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# THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## QUESTION ONE : 16 MARKS

A cylinder contains 1 kg of a gas at an initial pressure of 20 bar and a volume of 0.05 m3. The
gas is allowed to expand reversibly according to the law pV2 = constant until the volume is
doubled. The fluid is then cooled reversibly at constant pressure until the original volume is
reached; heat is then supplied reversibly at constant volume until the gas returns to its original
state.

## Work done by the fluid from 2 to 3

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## QUESTION TWO : 10 MARKS

One kilogram of water at 300°C undergoes a reversible, adiabatic expansion (isentropic) until it
reaches ambient pressure, 100 kPa, at which point the water has a quality of 90.2%.

What was the initial pressure and how much work is done by the water?

## Process: Rev. aiabatic, Q = 0

Energy: m(u2 − u1) = Q + W = W
Entropy: m(s2 − s1) = ∫ dQ/T
Process: Adiabatic Q = 0 and reversible => s2 = s1

## State 2: P2 = 100 kPa, x2 = 0.902

Water Saturation Properties - Pressure Table
Pressure Temp volume energy (kJ/kg) enthalpy (kJ/kg) entropy
(m3/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
o
kPa C vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
100 99.6 1.694 417.36 2506.06 417.5 2257.4 2674.9 1.3026 7.3594

## s2 = 1.3026 + 0.902 × (7.3594-1.3026) = 6.7658 kJ/kg K

u2 = 417.36 + 0.902 × (2506.06-417.36)= 2301.4 kJ/kg

## State 1 At T1 = 300°C, s1 = s2 = 6.7658

P = 2 Mpa
T v u H s
°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
300 0.12547 2772.6 3023.5 6.7658

## ⇒ P1 = 2000 kPa, u1 = 2772.6 kJ/kg

energy equation W = m(u2 – u1) = 1(2772.6 – 2301.4) = -471.2 kJ

## Work done by the fluid = 471.2 kJ

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## A piston/cylinder contains 2 kg water as saturated liquid at 10 MPa. It expands in an isothermal

process to a pressure of 200 kPa.

Calculate both the heat transfer to the system and the work done by the system.

Isothermal Process: T = C
Energy: m(u2 − u1) = Q + W
Entropy: m(s2 − s1) = ∫ dQ/T =Q/T

## State 1: 10 MPa, satd liquid

Water Saturation Properties - Pressure Table
Pressure Temp volume energy (kJ/kg) enthalpy (kJ/kg) entropy
(m3/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
o
kPa C vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
10000 311.0 0.01803 1393.5 2545.2 1408.1 1317.4 2725.5 3.3606 5.6160

## State 2: 200 kPa, 200oC superheated

P = 200 kPa
T v u h s
°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
300 1.31616 2808.6 3071.8 7.8926
400 1.5493 2966.7 3276.5 8.2217

## Q = T m(s2 − s1) = (273.15+311) K∙2 kg∙(7.9288 - 3.3606) kJ/kg K = 5337 kJ

Q + W = m(u2 − u1)
W = -5337 kJ + 2 kg∙(2826 -1393.5) kJ/kg = - 2472 kJ

## The work done by the system = 2472 kJ

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## QUESTION FOUR: 8 MARKS

In a gas turbine unit, the gas flow through the turbine is 15 kg/s and the power developed by the
turbine is 12 000 kW. The enthalpies of gases at the inlet and outlet are 1260 kJ/kg and 400 kJ/kg
respectively, and the velocity of gases at the inlet and outlet are 50 m/s and 110 m/s respectively.

## Q = - 828 kW = heat added to gas

Actually heat removed from gas

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## QUESTION FIVE : 6 MARKS

A household refrigerator removes heat from the refrigerated space at a rate of 2 kW to maintain
its temperature at -30°C. The freezer operates in a room at 20°C

What is the theoretically smallest input power required to operate this freezer?

Assume a Carnot cycle between T1 = -30°C = 273 – 30 = 243 K and T2 = 273 + 20 = 293 K

This is the theoretical minimum power input. Any actual machine requires a larger input.

## QUESTION SIX : 20 MARKS

A power plant operating on a reheat cycle produces steam at 3 MPa, 600oC in the boiler. The
condenser is kept at a pressure is 10 kPa. In the first turbine section the steam expands to 5 bar
and then the outlet from the first turbine is reheated followed by expansion in the second, low
pressure, turbine.

## a) Draw the T-s diagram for the process

b) Find the reheat temperature so the second turbine output is saturated vapor.
c) Find the mass flow rate of steam given that 10 MW is removed from the condenser as heat
transfer

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## State 7: Saturated liquid 10 kPa

Pressure Temp volume energy (kJ/kg) enthalpy (kJ/kg) entropy
(m3/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
o
kPa C vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
10 45.8 14.67 191.8 2437.2 191.8 2392.1 2583.9 0.6493 8.1488

## State 6: Superheated vapour 500 kPa, s6 = s7 = 8.1488 kJ/kg K

T V U H s
°C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg
K
500 0.71093 3128.4 3483.8 8.0872

## 600 0.80406 3299.6 3701.7 8.3521

T6 = 523.25oC

h6 = 3359.6 kJ/kg

## State 3: Saturated vapour 10 kPa

Pressure Temp volume energy (kJ/kg) enthalpy (kJ/kg) entropy
(m3/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
o
kPa C vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
10 45.8 14.67 191.8 2437.2 191.8 2392.1 2583.9 0.6493 8.1488

h3 = 191.8kJ/kg

## Qc = h3 – h7 = 191.8 - 2583.9 = - 2392.1 kJ/kg

Qc = - hfg = - 2392.1 kJ/kg
heat removed in condenser = 2392.1 kJ/kg

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

## QUESTION SEVEN : 10 MARKS

A single stage reciprocating compressor draws in air at atmospheric pressure of 1.01 bar and
delivers it at 9.5 bar. The polytropic index is 1.18 for the compression and expansion. The swept
volume is 1.5 dm3 and the clearance volume is 0.10 dm3. The speed is 500 rev/min.

## Determine the following.

a) The volumetric efficiency.
b) The free air delivery.
c) The indicated power.

Volume induced = Va - Vd

dm3
dm3

## FAD per stroke = induced volume = 0.932 dm3 = 0.932 x 10-4 m3

FAD per minute = 0.932 x 10-4 x 500 = 0.466 m3/min

## QUESTION EIGHT: 18 MARKS

Refrigerant 134a is used as the working fluid in an ideal vapor-compression heat pump cycle
Saturated vapour enters the compressor at 2.44 bar, and saturated liquid exits the condenser,
which operates at 7 bar.
The compressor operates adiabatically with an isentropic efficiency of 80% and the heating
requirement is 12.35 kW

## Sketch a T-s diagram of the process and calculate

a) mass flow rate of refrigerant, in kg/s.
b) the power input to the compressor, in kW.

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

State 1 :

## P1=2.44 bar, satd vap

Properties of Saturated Refrigerant R-134a - Temperature Table (SI)
Tsat Psat Specific Internal Enthalpy, kJ/kg Entropy,
Volume, m3/kg Energy, kJ/kg kJ/(kg·K)
°C bar vf x vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
103
-5 2.4382 0.7625 0.0825 43.27 224.28 43.45 200.86 244.31 0.1729 0.9220

## h1=244.31 kJ/kg: s1=0.9220 kJ/kgK

State 2s :

s2 =s1=0.9220 kJ/kgK

## P2=7 bar, superheated vap

Properties of Superheated Refrigerant R-134a (SI)
P T V U H S
kPa °C m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/(kg·K)
700.00
30 0.02979 244.51 265.37 0.9220

## h2s= 265.37 kJ/kg

State 2 :

h2=270.64 kJ/kg

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THERMODYNAMICS: APPLIED 3 (TDYA301) SEMESTER ONE – JUNE 2018

State 3 :

## P3=7 bar, satd liquid

Properties of Saturated Refrigerant R-134a - Temperature Table (SI)
Tsat Psat Specific Internal Enthalpy, kJ/kg Entropy,
Volume, m3/kg Energy, kJ/kg kJ/(kg·K)
°C bar vf x vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg
103
27 7.0603 0.8336 0.0290 86.59 241.57 87.18 174.81 261.99 0.3255 0.9079

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