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PILE FOUNDATIONS

IN ENGINEERING

PRACTICE

Shamsher Prakash

Professor of Civil Engineering,

University of Missouri-Rolla,

Rolla, Missouri

Hari D. Sharma

Chief Geotechnical Engineer

EMCON Associates,

San Jose, California

A WILEY-INTERSCIENCEPUBLICATION

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

NEW YORK / CHICHESTER / BRISBANE / TORONTO / SINGAPORE

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A NOTE TO THE READER

Thisbookhas been electronicallyreproducedh

digitalinfixmation stored at John Wiley & Sons,Inc.

We are pleased that the use of thisnew technology

will enable us to keep works of enduring scholarly

value in print as long as there is a reasonable demand

for than. The cantent of thisbook is identical to

previousprintings.

Copyright 0 1990 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted

in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning

or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States

Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or

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To order

books or for customer service please, call 1(800)-CALL-WILEY (225-5943

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:

Prakash, Sharnsher.

Pile foundations in engineering practice/Shamsher Prakash, Hari D. Sharma.

p. cm.

“A Wiley-Intersciencepublication.”

Includes bibliographies.

1. Piling (Civil engineering) I. Sharma, Hari D. 11. Title.

TA780.P72

1989

89-31917

624.1’54-dc

20

CIP

ISBN 0-471-61653-2

10

9

8

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PREFACE

Pile foundations have been used since prehistoric time to transfer building loads

to appropriate depths. In an effort to develop reasonable design methods,

analyticaland experimentalstudieson piles and pile groups have been performed

extensivelyin the past four decades.Analytical studies have been directed toward

prediction of bearing capacity under vertical loads, pile deflections under lateral

loads, response of piles under dynamic loads, and the behavior of piles in

permafrost. Numerical methods including finite difference and finite element

techniques have also been applied. Also, a large amount of model and full-scale

test data have been collected.

All the foregoing information has led to the development of design procedures

of piles in different soil types, loading conditions, and environments. The purpose

of this text is to present a concise, systematic, and complete treatment of the

subjectleading to rational design proceduresfor the practicingcivil,geotechnical,

will be of equal benefit to graduate students

specializing in foundation engineering.

and structural engineers. The book

This book contains eleven chapters. In Chapter

1, basic concepts of pile

behavior under different types of loading are developed. More importantly, the

changes in the soil properties particularly in clays under static and dynamic

loading and on a long-term basis have been explained. In Chapters

details of different types of piles and their installation methods, respectively, are

discussed.

Determination and selection of appropriate soil parameters for design of piles

under different loading conditions and environment are presented in Chapter

Adequate attention is most often not paid by the design engineers to

affecting the selection of design parameters. This and other questions are

explained in detail in this chapter.

the factors

2 and 3,

4.

xv

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xvi

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In the subsequent four chapters, detailed information on behavior and design

of piles have been included for (1) vertical loading and pullout in Chapter 5, (2)

lateral, inclined, and eccentric loads in Chapter 6, (3) dynamic loads in Chapter 7, and (4) piles in permafrost in Chapter 8. A special feature in all these four

chapters is that step-by-step design procedures are developed. Numerous solved

problems are also included in each chapter.

9. The

question of buckling of long, slender piles with and without unsupported length is

the subject of Chapter

A match of prediction and performance of piles and pile groups is of great

importance in practice. This subject is discussed with the help of several case

histories in Chapter

Several parts of this text have been used in short courses for practicing

engineers offered by the University of Missouri-Rolla. Input from several

participants of these short courses resulted in many improvements,

of Missouri-

Rolla, for the facilities offered and to the Interlibrary Loan of the Curtis Laws

Wilson Library for procuring some diflicult-to-find references.

Thanks also go to the American Society of Civil Engineers for permitting the

use of material from their publications. Acknowledgment to other copyrighted

material is given in other appropriate places in the text, figures, and tables.

In the preparation of this text, several of our colleagues and students helped in

a variety of ways. Useful comments were offered by W. D. Liam Finn, M. T.

Davisson, Norbert 0. Schmidt, M. R.Madhav, and Swami Saran for improving

the text. Solutions to some problems were prepared by George M. Manyando

and Shamshad Hussain. Charlena Ousley, Janet Pearson, Allison Hold-

away, Anna Hubbard, and Ida Lucero typed the text with painstaking effort.

Anna Hubbard also prepared the subject and author indexes and the notations

(A special thanks is due to John Wiley’s editorial and professional

very patiently.

Load test procedures and their interpretation are discussed in Chapter

11.

10.

Thanks go to the Civil Engineering Department, University

staff. Thanks go to all of them.)

SHAMSHERPRAKASH

HARID. SHARMA

Rolla. Missouri

Son Jose, California

January, 1990

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

area of cross-section of H-pile section

coefficient (Table 6.5)

moment coefficients for free head pile

moment coefficient when subgrade modulus is constant

with depth

bending moment coefficients for dynamic loading

area of pile tip

soil reaction coefficient for free head pile

area of pile shaft

slope coefficients for free head pile

shear coefficients for free head pile

horizontal displacement in sliding

deflection coefficients for free head pile

deflection coefficient when subgrade modulus is constant

with depth

maximum amplitude in vertical vibrations

maximum amplitude in rocking

maximum amplitude

of vibrations in yawing (torsional

vibrations)

length of foundation

ASM,,/(rneemrc)= dimensionless amplitude of torsional

vibration with quadratic excitation

ro(w/Vs)= ro(w/Vb)= rowJp/G = dimensionless frequency

factor

dimension along x axis

dimension along y axis

xvii

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xviii LIST OF SYMBOLS

dimension along z axis creep parameter, pile width, width of loaded area coefficient (Table 6.5) pile base or bell diameter

moment coefficient

modified mass ratio in sliding

deflection coefficient of pile in clay

modified mass ratio in vertical vibrations

inertia ratio in rocking vibrations

bending moment coefficient of pile in clay

inertia ratio in torsional vibrations

pile cap width; width of foundation; mass ratio

experimental parameter (Table

clay, constant to represent penetration due to energy loss;

8.3)

volumetric heat capacity of permafrost, J/m3C

integration constants; frequency-dependent parameters of

vertical vibrations; soil adhesion forces

frequency-independentparameters for vertical vibrations

allowable bond strength between concrete and rock

compression index

ratio of K, KT, Kb

moment coefficient for fixed head, spring compression of

element m in time interval,

t

correction factor for N to account for overburden pressure

empirical coefficient (equation

empirical coefficient (equation 5.37)

thaw degradation constant

coefficient of elastic uniform compression

deflection coefficient for fixed head

nondimensional factors in cohesive soils for fixed head pile

dimensionless parameters of half space

coefficient of consolidation

frequency-dependent parameters for horizontal translation

frequency-independent parameters for horizontal transla-

5.36)

tion

coefftcient of elastic resistance of pile

pile stiffness at resonance

coefficient of elastic uniform shear

coefficient of elastic nonuniform compression

frequency-dependent functions of the elastic half space for

rocking vibrations

coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear

coefficient of internal damping; cohesion parameter of soil;

experimental parameter in equation

8.1

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

xix

adhesion, soil-pile adhesion; unit adhesion critical damping long-term cohesion of permafrost long-term shear strength for ice-rich soil

recompression index

undrained shear strength of clay; cohesion parameter under

undrained conditions when

6= 0

average undrained shear strength of clay along pile shaft

constant of equivalent viscous damping of one pile in

vertical vibrations

constant of equivalent viscous damping

vertical vibrations

of pile

cap in

damping coefficient of pile group

damping coefficient in horizontal sliding

damping constant of single pile in horizontal translation

constant of equivalent viscous damping of pile cap in

translation

damping constant of pile group in horizontal translations

cross-coupled damping factor for coupled rocking and

sliding

cross coupled damping constant of a single pile

damping coefficient in vertical vibrations

equivalent damping for a pile group in vertical vibrations

damping coefficient in rocking mode

damping coefficient of single pile in rocking

damping coefficient of pile cap in rocking

critical damping in rocking

damping constant of piles or footing in torsion

constant of equivalent viscous damping of a single pile in

torsional vibrations

diameter, downward drag force

depth of pile tip below ground

time

D

DJ

D:, soil plastic displacement around element

rn

in

interval t

relative density

geometric damping ratio for a single pile

depth factor

displacement value of element m in time interval, t - 2

displacement of element tnin time interval, t - 1

modulus of elasticity of pile material; actual energy de-

livered by hammer per blow in foot-pounds; Young’s

modulus

bulk modulus

constrained modulus

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xx LIST OF SYMBOLS

dilatometer modulus average horizontal soil modulus along pile = k, flexural rigidity of the pile; pile material flexibility modulus of elasticity of pile material; Young’s modulus

of pile

modulus of elasticity of soil

base of natural logarithms, coefficient of elastic restitution,

voids ratio; eccentricity

initial void ratio

coefficient of elastic restitution

side shear force; total upward adfreeze force or frost heave

force

nondimensional frequency factor for piles embedded in

soils in which soil modulus remains constant with depth

nondimensional frequency factor for piles embedded in

soils in which soil modulus increases linearly with depth

force exerted by spring in time interval, t

force in horizontal (y)direction

stress wave inducedforceat a point along the pile at time

yield displacement factor

frequency of vibration

specified compressive strength of concrete

resistance factors

unit resistance of local friction sleeve of static penetrometer

load factors

natural frequency

natural frequency in horizontal sliding

natural frequency in vertical vibrations

natural frequency in pure rocking

natural frequency in yawing

performance factor

effective prestress on the section

load modification factor

resistance modification factor

side friction measured in cone penetration test; ultimate

t

unit shaft (skin) friction

torsional stiffness and damping parameters, respectively of

a single pile

vertical stiffness and damping parameters, respectively of

a single pile

horizontal (sliding) stiffness and

damping parameters

respectively of a free head pile

horizontal (sliding) stiffness and damping parameters for

a pinned head pile

cross stiffness and cross damping parameters

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fY

f+l,f42

G

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xxi

specified yield strength of reinforcement

rocking stiffness and damping parameters of a pile

shear modulus of soil shear modulus of soil beneath the pile tip

group efficiency

maximum value of shear modulus

shear modulus of pile

shear modulus of the soil on the sides of the pile

complex shear modulus of soil

real and imaginary parts of complex shear modulus of soil

loo0 minutes of constant

shear modulus measured after

confining pressure (after completion of primary

consolidation)

acceleration due to gravity

height of fall of ram or hammer

depth of embedment; length of pile above ground

influence factor; moment of inertia of the pile

material index

coefficient of shear modulus increase with time

rigidity factor

empirical coefficient for fixed-head pile in cohesive soils

empirical coefficient for fixed-head pile in cohesionless soils

empirical coefficients for free-head piles in clays

moment of inertia

of pile; polar moment of inertia of

the area

moment of inertia

moment of inertia of pile group about

of the area about the x axis

xx and yy axes,

respectively

moment of inertia of the area about the

an empirical factor; damping constant applicable to re-

y axis

sistance at pile joint (Rlz in Fig. 5.7)

(I'

JO

JO,J,

J,

j,

K

Kb

damping constant applicable to resistance at side of pile

(R, to R,, of Fig. 5.7)

mass polar moment of inertia

Bessel functions of first kind of order 0 and 1, respectively

polar moment of inertia of the base contact area

case method damping constant

constant; coefficient of horizontal earth pressure; a dimen-

sionless constant factor in equation 7.27

soil modulus for bottom layer; lateral earth pressure co-

efficient

factors which are functions of

horizontal stress index

soil spring constant along element

spring constant of element m

4 and s/B

m

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xxii LIST OF SYMBOLS

coefficient of earth pressure at rest Rankine's passive earth pressure coefficient bearing capacity factor based on pressuremeter test data flexibility factor

relative stiffness

an empirical factor

average coefficient of earth pressure on pile shaft, earth

pressure coefficient

soil modulus for top layer

spring constant

modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction

coefficientof horizontal subgradereaction in force per unit

volume

ratio of lateral load and lateral deflection

ratio

stiffness of pile in vertical direction

stiffnessconstant of one pile in vertical direction

stiffness constant of pile cap in vertical direction

stiffness constant of pile group in vertical direction

stiffness constant for translation along x axis, equivalent

of axial load and axial settlement

spring constant of the soil in horizontal x direction

spring constant of single pile in translation

spring constant of pile cap in translation

stiffness constant of pile group in translation

cross coupled stiffness for coupled rocking and sliding

cross spring stiffness of single pile

spring constant in vertical vibrations, equivalent spring

constant

of the soil in vertical direction

spring constant in rocking vibrations

spring constant of single pile in rocking

spring constant of pile cap in rocking

spring constant of pile group in rocking

spring constant in torsion

torsional stiffness of a single pile

latent heat of water; low plasticity; pile embedment length;

pile length

L"

length of pile in the active zone

Le

effective pile embedment; effective pile length

LL

liquid limit

Lr

embedded length of pile

LS

pile length that is socketed into the rock

Lslurry

latent heat of slurry

1

length of pile, any distance

M

bending moment; mode); moment; moment at pile head;

Mocos ot excitation moment; silt

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

xxiii

applied moment on a pile group moment applied at pile head at ground level maximum bending moment ultimatemoment for a pile under pure moment without any

mce,r,02: amplitude of moment M for

axial load;

quadratic excitation

ultimate pile moment, ultimate moment capacity of pile

shaft

moment caused by Qu,applied at eccentricity e

moment caused by Qhuapplied at height h above ground

moment at depth x

experimental constant; a factor = Mo/(PuL)

rotating mass

volume compressibility

observed Standard Penetration Test Value

corrected Standard Penetration Test Value

number of blows of

WXH energy needed to ram a unit

volume of concrete into the base for Franki piles

PL

PO

nondimensional bearing capacity parameters

normalized shear modulus increase with time

rate of increase of E,

axial force in the pile

creep test constant (parameter); degrees of freedom

of a

multidegree system; number of cycles; number of piles in

the group: scale ratio (Table

7.7)

constant of horizontal subgrade reaction

organic soil

over consolidation ratio

axial downward load; horizontal shear load; prototype

allowable pullout capacity of a single pile

pressure corresponding to

applied axial pullout load on a pile group

allowable pullout capacity of a pile group

plasticity index

maximum limit pressure in pressuremeter test; pressure

V, in pressuremeter test

corresponding to

V, in pressuremeter test

plastic limit

pressure corresponding to initial volume in pressuremeter

test; pressure corresponding to

pressure in dilatometer test corresponding to reading

Voin pressuremeter test;

A

axial pullout (upward) load

ultimate axial vertical load

of

pile; ultimate pullout

capacity

maximum unbalanced force in vertical direction, vertical

component of resultant inertia force

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xxiv LIST OF SYMBOLS

time-dependent vertical force pressure in dilatometer test corresponding to reading B pile perimeter; soil reaction at a point on the pile per unit length along the pile

atmospheric pressure

soil resistance below critical depth

soil resistance from ground surface to a critical depth x,

preconsolidation pressure

points on p-y

x,

curve corresponding to yk, y,,

and y,,

respectively

ultimate soil resistance

soil reaction at depth

allowable lateral load; latent heat of slurry per meter of pile;

lateral load; quake or maximum elastic ground deform-

ation

x

ultimate central inclined load capacity

inclined load on a pile

allowable lateral load

cone penetration resistance

dynamic resistance of soil to pile driving

eccentric and inclined load on a pile

ultimatepile load at an inclination'a and eccentricity e with

the axis of the pile

ultimate eccentric vertical load capacity

eccentric vertical load on a pile

total eccentric vertical load on pile group

frictionalcapacityalong the pile perimeter or ultimate shaft

friction

actual shaft friction load transmitted by the pile

working stress range

in the

ultimate shaft friction in pullout

allowable frictional capacity of the pile

ultimate friction capacity of a pile group

negative skin friction

lateral load applied at pile head at ground level

ultimate pile capacity under horizontal load

end-bearing capacity or ultimate tip resistance

actual base load transmitted by the pile in the working

stress range

allowable load at the pile base

ultimate point load of a pile group

ultimate lateral resistance

ultimate lateral load capacity of a group

magnitude of uplift forces in swelling and shrinking clays

applied axial compression pile load

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4a

4e

40

(4u)corc

R

R", R,, Rc

r0

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xxv

axial downward load on pile allowable bearing capacity of pile allowable capacity of a pile group ultimate bearing capacity of pile

ultimate capacity of a pile group

ultimate pile capacity under vertical load

lateral forces inclined at angles

+6,

and -d2

horizontal

with the

allowable contact pressure on jointed rock

cone penetration resistance; end resistance measured in

cone penetration test

horizontal at rest stress in soil at the elevation of pile tip

ultimate unit point or end-bearing capacity

unconfined compressive strength

unconfined compressive strength of rock core

pile radius; radius of plate; relative stiffness factor when

modulus is constant with depth

A, By and Cy respectively;

reduction factor to account for scale effects in stiff

fissured clays

Axial forces on pile groups

soil resistance along element

load or reaction on any pile

soil resistance at pile point

Rock Quality Designation

static axial ultimate capacity

static soil resistance at time

portion of R, applicable to weight W,,,

ultimate soil resistance to driving

adhesion factor: frequency ratio w/wnyf/f,,; radial distance

rn in time interval t

= R,

tm

from pile, center to center spacing of piles

effective radius of one pile, equivalent radius; radius of the

pile

rl

radius of circular pile section

r2

radius of drilled hole

S

center to center distance between piles, pile spacing;

distance between geophones; pile point penetration per

blow or permanent set of pile per blow

shape factor

overall shape factor

elastic compression of various parts

spectral displacement

pile group settlement

clear distance between adjacent piles

settlement of pile base or point caused by load transmitted

at the base

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xxvi LIST OF SYMBOLS

settlement of pile point caused by load transmitted along the pile shaft settlement due to axial deformation of a pile shaft pile top settlement for a single pile

equivalent length

undrained shear strength

frequency dependent dimensionless parameters of vertical

of embedded portion of the pile

resistance of soil along a vertical pile

slope at depth x

frequency-dependent parameters of side layer for hori-

zontal sliding

frequency independent values

frequency-dependent parameters of the side layer for verti-

of S,,

and SX2

cal vibration

frequency-independent parameters of side layer for vertical

vibration

frequency-independent values of

frequency-dependent side layer parameters for torsional

S,,

and S+2

vibrations

frequency-independent values

vibrations

of S, 1, Se2 for torsional

pile spacing

spacing of discontinuities in the rocks

elastic settlement

time-dependentsoil reaction per unit length on vertical side

of the footing

relative stiffnessfactor when modulus increaseswith depth;

torque applied in the vane shear

time period-torque;

test

minimum soil temperature in freezing zone

natural period

natural period in first mode of vibrations

freezeback time; ratio of moment and lateral load for fixed

head; time after application of load

thickness of discontinuities in the rocks

thickness of frozen soil

time of first relative maximum in force and velocity

measurement

time used for starting computation of total driving

resistance

time after primary consolidation

creep rate; displacement amplitude of pile displacement

function

assumed insitu hydrostatic pressure; displacement at any

radius r; displacement in x direction

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VO

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xxvii

velocity in x direction

vz= shear wave velocity of soil beneath pile tip

longitudinal a or compression wave velocity in infinite

medium;

= longitudinal wave velocity in pile

final volume in pressuremeter test

upper limit

mean volume in pressuremeter test; velocity

of volume in pressuremeter test

of element m in

time interval t

initial volume in pressuremeter test

shear wave velocity of pile

velocity of Rayleigh waves

longitudinal wave propagation velocity in rod

shear wave velocity

shear at depth x

displacement in y direction

longitudinal wave velocity in pile

velocity of element m in time interval, t - 1

velocity of propagation of stress wave

stress wave particle velocity

velocity of pile cap at the instant of ram impact

weight of ram or hammer

weight of element m

weight of the pile

vertical displacement, weight per unit length; water content

XO

Y

in percent of dry weight

natural moisture content

amplitude of vertical vibration of footing

displacement in Z direction

complex pile displacement function at depth

complex amplitude of pile vibration at depth z

real and imaginary parts of displacement

axis of X; depth of permafrost degradation

depth of point of rotation

axis of x; depth along pile; depth below ground

distances from center of gravity

x and y directions, respectively

depth below ground where maximum bending moment

of pile group for each pile in

z

occurs

coordinate

eccentricities in

axis of Y

Bessel functions of the second kind of order 0 and 1,

of pile; critical depth below ground level

xx and yy directions

respectively

deflection; displacement; horizontal distance away from

the pile, lateral pile deflection

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xxviii LIST OF SYMBOLS

'Y"

points on p-1 curve maximum value of y

horizontal coordinates of pile

axis of 2;x/T

height of center of gravity of pile cap above its base

accelerating force in element m in time interval t

LIT

displacement in vertical direction

velocity in vertical direction

acceleration in vertical direction

inclination of load on vertical pile; thermal diffusivity of

permafrost

axil displacement interaction factor for a typical reference

pile in a group

a factor relating to ultimate moment (M,)= (AJ/M,) and

the distance (d) of extreme compression end to the center

of tension bar of area A,

ah

0; 1

horizontal seismic coefkient

effective horizontal pressure (stress) at a point along pile

length

lateral displacement interaction factor for a typical re-

Y

Y'

3

Yc

Yd

YS

YXY

Yxz

YYZ

Ye

6

ference pile in a group

a number that depends on skin friction distribution

inclination of batter pile; depth coefilcient

weight density or unit weight; unit weight of soil; shear

= x/L

strain

effective unit weight of the soil

shear strain rate induced in soil around pile due to shear

stress ?

unit weight of concrete

dry density

unit weight of soil

shear strain in the xy plane

shear strain in the xz plane

shear strain in yz plane

shear distortion; shear strain

angle of friction between soil and pile; angle of skin friction;

loss angle see equation

7.61

AT

initial temperature of permafrost

"C below freezing

AE

energy

loss

AL

a small pile element length

 

At

a small time interval in seconds

AG

change in low-amplitude shear modulus from time tl to t,

AuL

change or increase in effective vertical strain

E

longitudinal strain

 

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

xxix

E,

+Ey +E,

uniaxial creep rate strain at maximum stress strain at one-half the maximum principal stress

longitudinal strain in

x direction; lateral strain in x

direction

longitudinal strain in

direction

y direction; lateral strain in y

longitudinal strain in

damping factor

damping factor in horizontal sliding

damping factor in vertical vibrations

damping factor in rocking

damping factor in torsional vibrations

angular rotation; tilting; temperature below freezing point

z direction

of water, "C

complex frequency parameter of a pile

real and imaginary parts of A, respectively

real frequency parameter of pile

dimensionless parameter

Lammes' constant; wavelength; ratio

Rayleigh's wave length

coefficient of friction

lateral ground surface displacement rate

Poisson's ratio

Poisson's ratio for soil

mass density of pile material; mass density of soil

of k, and ku

mass density of soil beneath pile tip

PS

c

mass density

of pile material

mass density

of the soil on the sides of the embedded footing

sum

principal stress

applied constant stress

horizontal effective stress

mean normal pressure

effective overburden vertical pressure

vertical effective stress

vertical overburden pressure at depth

effectivevertical pressure (stress)at a point along pile length

normal stress in x direction

normal stress in y direction

normal stress in z direction

effective all-around stress

mean effective confining pressure

major principal stress

x

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xxx LIST OF SYMBOLS

02

(73

7

intermediate principal stress minor principal stress

shear stress;induced shear stress in soil due to applied load

(QA

shear stress

adfreeze bond strength

adfreeze stress along the pile perimeter

downward pressures due to thaw (permafrost degradation)

shear stresses

friction parameter, angle of internal friction

friction parameter (effective)

long-term internal friction of permafrost

torsional rotation

maximum torsional amplitude

resonant amplitude of pile rotation

real torsional amplitude of pile at elevation z

real and imaginary parts of $(z)

angular velocity, circular frequency, operating frequency

circular natural frequency

first and second natural circular frequencies

limiting natural circular frequencies

natural circular frequency in horizontal sliding

natural circular frequency in vertical vibrations

natural circular frequency in pure rocking

natural circular frequency in torsional vibration

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CONTENTS

Preface

 

xv

List

of Symbols

xvii

1

Introduction

1

1.1 Action of Soils Around a Driven Pile, 3

1.2 Displacements of Ground and Buildings Caused by

Pile Driving,

9

1.3 Group Action in Piles, 10

 

1.4 Negative Skin Friction, 14

1.5 Settlement of Pile Groups, 16

1.6 Load Test on Piles, 17

1.7 Behavior of Piles in Pullout, 18

1.8 Action of Piles Under Lateral Loads, 19

1.8.1 Single Pile Under Lateral Loads, 19

1.8.2 Pile Groups Under Lateral Loads, 23

1.9 Buckling of Piles, 27

1.10 Behavior of Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 28

1.11 Action of Soil Around a Bored Pile, 31

1.11.1 Bored Piles in Clay, 32

1.11.2 Bored Piles in Sand, 32

References, 33

2

Types of Piles and Pile Materials

35

2.1 Classification Criteria, 35

2.2 Timber Piles, 37

vii

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viii

CONTENTS

2.2.1 Use of Timber Piles, 38

2.2.2 Material Specifications, 39

2.2.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 39

2.3 Concrete Piles, 40

2.3.1 Types and Use of Concrete Piles,

2.3.2 Material Specifications, 50

2.3.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 51

40

2.4 Steel Piles, 52

2.4.1 Types and Use of Steel Piles, 52

2.4.2 Material Specifications, 55

2.4.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 56

2.5 Composite Piles, 59

2.5.1 Types and Use of Composite Piles, 59

2.5.2 Material Specifications, 59

2.6 Special Types of Piles, 59

2.6.1 Expanded Base Compacted Piles (Franki Piles), 60

2.6.2 Thermal Piles, 61

2.6.3 Other Pile Types,

64

2.7 Selection Criteria and Comparison of Pile Type, 65

2.7.1 Timber Piles, 65

2.7.2 Concrete Piles,

2.7.3 Steel Piles, 66

2.7.4 Composite Piles, 67

2.7.5 Special Types of Piles, 67

66

References, 67

3 Piling Equipment and Installation

3.1 General Installation Criteria, 70

3.2 Equipment for Driven Piles, 72

3.2.1 Rigs, 74

3.2.2 Hammers, 74

3.2.3 Vibratory Pile Drivers, 77

3.2.4 Other Driving Accessories, 83

3.3 Equipment for Bored Piles, 84

3.3.1 Drilling Rigs, 84

70

3.3.2 Other Drilling (Boring) Accessories, 89

3.4 Procedure for Pile Installation,

90

3.4.1 Planning Prior to Installation, 90

3.4.2 Installation of Driven Piles, 92

3.4.3 Installation of Bored Piles, 103

3.4.4 Installation of Special Types of Piles,

106

3.5 Installation Records, 109

3.5.1 Driving Records, 109

3.5.2 Drilling Records, 112

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CONTENTS

ix

3.5.3 Other Records, 112

 

References, 113

4 Soil Parameters for Pile Analysis and Design

 

115

4.1 Soil Parameters for Static Design, 115

 

4.1.1 Scope of Foundation Investigation, 116

4.1.2 Soils Investigation and Testing Methods, 119

 

4.1.3 Design Parameters, 153

 

4.2 Soil Parameters for Dynamic Design, 159

4.2.1 Elastic Constants of Soils, 161

4.2.2 Factors Affecting Dynamic Modulus, 162

4.2.3 Laboratory Methods, 169

4.2.4 Field Methods, 176

4.2.5 Selection of Design Parameters, 179

4.3 Soil Parameters for Permafrost, 185

4.3.1 Northern Engineering Basic Consideration, 185

 

4.3.2 Properties of Frozen Soils, 188

 

4.4 Modulus of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction, 196

4.4.1 Validity of Subgrade Modulus Assumption and Size

 

Effects,

198

4.4.2 Recommended Design Values of Soil Modulus, 200

 

4.5 Overview, 206

References, 209

5 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations for Vertical

 

Static Loads

218

5.1 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 218

5.1.1 Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesionless

Soils, 221

5.1.2 Wave Equation Analysis and Dynamic Pile

Drivability, 235

5.1.3 Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless

Soils, 247

5.1.4 Settlement of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soils, 249

5.1.5 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils, 253

5.1.6 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesionless Soils, 256

5.1.7 Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 264

5.1.8 Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 269

5.1.9 Settlement of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 272

5.1.10 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 272

5.1.11 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesive Soils, 277

5.1.12 Pile Design for Negative Skin Friction, 284

5.1.13 Piles in Swelling and Shrinking Soils, 289

5.1.14 Piles in a Layered Soil System, 291

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X

CONTENTS

5.1.15 Design of Franki Piles, 294

5.1.16 Piles on Rock, 297

5.2

Piles Subjected to Pullout Loads, 305

5.2.1 Pullout Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesionless

 

Soils,

306

5.2.2 Pullout Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless

 

Soils,

307

5.2.3 Design Computations for Pullout in Cohesionless

 

Soils,

308

5.2.4 Pullout Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 311

5.2.5 Pullout Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 313

5.2.6 Design Computations for Pullout in Cohesive Soils, 313

5.2.7 Pullout Capacity of H Piles, 315

5.2.8 Pullout Capacity of Belled Piles, 315

5.3

Overview, 316

 

References, 3 18

6 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations Under

Lateral Loads

6.1 Vertical Pile Under Lateral Load in Cohesionless Soil, 335

322

6.1.1 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of a Single Pile in

Cohesionless Soil, 335

6.1.2 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of Pile Groups in

Cohesionless Soil, 342

6.1.3 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil:

Subgrade Reaction Approach,

343

6.1.4 Application of p-y Curves to Cohesionless Soils, 354

6.1.5 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil:

Elastic Approach, 365

6.2 Lateral Deflection of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil, 373

6.3 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesionless Soil, 374

6.4 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of a Single Pile in Cohesive

Soils, 388

6.5 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of Pile Groups in Cohesive

Soil, 392

6.6 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 393

6.6.1 Subgrade Reaction Approach, 393

6.6.2 Application of p-y Curves to Co.hesive Soils, 397

6.6.3 Application of the Elastic Approach, 405

6.7 Lateral Deflection of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soil, 411

6.8 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesive Soils, 415

6.9 Lateral Resistance and Deflection of Piles in a Layered

System, 417

6.9.1 Ultimate Resistance in Layered Systems, 417

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CONTENTS

xi

6.9.2 Lateral Deflection of Laterally Loaded Piles in Layered Systems, 418

6.10 Design Procedure for Piles in Layered System, 430

6.11 Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads, 436

6.11.1

Statical or Traditional Method, 438

6.1 1.2

Theory of Subgrade Reaction Solution for a

Pile Group,

441

6.11.3

Pile Group Solution with Soil as an Elastic

Medium,

445

6.11.4

Bearing Capacity of Piles Under Eccentric and

Inclined Loads: Interaction Relationship,

445

6.12 Vertical Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads in

Cohesionless Soil, 445

6.12.1 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Vertical Loads, 447

6.12.2 Ultimate Capacity Under Central Inclined Loads, 449

6.12.3

Ultimate Capacity

Under Eccentric Inclined Loads, 45 1

6.12.4 Ultimate Load Capacity due to Partial Embedment, 451

6.12.5 Pile Stiffness, 452

6.12.6 Pile Groups, 452

6.12.7 Ultimate Eccentric Vertical Load, 453

6.12.8 Ultimate Central Inclined Load, 454

6.12.9 Ultimate Load due to Partial Embedment, 454

6.13 Vertical Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

in Cohesive Soil, 458

6.13.1 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Vertical Load, 460

6.13.2 Ultimate Capacity Under Central Inclined Load, 461

6.13.3 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Inclined Load, 461

6.13.4 Ultimate Load Capacity due to Partial Embedment, 462

6.13.5 Ultimate Eccentric Vertical Loads, 463

6.13.6 Ultimate Central Inclined Loads, 463

6.13.7 Eccentric Inclined Loads, 464

6.13.8 Ultimate Load due to Partial Embedment, 464

6.14 Batter Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads, 464

6.15 Limit State Analysis for Pile Foundation Design, 467

6.15.1 Ultimate Limit States, 467

6.15.2 Serviceability Limit States, 469

6.16 Overview, 469

References, 472

7 Pile FoundationsUnder Dynamic Loads

475

7.1 Piles Under Vertical Vibrations, 479

7.1.1 End-Bearing Piles, 48 1

7.1.2 Friction Piles, 484

7.2 Piles Under Lateral Vibrations, 488

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xii

CONTENTS

7.2.1 Range of Variables, 492

7.2.2 Natural Frequencies, 493

7.3 Aseismic Design of Piles, 496

7.4 Novak’s Dynamic Analysis of Piles, 501

7.4.1 Vertical Vibrations, 501

7.4.2 Lateral Vibrations, 513

7.4.3 Torsional Vibrations, 516

7.5 Group Action Under Dynamic Loading, 522

7.5.1 Vertical Vibrations, 522

7.5.2 Lateral Vibrations, 525

7.6 Design Procedure of Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 526

7.7 Centrifuge Model Tests on Piles, 530

7.7.1 Studies of a Model and a Prototype, 531

7.7.2 Studies of Model Piles and Pile Groups, 537

7.8 Examples, 549

7.9 Comparison of Predicted Response with Observed Response

of Single Piles and Pile

7.9.1 Tests of Full-Size Single Piles, 570

7.9.2 Tests on Groups of Model Piles, 572

7.9.3 Horizontal Response, 573

7.9.4 Concept of Equivalent Pier, 574

Groups, 570

7.10 Piles in Liquefying Sands, 577

7.1

1

Overview, 580

References, 585

8 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundation in Permafrost

Environments

8.1 Definitions, 589

8.2 General Design Considerations, 592

589

8.2.1 Load-Settlement Behavior of Foundation in Frozen

Soils, 593

8.2.2 Frost Heave and Adfreeze Forces, 597

8.2.3 Frost Heave Control Methods, 599

8.2.4 Freezeback of Piles, 600

8.3 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 603

8.3.1 Axial Compression Pile Load Capacity, 605

8.3.2 Pile Settlement, 608

8.3.3 Downdrag due to Permafrost Thawing, 618

8.4 Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads, 619

8.4.1 Free-headed Short Rigid Piles, 619

8.4.2 Laterally Loaded Flexible Piles, 624

8.5 Recommendations for Design, 625

8.6 Design Example, 627

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CONTENTS

xiii

8.7

Overview, 629

References, 63 1

 

9 Pile Load Tests

 

634

9.1 Axial Compression Pile Load Tests, 634

9.1.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 635

9.1.2 Test Procedures, 643

9.1.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 646

9.1.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 652

9.2 Pullout Pile Load Tests, 655

9.2.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 655

9.2.2 Test Procedures, 658

9.2.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 658

9.2.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 659

9.3 Lateral Pile Load Tests, 661

9.3.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 661

9.3.2 Test Procedures, 663

9.3.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 665

9.3.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 665

9.4 Dynamic Pile Load Tests, 668

9.4.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 668

9.4.2 Test Procedures, 670

9.4.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 67 1

9.4.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 673

9.5 Overview, 673

References, 674

10 Buckling Loads of Slender Piles

677

10.1

Fully Embedded Piles, 677

10.2 Partially Embedded Piles, 686

 

10.3 Effect of Axial Load Transfer, 689

 

10.3.1 Fully Embedded Piles, 690

10.3.2 Partially Embedded Piles, 690

10.4 Group Action, 693

 

References, 693

11 Case Histories

695

11.1 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 695

11.1.1 Cast-in-Place Belled and Bored Piles, 696

11.1.2 Expanded Base Compacted (Franki) Piles, 698

11.1.3 Driven Closed-ended Steel Pipe Piles, 702

11.2 Piles Subjected to Pullout Loads, 704

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xiv

CONTENTS

11.3

1I .4

Piles Under Lateral Loads, 712 Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 717

11.5 Overview, 717

References, 720

Author Index, 723

Subject Index, 729

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1

INTRODUCTION

Piles and pile foundations have been in use since prehistoric times. The Neolithic

inhabitants of Switzerland drove wooden poles in the soft bottoms of shallow

lakes 12,000 years ago and erected their homes on them (Sowers 1979). Venice

was built on timber piles in the marshy delta of the Po River to protect early

Italians from the invaders of Eastern Europe and at the same time enable them to

be close to the sea and their source of livelihood. In Venezuela, the Indians lived in

pile-supported huts in lagoons around the shores of Lake Maracaibo. Today, pile

foundations serve the same purpose: to make it possible to build in areas where

the soil conditions are unfavorable for shallow foundations.

of piles is to transfer a load that cannot be

adequately supported at shallow depths to a depth where adequate support

becomes available. When a pile passes through poor material and its tip

penetrates a small distance into a stratum of good bearing capacity, it is called a

bearing pile (Figure 1.1a). When piles are installed in a deep stratum of limited

supporting ability and these piles develop their carrying capacity by friction on

the sides of the pile, they are calledfriction piles (Figure

load-carrying capacity of piles results from a combination of point resistance and

1.1b). Many times, the

The commonest function

skin friction.

The load taken by a single pile can be determined by a static load test. The

allowable load is obtained by applying a factor of safety to the failure load.

Although it is expensive, a static load test is the only reliable means of

determining allowable load on a friction pile.

Tension piles are used to resist moments in tall structures and upward forces

(Figure l.lc), and in structures subject to uplift,such as buildings with basements

below the groundwater level, or buried tanks.

Laterally loaded piles support loads applied on an angle with the axis of the

1

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2

INTRODUCTION

-\\v

Poor soil stratum

Soil subjected

to scour

iw

=%?-l-L:

Retainingwall

Sheet pile

Figure 1.1

Batter pile

(d)

(e)

Different uses of piles: (a) Bearing pile, (b) friction pile, (c) piles under uplift,

(d) piles under lateral loads, (e) batter piles under lateral loads.

pile in foundations subject

(Figure l.ld and e).

to horizontal forces such as retaining structures

If the piles are installed at an angle with the vertical, these are called batter piles

(Figure 1.ld).

Dynamic loads may act on piles during earthquakes and under machine

foundations.

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ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE

3

Different types of piles based on their material are steel, concrete, timber, and composite piles (see Chapter 2). Piles may be installed by any one of the following methods:

1. Driven precast

2. Driven cast-in-situ

3. Bored cast-in-situ

4. Screw

5. Jetting

6. Spudding

7. Jacking

The method of installation of a pile may have profound effects on its behavior

under load and, therefore, its load carrying capacity. The method of installation

may also determine the effect on nearby structures, for example, (a) undesirable

movements and (2) vibrations, and/or structural damage. Much of the available

data on installation effects are for driven piles in soft and loose soils, since driving

of piles generally creates more disturbance than do other methods.

In this chapter, we first describe the mechanics of pile driving and its effects on

pore pressures, and then we describe consolidation

of clays based on field

measurements.

During pile driving, the resistance to penetration is a dynamic resistance.

When a pile foundation is loaded by a building, the resistance to penetration is a

static resistance. Both the dynamic resistance and the static resistance are

generally composed of point resistance and skin friction. However, in some soils,

the magnitudes of the dynamic and static resistances may not be quite similar. In

spite of this difference,frequent use is made of estimates of dynamic resistance by

dynamic pile formulas and the wave equation (Chapter 5) for the static load

capacity of the pile. Therefore, we also describe an understanding of the soil

action during loading.

The concepts described in this chapter may not be directly used by a practicing

of these basic ideas will

engineer during the design. However, an understanding

be helpful in explaining the pile behavior.

1.1 ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE

The effect of pile driving is reflected in remolding the soil around the pile. Sands

and clays respond to pile driving differently. First, we describe the behavior of

clays and then the behavior of sands.

Clays

The effects of pile driving in clays are listed in four major categories, De Mello (1969), as follows:

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4

INTRODUCTION

1.

Remolding or disturbance to structure of the soil surrounding the pile

2.

Changes of the state of stress in the soil in the vicinity of the pile

3.

Dissipation of the excess pore pressures developed around the pile

4. Long-term phenomena of strength regain in the soil

The essential difference between the actions of piles under dynamic and static

loadings is the fact that clays show pronounced time effects, and hence they show

the greatest difference between dynamic and static action. These effectsmay be

mechanistically described as follows.

Let us consider piles driven into a deep deposit of a soft impervious saturated

clay. Since a pile has a volume of many cubic feet, an equal volume of clay must be

displaced when the pile is driven. The pile-driving operation may cause the

following changes in the clay:

1. The soil may be pushed laterally from its original position BCDE to

1.2) or from FGHJ to F’GH’J’. If the clay has strength

which is lost on disturbance, then relatively small amount of skin friction

BCDE‘(Figure

exists during driving.

2. Since the pile is being driven into a saturated impervious clay, the ground

surface may heave considerably because of the displaced volume of clay.

In Figure 1.3, a pile of radius OCI is shown embedded in a clay stratum. The

changes in shear strength along the pile length and away from it are represented

on figure obcd with o as the origin.

Curve

A represents the shearing strength before the pile is driven and

F’

C‘

Figure 1.2

The displacement and distortion of soil caused by a pile during driving.

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Figure 13

ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE

5

Shearing strengthsin saturated clay before and after pile-driving operations.

represents the undisturbed strength of the clay (quick strength). The strength at

any point b at some distance away from o is bc.

Immediately after driving the pile, the shearing strength is represented by

curve B. The clay that was at point a before driving has moved to point o; that

originally at point o has moved to point f.The skin friction now is oe, which is the

reduced shearing strength and is a small fraction of the original strength od.

The clay at point o has been remolded, and, therefore, the greater part of its

intergranular pressure has disappeared. The total overburden pressure, consist-

ing of intergranular pressure plus pore-water pressure, is essentially unchanged.

Therefore, the lost intergranular pressure has been transferred to the pore water

in the form of hydrostatic excess pressure. Thus, there is a large hydrostatic excess

pressure in the clay adjacent to the pile immediately after pile driving. Since the

disturbance to clay is less at a distance from the pile, therefore, the pore pressure

increase is less. In addition, the lateral pressures adjacent to the pile increase

considerably by the outward displacement of soil during driving. The gradients

resulting from these excess pressures immediately set up seepage and start a

process of consolidation. Since flow always takes place from points of high excess

pressure to points of lower pressure, the direction of flow, therefore, is radially

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6

INTRODUCTION

away from the pile. However, there may be some upward flow as well. During consolidation, clay particles move radially toward the pile because the water is flowing outward. The clay thus decreasesin void ratio adjacent to the pile surface and expands a small amount at distances farther from the pile. Hence, after pile

driving, soil builds up skin friction at a fairly fast rate. This is evidenced in a

redriving test, which consists simply by allowing the pile to stand for a while and

then driving it again (Taylor 1948).In Figure 1.3, oh represents the skin friction in

redriving, and curve C represents the strength as a function of distance from the

pile. If curve C represents strengths occurring a day or so after driving, curve D

may represent strengths aftera few weeks after driving.Sincethe soil at a distance

from the pile expands slightlyduring consolidation, strength curves C and D may

be a small distance below curve

be less than the shearing strength in the clay

resistance to shear at

a small distance from the pile surface. In this case, skin frictions are represented by

points h‘ and J’ instead of h and j.

If a loading test is run on this pile a few weeks after driving, the skin friction is

represented roughly by distance oj. If a pile is pulled a few weeks after driving, a

large mass of soil may stick to the pile and come up with it. The relative strength

values at points explain this; for a nonuniform condition, the failure surface

would not pass through od where the circumference is minimum, nor through Im

where the strength is minimum, but would take place nearer to the radius where

B in this region. If the pile is smooth, the

the surface may

the product of strength and circumference is a minimum, perhaps at point

(Taylor, 1948).

The point resistance is generally large during driving because it equals the

force required to cause all the remolding described above. Also, the soil that may

k

.5

1

Figure 1.4

10

100

Time, hours

BurtonQuay

lo00

9, ‘9

Increase of load capacity with time (after Soderberg 1962).

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ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE

7

have a high undisturbed strength has to be pushed out of the way. It cannot be compressed, because saturated soils are incompressible under quick loading conditions (e.g., as during pile driving). Moreover, there is no convenient place for

the soil to go. Therefore, a column of soil, extending all the way to ground surface,

must be heaved up to allow the pile to penetrate the soil below its tip. Practically

all the resistance in many clays is point resistance during pile driving. De Mello

(1969) suggested that immediately after driving, the amount of remolding

100 percent at the pile-soil interface to virtually zero at

about 1.5 to 2.0 diameters from the pile surface. Orrje and Broms (1967) showed

in a sensitive clay, the undrained strength had almost

returned to its original value after nine months.

In addition to the dissipation of excess pore pressure, the rate of increase of soil

strength after pile driving also takes place due to thixotropy in soils. Soderberg

(1962) showed that the increase in ultimate load capacity of a pile (and hence,

shear strength of the soil) was very similar in character to the rate ofdissipation of

excess pore pressure

that for concrete piles

decreased from about

with time (Figure 1.4).

Pore Pressures Developed during Driving

A number of measurements of the excess pore pressure developed in a soil

because of pile driving have shown that the excess pore pressures at the pile face

may become equal to

or even greater than the effective overburden pressure.

2 F---+

Au

V

1.5 -

“b

0.5-

d

0

\

I

I

I

I

t

\o

\/

\

\

J

I

\

‘4,

I

I

I

Average curve for sensitive

marine clay

Average curve for clays of

ow-medium sensitivity

A

h

+I

X

I

+n

-

-

-

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8

INTRODUCTION

(Lambe and Horn 1965, Orrje and Broms 1967, Poulos and Davis 1979, DAppolonia and Lambe 1971).

In the vicinity of the pile, very high excess pore pressures are developed, in