, U is axial velocity in

form of gray gas emission behavior can be good form calculated point, U o is axial velocity in orifice, m& o is

for modeling real gas(combustion product). inlet mass and m& e is the mass that enter to jet region

Therefore, a famous method for modeling the from neighbor regions.

radiation behavior of real gas is weight summation of

4 ENERGY BALANCE EQUATIONS IN Q& g ,net + Q& a + Q& g + Q& conv . + Q& rad . = 0 (19)

SURFACE AND VOLUME ZONES

The first term on the left hand side is net heat

For every surface zone (s), energy conservation generated from combustion can be calculated from

equation can be written as: Q& g ,net = V& × C (20)

g v , net

As + C s + Qs = Fs (16)

Where V&g the volume rate of inlet fuel to this volume

Where

As : The amount of energy that is absorbed by zone and Cv , net is net heat of combustion for fuel.

surface zone (s) from the energy which is emitted

from all zones (even itself). Q& a in eq.18 is the energy of combustion air at inlet

Cs : The convective energy that is transferred from/to temperature and Q& g is the rate of decrease in sensible

surface zone (s) to/from neighbor volume zones.

enthalpy of gas flowing through the zone. These two

Qs : The amount of energy that exits from furnace to

parameters can be calculated from:

load by this surface zone (s).

ρ a H a (Ta )

X

Fs : The amount of energy emitted from surface Q& a = V&G Rs 1 + (21)

zone(s). 100

By using the theory that was explained in section 1,

X

this energy balance can be rewrite in better shape: Q& g = V&G Rs + Rs ρ g H g (T g ) (22)

m ← L → 100

∑ S S σ T + ∑G S σ T

j =1

i j

4

j

j =1

j i

4

g, j − Aiε iσ Ti4 + Ai qi,conv. = Q& i In these equations, we have:

Rs : Volume rate of air to fuel in stoichiometric

(17)

Where m and L represents number of surface zones condition

and number of volume zones, respectively. The first ρ a : Density of inlet air

term on the left hand side of this equation is

ρ g : Density of combustion product

summation of all radiation that reached to this

surface zone from all surface zones in enclosure. The H a : Enthalpy of the air

second term on the left hand side represents

summation of all radiation that reached to this H g : Enthalpy of the fuel

surface zone from all volume zones in the enclosure. x : Additional air (%)

The third term represents the radiation emits from For radiative energy term in volume zone balance,

this surface zone. The fourth term is the amount of we can write:

convective energy from neighbor volume zone. The l ← m ← N

Q& rad = ∑ Gi G j σ Tg , j + ∑ Gi S j σ T j − 4 ∑ an k g ,nVi σ Tg ,i

4 4

right hand side represents the amount of heat transfer

j =1 j =1 n =1

to load (water walls) from this surface zone. This

value can be approximated by having the condition (23)

of water in entering and exiting the boiler and By substituting equations (20-23) into eq.19, we will

dividing the whole enthalpy changes between surface have:

l ← m ← N

zones, expect the burner’s surface zones, equally. For

a furnace with m surface zones, we will have m ∑ Gi G jσ Tg , j + ∑ Gi S j σ T j4 − 4∑ an k g ,nViσ Tg4,i −

j =1 j =1 n =1

energy balance in this shape.

For volume zones, we should also write energy ( Q& conv. ) + ( Q& g ,net )i + ( Q& a )i + ( Q& g )i =0 (24)

balance:

Where Q& conv. represents the convective heat transfer to

Av + Bv + Cv + Dv − Ev = Fv (18)

Av : The total radiative energy that is absorbed in

all surface zone that are in neighbor of this volume

zone.

volume v from all the energy that emitted from all Same as surface zone we can write one energy

zones in the system. balance for every volume zones. By solving these

Bv : The heat energy of the gas that is entered to this nonlinear equations together, we will reach to final

volume zone. solution for temperature in all surface and volume

Cv : The amount of energy that is transferred to/from zones.

neighbor surface zone by convection mechanism. 5 INTRODUCING THE MODEL

Dv : The energy generated in this volume zone by the

combustion mechanism. The boiler that is modeled in this research is made by

Ev : The heat energy of the gas that is exited from

CE Company. This kind of boiler has natural

circulation for water and the furnace dimensions are

this volume zone.

Fv : The total energy that is emitted from volume 22.4 ft × 33.6 ft × 67.2 ft .The side walls of the furnace is

made of the stainless steel tubes with 2.5in diameter.

zone v.

These tubes connect to each other by the plates with

This equation can be explained in other shape:

0.5in thickness and the center to center distance of

the tube is 3in . All the walls are made by this kind of amount of mass transfer between the volume zones

tubes and just there are no any tubes in the part of which is necessary for completing the energy balance

boiler that gas exits. This complex shape of walls has in surface and volume zones (Eq.17 and Eq.24), is

been replaced by an equivalent surface with calculated. According to the pattern in Fig. 2, the

emissivity of 0.85 . The method was explained by portion of convective term in whole heat transfer

Hottel and Cohen in 1935 is used for calculating the process is maximum in the chimney of the furnace

amount of the equivalent surfaces. This boiler has 16 relative to other parts.

burners that are placed in two stages with different

height in the front (8 burners) and rear (8 burners)

walls of the boiler. Figure 1 shows a simplified

model of this furnace that we used for our simulation.

As illustrated in figure 1, by using asymmetric

property of this furnace, we should just simulate a

half of surfaces and volume.

the front and side walls of furnace. The minimum

value of radiative heat flux has been observed in the

corners of the walls and also near the exit part and

the maximum values has been observed in central

regions. This kind of behavior is in conformity with

related calculated value for directed heat flux area. It

means that in the central region where the directed

heat flux area is high, the amount of radiative heat

transfer is maximum.

furnace ,The names that we used to address different

parts of furnace with the volume and surface zones,

position of the burners in front and rear walls.

Mazut) the length of the flame is shorter that the

length of the zone, therefore considering the constant

temperature for the volume zones that are exactly in

front of the burners will be acceptable assumption.

The amount of inlet mass flow rate in burners was

obtained by maintaining the overall heat value of

fuels in both states equal. Therefore, by using the

specific heat values for Mazut and Methane and

existing inlet mass flow rate for Mazut state, the

amount of equivalent mass flow rate in Methane state

will be obtained.

Fig.3. (a) Radiative heat flux distribution on the front

The flow pattern and velocity field of the gas within wall of furnace ( Btu ft 2 hr ). (b) Radiative heat flux

the furnace were calculated by using the equations

distribution on the side wall of the furnace

that are explained in section 3. The velocity contours

of the gas in one cross section area of the furnace are ( Btu ft 2 hr ).

illustrated in figure 2. By using these results, the

The minimum value for directed flux area has been mesh structure will not be able to explain adequately

calculated for the regions which are in the corners of the details of the heat transfer phenomena within the

the furnace and it caused that the amount of radiative furnace.

heat flux in these regions was less than in other In this article, the capability of zone method for

regions of the walls. It makes sense because these analysing the heat transfer within an industrial

central regions have better position for taking the furnace is shown. Solving the flow field within the

radiation ray from other surfaces and gas. furnace is necessary for calculating the convective

heat transfer term in energy balance equations. Using

the CFD method for solving the velocity field needs a

suitable turbulence model and very fine mesh which

will increase the calculation time. Furthermore,

matching the large zones that are used in zone

method with this very fine mesh that are used for

CFD calculation will be complex. Due to these

reasons, in this study we used some empirical

equations for calculating the velocity field. An

alternative approach in the further studies is to use

finer mesh for CFD calculations and apply radiation

energy transfer profile of zone method in source

terms of CFD energy equations.

The result of simulation has a good conformity with

existing experimental data. These results are very

Fig.4.Temperature distribution in volume zones; (a):

useful for estimating the needed changes in the

j=1 the first row of volume zones near the sidewall.

burners and the operating conditions of the boiler

(b): j=2 the second row of volume zones.

when changing the fuel.

By comparing the results of our simulation with

Figure 4 shows the temperature distribution in the

existing data, we found that the temperature of

volume zones in two rows of volume zones, near the combustion product in the Methane state is higher

side wall and in the central region (j=1, 2 in fig.1).

than Mazut state by 200-300 Rankine.

The temperature behaviors in both rows are almost

Due to higher temperature in Methane state, for

similar and in the most regions, the temperature is

preventing any damage in heat surfaces due to

uniform. It means that the temperature in the gas is

aforementioned fuel changes, we need to decrease

quite high and it decreases near the chimney because

total entered fuel value. It means that the load of the

of its effect.

boilers should be decreased by 12%. By this fuel

Comparison between the calculated data from our

change, the efficiency of the boiler will increase and

simulation for methane state with experimental

the boiler will work with a cleaner fuel.

measured data which reported by manufacturer

company, give us very useful information for REFERENCES

predicting the actual differences between two states.

This information will be useful for changing the load Batu, A. and Selçuk, N. (2002). Modeling of

and work conditions of boiler and its burners in the Radiative Heat Transfer in the Freeboard of a

way that boiler can work with new fuel, Methane, Fluidized Bed Combustor Using the Zone

without any damages in heat surfaces. By comparing Method of Analysis. Turkish Journal of

the calculated value for temperature in different Engineering and Environmental Sciences 26,

regions of the boiler with experimental reported data, 49–58.

it is obtained that the temperature in Methane state is Beer, J. M. (1972). Recent advances in the

higher than Mazut state by approximately 20 %. technology of the furnace flames. J. Inst. Fuel

45, 370–382.

7 CONCLUSIONS AND REMARKS Díez L. I.,Cortés C. and Campo A. (2005). Modeling

of pulverized coal boilers: review and validation

The zone method is one of the most accurate methods of on-line simulation techniques. Applied

in simulation radiative heat transfer within the Thermal Engineering 25, 1516–1533.

industrial furnaces but it has some limitation to apply Hottel H. C. and Cohen E. S. (1935). Radiant heat

on all furnaces. Complex geometries of real furnaces exchange in a gas-filled enclosure: Allowance

should be replaced by simpler shape to be suitable for for nonuniformity of gas temperature. AIChE

using zone method. This method needs the high Journal 4(1), 14–30.

power of numerical calculations and finding the best Hottel H. C. and Sarofim A.F., (1967). Radiative

size for zones is one of the major criteria in this Transfer. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.

method. Choosing very small sized meshing will lead Viskanta, R., Menguc, M.P. (1987). Radiation heat

us to very complex numerical calculation and it can transfer in combustion systems. Progress in

increase the amount of truncation and round off error Energy and Combustion Science. 13, 97–160.

during the calculation. Whereas, the very coarse

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