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Applied Math Area of Triangles

Chapter 10
Area of triangles (Plane figures)
10.1 Introduction to Mensuration:
This is a branch of Applied Mathematics which deals with the
calculation of length of Lines, areas and volumes of different figures.
Scope
It is widely applied in various branches of engineering. A chemical
engineer has to find the volume or capacity of a plant, A civil engineer has
to find the areas and volumes in embarkments, canal digging or dam
works. An electrical engineer has to depend upon this branch of
mathematics while calculating resistance or capacity of a conductor. In the
same way a draftsman, a designer or an electrical supervisor very often
uses mensuration in his work.
If we dismantle any complicated machine or its parts we will find
the machine has been separated into different simple plane or solid figures
like rings, cylinders, squares and prisms.
In this part of the text our aim is to enable the student to find areas,
volume, and circumferences of different figures, so that when as a
technician, he has to estimate the cost of material or to design a machine
part, he may be able to understand the calculations needed to determine
weight, strength and cost.
10.2 Plane Figures:
Plane figures are those figures which occupy an area with only two
dimensions, room floors, grassy plots and tin sheets are examples of plane
figure.
While the solid figures are those which occupy space with three
dimensions, Shafts, Fly wheels, bolts, wooden boxes, and coal tar drum
are examples of solids.
10.3 Triangle:
A triangle is a plane figure bounded by
three straight lines. The straight lines AB, BC,
CA which bound triangle ABC are called its
sides. The side BC may be regarded as the base
and AD as the height.
Kinds of Triangles
There are six types of triangles three
of them are classified according to their sides Fig.10.1
and the remaining three are according to their angles.
(a) Triangles classified to their angles:
(1) Right angled triangles
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

If one angle of a triangle is a right angle (90o) then it is called a


right angled triangle the side opposite to right side is called its by
hypotenuse and remaining other two side an base and altitude.

(2) Acute Angled Triangles


If all the three angles of an triangle are acute (less then 90 o) then
the triangle is called acute angled.
(3) Obtuse Angled Triangles
If one angle of a triangle is obtuse (greater than 90o) the triangle is
called obtuse angled.

(b) Triangle Classified according to their sides:


(1) Scalene Triangle
A triangle in which all sides are of different lengths is called
scalene triangle.

(2) Isosceles Triangle


If two sides of triangle are equal, the
triangle is called isosceles.
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

(3) Equilateral Triangle


If all the three sides of a triangle are equal in lengths, the triangle is
called Equilateral.
Perimeter:
The perimeter of a closed plane figure
is the total distance around the edges of the
figure.
Perimeter of a triangle with sides a, b & c:
Perimeter of the triangle = (a + b + c) units

10.4 Area of Triangles:


There are so many methods to find the
area of triangle. We shall discuss them one by
one.
(a) Area of a triangle in terms of its Height (altitude) and base:

Case I:When the triangle is Right angled:


Let ABC be a right angled triangle whose angle B is right angle.
Side BC is the height (altitude) ‘h’ and side AB is the base ‘b’.
Invert the same triangle in its new position ADC as shown in figure 10.7.
1
Area of ABC = area of rectangle BCDA.
2
1
= (AB)(BC)
2
1
= bh
2
1
Area = (base) (height)
2
Case II: When Triangle is acute-angled:
Let ABC be a triangle with its base ‘b’ and height h. When CD is
perpendicular some to the base AB.
The area of  ABC = Area of  ADC
+ Area of  BDC
1 1
= (AD)(CD) + (DB)(CD)
2 2
1
= (AD + DB)CD
2
1
= (AB)(CD)
2
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

1
=
bxh
2
1
Hence Area = (base x height)
2
Case III: When Triangle is obtuse-angled
Let ABC be triangle whose
obtuse angle is B . Also draw CD
perpendicular to AB produced.
Then,
Area of  ABC = Area of
 ADC – Area of  BDC
1 1
= (AD)(CD) – (BD)(CD)
2 2
1
= (AD – BD)CD
2
1 1
= (AB)(CD) = (b)(h)
2 2
1
Area = (Base x height)
2
Note :Hence from case I, II and III it is concluded that
1
Area of a triangle whose base and height is given = (Base x height)
2
Example 1:
Find the area of a triangle whose base is 12 cm. and hypotenuse is
20cm.
Soluyion :
Let ABC be a right triangle

Base = AB = 12cm.
Hieght = BC = h = ?
Hypotinuse = 20 cm.
By pythagoruse Theorem
AB2 + BC2 = AC2
BC2 = AC2  AB2
h2 = 202  122
= 400  144
= 256
h = 16 cm.
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

C
25

A 9 B

Fig. 10.10
1
Now , Area of triangle ABC = (Base x height)
2
1
= (12 16)
2
= 96 sq.cm

Example 2:
The discharge through a triangular notch
is 270 cu cm/sec. Find the maximum
depth of water if the velocity of water is
10 cm/sec and the width of water
surface is 16cm.
Solution:
Given that
Discharge = 720 cu. cm/sec
Velocity of water = 10 cm/sec
Width of water = 16 cm.
Let ‘h’ be the depth of water
Area of cross-section = Area of  ABC
1 1
= (BC)(AD) = (16)(h) = 8h
2 2
Discharge = (Area of cross-section) velocity
720 = 8h(10)
h = 9cm
(b) Area of the Triangle when two adjacent sides and their
included angle is given:
Let, ABC be a triangle with two sides b, c and included angel A
are given. Draw CP perpendicular to AB.
1
Area of  ABC = base  height
2
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

1
= AB  CP
2
CP
Since = Sin A
AC
CP = AC Sin A
1
Area of  ABC = AB  CP
2
1
= AB  AC Sin A Fig.10.1.12
2
1
= b  c Sin A
2
1 1 1
A = bc Sin A = ac Sin B = ab Sin C
2 2 2
i.e Half of the product of two sides with sine of the angle between them.
Example 2:
Find the area of a triangle whose two adjacent sides are 17.5cm
and 25.7cm respectively, and their included angle is 57o.
Solution:
Let two adjacent sides be a = 17.5 cm
b = 25.7 cm and included angle θ = 57o
1
Area of  ABC = ab Sin θ
2
1
= (17.5)(25.7) Sin 57o
2
= (224.88) x (.84) = 188.89 sq. cm

(c) Area of an equilateral triangle:


A triangle in which all the sides are equal, all the angles are also
equal that is 60 degree. If each side of the triangle is ‘a’.
Draw AP perpendicular to BC.
a
Then, BP = PC =
2
Since, |AB|2 = |BP|2 + |AP|2
|AP|2 = |AB|2 - |BP|2
= a2 
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

a2
=a  2
4
2
3a
=
4
3
AP = a
2
1
Area of triangle = x (base) (height) Fig.10.1
2
=

3 2
A = a
4
Example 3:
A triangle blank of equal sides is to punch in a copper plate, the
area of the blank should be 24 sq. cm find the side.
Solution:
Area of triangular blank of equal sides = 24 sq. cm
3 2
Area of triangle of equal sides = a
4
3 2
24 = a
4
3a 2  96
a2 = 50.40
a = 7.4 cm each side

(d) Area of Triangle when all sides are given:

Let ABC be a triangle whose sides are a, b and c respectively, then

a+b+c
Area = s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c) , where s=
2
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

a
b

A c B
Which is called Hero’s Formul
Fig.10.14
Corollary : For equilateral triangle ,
a=b=c
a + a + a 3a
s= =
2 2
3a a
s–a=s–b=s–c= a=
2 2
3a  a  a  a 
Area of equilateral triangle =    
2  2  2  2 
3 2
A= a
2
Example 4: Find the area of a triangle whose sides are 51, 37 and 20cm
respectively.
Solution : Here, a =51 cm, b =37 cm c = 20cm
a +b +c 51 + 37 +20
s= = = 54
2 2
Area by Hero’s Formula = S(s-a)( s -b) ( s - c)
= 54 (3) (17) (34) =306 sq.unit
Example 5:
Find the area of a triangle whose sides are 51, 37 and 20 cm respectively.
Solution:
Let a = 51cm, b = 37cm, and c = 20cm
Be the given sides triangle
a + b + c 51+37+20 108
S= =   54
2 2 2
Area = s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)
= 54(54  51)(54  37)(54  20)  54(3)(17)(34)
= 306 sq. cm
Example 6:
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

The sides of a triangle are 13, 12 and 9cm respectively. Find the distance
of the longest side from the opposite vertex.
Solution:
Let
Given sides be
a = 13cm, b = 12cm, c = 9cm

a + b + c 13  12  9 34
S= =   17 Fig.10.15
2 2 2

Area of  ABC = s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)


= 17(17 13)(17 12)(17  9)  17(4)(5)(8)
Area = 2720  52.15 sq. cm.
Let h = distance of the longest side from opposite vertex
1 1
Also Area of  ABC = (base)(height) = (a)(h)
2 2
1
52.15 = (longest sides)(required distance)
2
1
52.15 = (13)(h)
2
2x52.15
h= = 8.02cm
13

Exercise 10
Q.1. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 10 cm and its height is twice
of its base. Find the area of the triangle.
Q.2. From a point within an Equilateral triangle perpendicular are
drawn to the three sides are 6, 7 and 8 cm respectively. Find the
area of triangle.
Q.3. The sides of triangular pond are 242, 1212 and 1450m. Find the
total amount of antiseptic medicine needed for spraying when one
gallon of the medicine is sufficient for 100 square meter of water
surface of the pond.

Q.4. The sides of a triangle are 21, 20 and 13cm respectively, find the
area of the triangles into which it is divided by the perpendicular
upon the longest side from the opposite angular point.
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

Q.5. From a point within a triangle, it is found that the three sides
subtend equal angles. From this point, three line are drawn to meet
the opposite edges. If these lines measure 5, 6 and 7cm
respectively. Find the area of the triangle.
Q.6. The sides of a triangular lawn are proportional to the numbers 5,
12 and 13. The cost of fencing it at the rate of Rs 2 per meter is Rs
120. Find the sides. Also find the cost of turfing the lawn at 25
paisa per square meter.
Q.7. Find the area of the triangle whose sides are in the ratio 9 : 40 : 41
and whose perimeter in 180 meters.

Q.8. The corresponding bases of two triangles, giving equal altitude, are
8cm and 10cm. the area of the smaller is 108 sq.cm. Find the area
of the larger triangle and altitude of each.

Answers 10
Q1. 19.98 sq.cm Q2. 254.60 sq. cm Q3. 290.40 gallons
Q4. 8.32cm, 24.96cm Q5. 46.33 sq. cm
Q6. 10m, 24m, 26m, Rs. 30 Q.7 720sq.cm Q.8. 135sq.cm, 27cm

Summary
(1) Plane Figures
Plane figures are those figures which occupy an area with only two
dimensions e.g. room floor, grassy plots, tin sheets.
(2) Triangle
A triangle is plane figure bounded by three
straight lines.
Kinds of Triangles
(i) Obtuse angled triangle (in which one angle >90o)
(ii)Right angled triangle (in which one angle in 90o)
(iii)Acute angled triangle (in which one angle less
than 90o)
(iv)Iosceles triangle (two side equal)
(v) Equilateral triangle (three sides equal) Fig.10.16
(vi)Scalene triangle (all sides are different)
(3)Area of Triangle in terms of its height (altitude)
and base
1
Area = (base) height
2
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

1
Area = bh
2

(4) Area of an equilateral triangle with side ‘a’ is


3 2
Area = a
4
(5) Area of triangle when two adjacent sides and their included
angle is given.
1
Area = bc sin θ
2
Which is also called Snell’s Formula.
(6) Area of a triangle when all sides are given
Area = s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)
a+b+c
When S =
2
It is called Hero’s Formula
Perimeter of triangle = (a + b + c) units

Fig.10.17
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Applied Math Area of Triangles

Short Questions
Q.1: Define plane figure
Q.2: Define a triangle
Q.3: Define isosceles triangle.
Q.4: Define equilateral triangle.
Q.5: Write the area of an equilateral triangle with side ‘a’.
Q.6: Find the cost of turfing a triangular lawn at the rate of Rs.5 per
sq.m, if its one side 20 m; and perpendicular on it from the
opposite vertex is 30m.
Q.7: Find the area of equilateral triangle with side 4 m.
Q.8: Find the area of right triangle if base and altitude are 20m. and
10m respectively
Q.9: Find the area of a triangle whose two adjacent sides are 16 cm and
12 cm and their included angle is 30o.
Q.10: What is the side of the equilateral triangle whose area is 9 3
sq.cm.
Q11: Find the area of triangle with sides 5, 4 and 3 meters respectively.

Answers

Q6. Rs.1500 Q7. 4 3 = sq.m. Q8. 100 sq. m.

Q9. 48 sq. cm. Q10. 6 cm. Q11. 5.48 sq. m.


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Applied Math Area of Triangles

Objective type Questions


Q.1 Each questions has four possible answers. Choose the correct
answer and encircle it.
___1. Plane figures are those figures which occupy an area with only
(a) Two dimensions (b) Three dimensions
(c) 4-dimensions (d) None of these
___2. A right triangle has one angle is
(a) 30o (b) 90o (c) 60o (d) 45o
___3. Each angle of an acute triangle is
(a) Less than 90o (b) greater than 90o
(c) Equilate 90o (d) None of these
___4. An obtuse triangle has one angle greater than
(a) 60o (b) 30o (c) 90o (d) None of these
___5. In an equilateral triangle, each angle is
(a) 30o (b) 45o (c) 60o (d) None of these
___6. Area of an equilateral triangle with side ‘x’ is
3 2 3 2 2
(a) x (b) x (c) x (d) None of these
4 2 3
___7. Area of right triangle if base = 4cm, height = 6cm
(a) 24 sq. cm (b) 12 sq. cm
(c) 6 sq. cm (d) 10 sq. cm
___8. If a = 4cm, side of equilateral triangle, then area of equilateral
triangle is
3 3
(a) sq. cm. (b) sq. cm.
4 2
(c) 4 3 sq. cm. (d) 3 sq. cm.
___9. If a = 2cm, b = 3cm , c = 5cm sides of triangle, then perimeter of
triangle is
(a) 8cm (b) 6cm (c) 10cm (d) 30cm
___10. If a = 4cm, b = 2cm are adjacent sides of triangle and θ = 30o is the
included angle then area is
(a) 2 sq. cm (b) 4 sq. cm (c) 8 sq. cm (d) 12 sq. cm
___11. Number of sides equal in isosceles triangle are
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
Answer
Q.1 (1) a (2) b (3) a (4) c
(5) c (6) a (7) b (8) c
(9) c (10) a (11) b
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Applied Math Area of Triangles