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PILE FOUNDATIONS
IN ENGINEERING
PRACTICE
Shamsher Prakash
Professor of Civil Engineering,
University of MissouriRolla,
Rolla, Missouri
Hari D. Sharma
Chief Geotechnical Engineer
EMCON Associates,
San Jose, California
A WILEYINTERSCIENCEPUBLICATION
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
NEW YORK / CHICHESTER / BRISBANE / TORONTO / SINGAPORE
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A NOTE TO THE READER
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digitalinfixmation stored at John Wiley & Sons,Inc.
We are pleased that the use of thisnew technology
will enable us to keep works of enduring scholarly
value in print as long as there is a reasonable demand
for than. The cantent of thisbook is identical to
previousprintings.
Copyright 0 1990 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning
or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States
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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:
Prakash, Sharnsher.
Pile foundations in engineering practice/Shamsher Prakash, Hari D. Sharma.
p. cm.
“A WileyIntersciencepublication.”
Includes bibliographies.
1. Piling (Civil engineering) I. Sharma, Hari D. 11. Title.
TA780.P72 
1989 
8931917 
624.1’54dc 
20 
CIP 
ISBN 0471616532
10
9
8
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PREFACE
Pile foundations have been used since prehistoric time to transfer building loads
to appropriate depths. In an effort to develop reasonable design methods,
analyticaland experimentalstudieson piles and pile groups have been performed
extensivelyin the past four decades.Analytical studies have been directed toward
prediction of bearing capacity under vertical loads, pile deflections under lateral
loads, response of piles under dynamic loads, and the behavior of piles in
permafrost. Numerical methods including finite difference and finite element
techniques have also been applied. Also, a large amount of model and fullscale
test data have been collected.
All the foregoing information has led to the development of design procedures
of piles in different soil types, loading conditions, and environments. The purpose
of this text is to present a concise, systematic, and complete treatment of the
subjectleading to rational design proceduresfor the practicingcivil,geotechnical,
will be of equal benefit to graduate students
specializing in foundation engineering.
and structural engineers. The book
This book contains eleven chapters. In Chapter
1, basic concepts of pile
behavior under different types of loading are developed. More importantly, the
changes in the soil properties particularly in clays under static and dynamic
loading and on a longterm basis have been explained. In Chapters
details of different types of piles and their installation methods, respectively, are
discussed.
Determination and selection of appropriate soil parameters for design of piles
under different loading conditions and environment are presented in Chapter
Adequate attention is most often not paid by the design engineers to
affecting the selection of design parameters. This and other questions are
explained in detail in this chapter.
the factors
2 and 3,
4.
xv
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xvi
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In the subsequent four chapters, detailed information on behavior and design
of piles have been included for (1) vertical loading and pullout in Chapter 5, (2)
lateral, inclined, and eccentric loads in Chapter 6, (3) dynamic loads in Chapter 7, and (4) piles in permafrost in Chapter 8. A special feature in all these four
chapters is that stepbystep design procedures are developed. Numerous solved
problems are also included in each chapter.
9. The
question of buckling of long, slender piles with and without unsupported length is
the subject of Chapter
A match of prediction and performance of piles and pile groups is of great
importance in practice. This subject is discussed with the help of several case
histories in Chapter
Several parts of this text have been used in short courses for practicing
engineers offered by the University of MissouriRolla. Input from several
participants of these short courses resulted in many improvements,
of Missouri
Rolla, for the facilities offered and to the Interlibrary Loan of the Curtis Laws
Wilson Library for procuring some difliculttofind references.
Thanks also go to the American Society of Civil Engineers for permitting the
use of material from their publications. Acknowledgment to other copyrighted
material is given in other appropriate places in the text, figures, and tables.
In the preparation of this text, several of our colleagues and students helped in
a variety of ways. Useful comments were offered by W. D. Liam Finn, M. T.
Davisson, Norbert 0. Schmidt, M. R.Madhav, and Swami Saran for improving
the text. Solutions to some problems were prepared by George M. Manyando
and Shamshad Hussain. Charlena Ousley, Janet Pearson, Allison Hold
away, Anna Hubbard, and Ida Lucero typed the text with painstaking effort.
Anna Hubbard also prepared the subject and author indexes and the notations
(A special thanks is due to John Wiley’s editorial and professional
very patiently.
Load test procedures and their interpretation are discussed in Chapter
11.
10.
Thanks go to the Civil Engineering Department, University
staff. Thanks go to all of them.)
SHAMSHERPRAKASH
HARID. SHARMA
Rolla. Missouri
Son Jose, California
January, _{1}_{9}_{9}_{0}
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LIST OF SYMBOLS
area of crosssection of Hpile section
coefficient (Table _{6}_{.}_{5}_{)}
moment coefficients for free head pile
moment coefficient when subgrade modulus is constant
with depth
bending moment coefficients for dynamic loading
area of pile tip
soil reaction coefficient for free head pile
area of pile shaft
slope coefficients for free head pile
shear coefficients for free head pile
horizontal displacement in sliding
deflection coefficients for free head pile
deflection coefficient when subgrade modulus is constant
with depth
maximum amplitude in vertical vibrations
maximum amplitude in rocking
maximum amplitude
of vibrations in yawing (torsional
vibrations)
length of foundation
ASM,,/(rneemrc)= dimensionless amplitude of torsional
vibration with quadratic excitation
ro(w/Vs)= ro(w/Vb)= rowJp/G = dimensionless frequency
factor
dimension along x axis
dimension along y axis
xvii
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xviii LIST OF SYMBOLS
dimension along z axis creep parameter, pile width, width of loaded area coefficient (Table _{6}_{.}_{5}_{)} pile base or bell diameter
moment coefficient
modified mass ratio in sliding
deflection coefficient of pile in clay
modified mass ratio in vertical vibrations
inertia ratio in rocking vibrations
bending moment coefficient of pile in clay
inertia ratio in torsional vibrations
pile cap width; width of foundation; mass ratio
experimental parameter (Table
clay, constant to represent penetration due to energy loss;
8.3)
volumetric heat capacity of permafrost, J/m3C
integration constants; frequencydependent parameters of
vertical vibrations; soil adhesion forces
frequencyindependentparameters for vertical vibrations
allowable bond strength between concrete and rock
compression index
ratio of K, KT, Kb
moment coefficient for fixed head, spring compression of
element m in time interval,
t
correction factor for N to account for overburden pressure
empirical coefficient (equation
empirical coefficient (equation 5.37)
thaw degradation constant
coefficient of elastic uniform compression
deflection coefficient for fixed head
nondimensional factors in cohesive soils for fixed head pile
dimensionless parameters of half space
coefficient of consolidation
frequencydependent parameters for horizontal translation
frequencyindependent parameters for horizontal transla
5.36)
tion
coefftcient of elastic resistance of pile
pile stiffness at resonance
coefficient of elastic uniform shear
coefficient of elastic nonuniform compression
frequencydependent functions of the elastic half space for
rocking vibrations
coefficient of elastic nonuniform shear
coefficient of internal damping; cohesion parameter of soil;
experimental parameter in equation
8.1
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LIST OF SYMBOLS
xix
adhesion, soilpile adhesion; unit adhesion critical damping longterm cohesion of permafrost longterm shear strength for icerich soil
recompression index
undrained shear strength of clay; cohesion parameter under
undrained conditions when
6= 0
average undrained shear strength of clay along pile shaft
constant of equivalent viscous damping of one pile in
vertical vibrations
constant of equivalent viscous damping
vertical vibrations
of pile
cap in
damping coefficient of pile group
damping coefficient in horizontal sliding
damping constant of single pile in horizontal translation
constant of equivalent viscous damping of pile cap in
translation
damping constant of pile group in horizontal translations
crosscoupled damping factor for coupled rocking and
sliding
cross coupled damping constant of a single pile
damping coefficient in vertical vibrations
equivalent damping for a pile group in vertical vibrations
damping coefficient in rocking mode
damping coefficient of single pile in rocking
damping coefficient of pile cap in rocking
critical damping in rocking
damping constant of piles or footing in torsion
constant of equivalent viscous damping of a single pile in
torsional vibrations
diameter, downward drag force
depth of pile tip below ground
time
D
DJ
D:, soil plastic displacement around element
rn
in
interval _{t}
relative density
geometric damping ratio for a single pile
depth factor
displacement value of element m in time interval, t  2
displacement of element tnin time interval, t  1
modulus of elasticity of pile material; actual energy de
livered by hammer per blow in footpounds; Young’s
modulus
bulk modulus
constrained modulus
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xx LIST OF SYMBOLS
dilatometer modulus average horizontal soil modulus along pile _{=} _{k}_{,} flexural rigidity of the pile; pile material flexibility modulus of elasticity of pile material; Young’s modulus
of pile
modulus of elasticity of soil
base of natural logarithms, coefficient of elastic restitution,
voids ratio; eccentricity
initial void ratio
coefficient of elastic restitution
side shear force; total upward adfreeze force or frost heave
force
nondimensional frequency factor for piles embedded in
soils in which soil modulus remains constant with depth
nondimensional frequency factor for piles embedded in
soils in which soil modulus increases linearly with depth
force exerted by spring in time interval, t
force in horizontal (y)direction
stress wave inducedforceat a point along the pile at time
yield displacement factor
frequency of vibration
specified compressive strength of concrete
resistance factors
unit resistance of local friction sleeve of static penetrometer
load factors
natural frequency
natural frequency in horizontal sliding
natural frequency in vertical vibrations
natural frequency in pure rocking
natural frequency in yawing
performance factor
effective prestress on the section
load modification factor
resistance modification factor
side friction measured in cone penetration test; ultimate
t
unit shaft (skin) friction
torsional stiffness and damping parameters, respectively of
a single pile
vertical stiffness and damping parameters, respectively of
a single pile
horizontal (sliding) stiffness and
damping parameters
respectively of a free head pile
horizontal (sliding) stiffness and damping parameters for
a pinned head pile
cross stiffness and cross damping parameters
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fY
f+l,f42
G
LIST OF SYMBOLS
xxi
specified yield strength of reinforcement
rocking stiffness and damping parameters of a pile
shear modulus of soil shear modulus of soil beneath the pile tip
group efficiency
maximum value of shear modulus
shear modulus of pile
shear modulus of the soil on the sides of the pile
complex shear modulus of soil
real and imaginary parts of complex shear modulus of soil
loo0 minutes of constant
shear modulus measured after
confining pressure (after completion of primary
consolidation)
acceleration due to gravity
height of fall of ram or hammer
depth of embedment; length of pile above ground
influence factor; moment of inertia of the pile
material index
coefficient of shear modulus increase with time
rigidity factor
empirical coefficient for fixedhead pile in cohesive soils
empirical coefficient for fixedhead pile in cohesionless soils
empirical coefficients for freehead piles in clays
moment of inertia
of pile; polar moment of inertia of
the area
moment of inertia
moment of inertia of pile group about
of the area about the x axis
xx and yy axes,
respectively
moment of inertia of the area about the
an empirical factor; damping constant applicable to re
y axis
sistance at pile joint (Rlz in Fig. 5.7)
(I'
JO
JO,J,
J,
j,
K
Kb
damping constant applicable to resistance at side of pile
(R, to R,, of Fig. 5.7)
mass polar moment of inertia
Bessel functions of first kind of order 0 and 1, respectively
polar moment of inertia of the base contact area
case method damping constant
constant; coefficient of horizontal earth pressure; a dimen
sionless constant factor in equation 7.27
soil modulus for bottom layer; lateral earth pressure co
efficient
factors which are functions of
horizontal stress index
soil spring constant along element
spring constant of element m
4 and s/B
m
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xxii LIST OF SYMBOLS
coefficient of earth pressure at rest Rankine's passive earth pressure coefficient bearing capacity factor based on pressuremeter test data flexibility factor
relative stiffness
an empirical factor
average coefficient of earth pressure on pile shaft, earth
pressure coefficient
soil modulus for top layer
spring constant
modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction
coefficientof horizontal subgradereaction in force per unit
volume
ratio of lateral load and lateral deflection
ratio
stiffness of pile in vertical direction
stiffnessconstant of one pile in vertical direction
stiffness constant of pile cap in vertical direction
stiffness constant of pile group in vertical direction
stiffness constant for translation along x axis, equivalent
of axial load and axial settlement
spring constant of the soil in horizontal x direction
spring constant of single pile in translation
spring constant of pile cap in translation
stiffness constant of pile group in translation
cross coupled stiffness for coupled rocking and sliding
cross spring stiffness of single pile
spring constant in vertical vibrations, equivalent spring
constant
of the soil in vertical direction
spring constant in rocking vibrations
spring constant of single pile in rocking
spring constant of pile cap in rocking
spring constant of pile group in rocking
spring constant in torsion
torsional stiffness of a single pile
latent heat of water; low plasticity; pile embedment length;
pile length
L" 
length of pile in the active zone 
Le 
effective pile embedment; effective pile length 
LL 
liquid limit 
Lr 
embedded length of pile 
LS 
pile length that is socketed into the rock 
Lslurry 
latent heat of slurry 
1 
length of pile, any distance 
M 
bending moment; mode); moment; moment at pile head; 
Mocos ot excitation moment; silt
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LIST OF SYMBOLS
xxiii
applied moment on a pile group moment applied at pile head at ground level maximum bending moment ultimatemoment for a pile under pure moment without any
mce,r,02: amplitude of moment M for
axial load;
quadratic excitation
ultimate pile moment, ultimate moment capacity of pile
shaft
moment caused by Qu,applied at eccentricity e
moment caused by Qhuapplied at height h above ground
moment at depth _{x}
experimental constant; a factor = Mo/(PuL)
rotating mass
volume compressibility
observed Standard Penetration Test Value
corrected Standard Penetration Test Value
number of blows of
WXH energy needed to ram a unit
volume of concrete into the base for Franki piles
PL
PO
nondimensional bearing capacity parameters
normalized shear modulus increase with time
rate of increase of E,
axial force in the pile
creep test constant (parameter); degrees of freedom
of a
multidegree system; number of cycles; number of piles in
the group: scale ratio (Table
7.7)
constant of horizontal subgrade reaction
organic soil
over consolidation ratio
axial downward load; horizontal shear load; prototype
allowable pullout capacity of a single pile
pressure corresponding to
applied axial pullout load on a pile group
allowable pullout capacity of a pile group
plasticity index
maximum limit pressure in pressuremeter test; pressure
V, in pressuremeter test
corresponding to
V, in pressuremeter test
plastic limit
pressure corresponding to initial volume in pressuremeter
test; pressure corresponding to
pressure in dilatometer test corresponding to reading
Voin pressuremeter test;
A
axial pullout (upward) load
ultimate axial vertical load
of
pile; ultimate pullout
capacity
maximum unbalanced force in vertical direction, vertical
component of resultant inertia force
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xxiv LIST OF SYMBOLS
timedependent vertical force pressure in dilatometer test corresponding to reading B pile perimeter; soil reaction at a point on the pile per unit length along the pile
atmospheric pressure
soil resistance below critical depth
soil resistance from ground surface to a critical depth x,
preconsolidation pressure
points on py
x,
curve corresponding to yk, y,,
and y,,
respectively
ultimate soil resistance
soil reaction at depth
allowable lateral load; latent heat of slurry per meter of pile;
lateral load; quake or maximum elastic ground deform
ation
x
ultimate central inclined load capacity
inclined load on a pile
allowable lateral load
cone penetration resistance
dynamic resistance of soil to pile driving
eccentric and inclined load on a pile
ultimatepile load at an inclination'a and eccentricity e with
the axis of the pile
ultimate eccentric vertical load capacity
eccentric vertical load on a pile
total eccentric vertical load on pile group
frictionalcapacityalong the pile perimeter or ultimate shaft
friction
actual shaft friction load transmitted by the pile
working stress range
in the
ultimate shaft friction in pullout
allowable frictional capacity of the pile
ultimate friction capacity of a pile group
negative skin friction
lateral load applied at pile head at ground level
ultimate pile capacity under horizontal load
endbearing capacity or ultimate tip resistance
actual base load transmitted by the pile in the working
stress range
allowable load at the pile base
ultimate point load of a pile group
ultimate lateral resistance
ultimate lateral load capacity of a group
magnitude of uplift forces in swelling and shrinking clays
applied axial compression pile load
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4a
4e
40
(4u)corc
R
R", R,, Rc
r0
LIST OF SYMBOLS
xxv
axial downward load on pile allowable bearing capacity of pile allowable capacity of a pile group ultimate bearing capacity of pile
ultimate capacity of a pile group
ultimate pile capacity under vertical load
lateral forces inclined at angles
+6,
and d2
horizontal
with the
allowable contact pressure on jointed rock
cone penetration resistance; end resistance measured in
cone penetration test
horizontal at rest stress in soil at the elevation of pile tip
ultimate unit point or endbearing capacity
unconfined compressive strength
unconfined compressive strength of rock core
pile radius; radius of plate; relative stiffness factor when
modulus is constant with depth
A, By and Cy respectively;
reduction factor to account for scale effects in stiff
fissured clays
Axial forces on pile groups
soil resistance along element
load or reaction on any pile
soil resistance at pile point
Rock Quality Designation
static axial ultimate capacity
static soil resistance at time
portion of R, applicable to weight W,,,
ultimate soil resistance to driving
adhesion factor: frequency ratio w/wnyf/f,,; radial distance
rn in time interval t
= R,
tm
from pile, center to center spacing of piles
effective radius of one pile, equivalent radius; radius of the
pile
rl 
radius of circular pile section 
r2 
radius of drilled hole 
S 
center to center distance between piles, pile spacing; 
distance between geophones; pile point penetration per
blow or permanent set of pile per blow
shape factor
overall shape factor
elastic compression of various parts
spectral displacement
pile group settlement
clear distance between adjacent piles
settlement of pile base or point caused by load transmitted
at the base
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xxvi LIST OF SYMBOLS
settlement of pile point caused by load transmitted along the pile shaft settlement due to axial deformation of a pile shaft pile top settlement for a single pile
equivalent length
undrained shear strength
frequency dependent dimensionless parameters of vertical
of embedded portion of the pile
resistance of soil along a vertical pile
slope at depth _{x}
frequencydependent parameters of side layer for hori
zontal sliding
frequency independent values
frequencydependent parameters of the side layer for verti
of S,,
and SX2
cal vibration
frequencyindependent parameters of side layer for vertical
vibration
frequencyindependent values of
frequencydependent side layer parameters for torsional
S,,
and S+2
vibrations
frequencyindependent values
vibrations
of S, 1, Se2 for torsional
pile spacing
spacing of discontinuities in the rocks
elastic settlement
timedependentsoil reaction per unit length on vertical side
of the footing
relative stiffnessfactor when modulus increaseswith depth;
torque applied in the vane shear
time periodtorque;
test
minimum soil temperature in freezing zone
natural period
natural period in first mode of vibrations
freezeback time; ratio of moment and lateral load for fixed
head; time after application of load
thickness of discontinuities in the rocks
thickness of frozen soil
time of first relative maximum in force and velocity
measurement
time used for starting computation of total driving
resistance
time after primary consolidation
creep rate; displacement amplitude of pile displacement
function
assumed insitu hydrostatic pressure; displacement at any
radius r; displacement in x direction
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VO
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xxvii
velocity in x direction
vz= shear wave velocity of soil beneath pile tip
longitudinal a or compression wave velocity in infinite
medium;
= longitudinal wave velocity in pile
final volume in pressuremeter test
upper limit
mean volume in pressuremeter test; velocity
of volume in pressuremeter test
of element m in
time interval t
initial volume in pressuremeter test
shear wave velocity of pile
velocity of Rayleigh waves
longitudinal wave propagation velocity in rod
shear wave velocity
shear at depth x
displacement in y direction
longitudinal wave velocity in pile
velocity of element m in time interval, t  1
velocity of propagation of stress wave
stress wave particle velocity
velocity of pile cap at the instant of ram impact
weight of ram or hammer
weight of element m
weight of the pile
vertical displacement, weight per unit length; water content
XO
Y
in percent of dry weight
natural moisture content
amplitude of vertical vibration of footing
displacement in Z direction
complex pile displacement function at depth
complex amplitude of pile vibration at depth z
real and imaginary parts of displacement
axis of X; depth of permafrost degradation
depth of point of rotation
axis of x; depth along pile; depth below ground
distances from center of gravity
x and y directions, respectively
depth below ground where maximum bending moment
of pile group for each pile in
z
occurs
coordinate
eccentricities in
axis of _{Y}
Bessel functions of the second kind of order 0 and 1,
of pile; critical depth below ground level
xx and yy directions
respectively
deflection; displacement; horizontal distance away from
the pile, lateral pile deflection
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xxviii LIST OF SYMBOLS
'Y"
points on p1 curve maximum value of _{y}
horizontal coordinates of pile
axis of _{2}_{;}_{x}_{/}_{T}
height of center of gravity of pile cap above its base
accelerating force in element m in time interval t
LIT
displacement in vertical direction
velocity in vertical direction
acceleration in vertical direction
inclination of load on vertical pile; thermal diffusivity of
permafrost
axil displacement interaction factor for a typical reference
pile in a group
a factor relating to ultimate moment (M,)= (AJ/M,) and
the distance (d) of extreme compression end to the center
of tension bar of area A,
ah
0; 1
horizontal seismic coefkient
effective horizontal pressure (stress) at a point along pile
length
lateral displacement interaction factor for a typical re
Y
Y'
3
Yc
Yd
YS
YXY
Yxz
YYZ
Ye
6
ference pile in a group
a number that depends on skin friction distribution
inclination of batter pile; depth coefilcient
weight density or unit weight; unit weight of soil; shear
= x/L
strain
effective unit weight of the soil
shear strain rate induced in soil around pile due to shear
stress _{?}
unit weight of concrete
dry density
unit weight of soil
shear strain in the xy plane
shear strain in the xz plane
shear strain in yz plane
shear distortion; shear strain
angle of friction between soil and pile; angle of skin friction;
loss angle see equation
7.61
AT 
initial temperature of permafrost 
"C below freezing 

AE 
energy 
loss 

AL 
a small pile element length 

At 
a small time interval in seconds 

AG 
change in lowamplitude shear modulus from time tl to t, 

AuL 
change or increase in effective vertical strain 

E 
longitudinal strain 
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LIST OF SYMBOLS
xxix
E,
+Ey +E,
uniaxial creep rate strain at maximum stress strain at onehalf the maximum principal stress
longitudinal strain in
x direction; lateral strain in x
direction
longitudinal strain in
direction
y direction; lateral strain in y
longitudinal strain in
damping factor
damping factor in horizontal sliding
damping factor in vertical vibrations
damping factor in rocking
damping factor in torsional vibrations
angular rotation; tilting; temperature below freezing point
z direction
of water, _{"}_{C}
complex frequency parameter of a pile
real and imaginary parts of A, respectively
real frequency parameter of pile
dimensionless parameter
Lammes' constant; wavelength; ratio
Rayleigh's wave length
coefficient of friction
lateral ground surface displacement rate
Poisson's ratio
Poisson's ratio for soil
mass density of pile material; mass density of soil
of k, and ku
mass density of soil beneath pile tip
PS
c
mass density 
of pile material 
mass density 
of the soil on the sides of the embedded footing 
sum 

principal stress 
applied constant stress
horizontal effective stress
mean normal pressure
effective overburden vertical pressure
vertical effective stress
vertical overburden pressure at depth
effectivevertical pressure (stress)at a point along pile length
normal stress in x direction
normal stress in y direction
normal stress in z direction
effective allaround stress
mean effective confining pressure
major principal stress
x
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xxx LIST OF SYMBOLS
02
(73
7
intermediate principal stress minor principal stress
shear stress;induced shear stress _{i}_{n} soil due to applied load
(QA
shear stress
adfreeze bond strength
adfreeze stress along the pile perimeter
downward pressures due to thaw (permafrost degradation)
shear stresses
friction parameter, angle of internal friction
friction parameter (effective)
longterm internal friction of permafrost
torsional rotation
maximum torsional amplitude
resonant amplitude of pile rotation
real torsional amplitude of pile at elevation z
real and imaginary parts of $(z)
angular velocity, circular frequency, operating frequency
circular natural frequency
first and second natural circular frequencies
limiting natural circular frequencies
natural circular frequency in horizontal sliding
natural circular frequency in vertical vibrations
natural circular frequency in pure rocking
natural circular frequency in torsional vibration
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CONTENTS
Preface 
xv 

List 
of Symbols 
xvii 

1 
Introduction 
1 

1.1 Action of Soils Around a Driven Pile, 3 

1.2 Displacements of Ground and Buildings Caused by 

Pile Driving, 
9 

1.3 Group Action in Piles, 10 

1.4 Negative Skin Friction, 14 

1.5 Settlement of Pile Groups, 16 

1.6 Load Test on Piles, 17 

1.7 Behavior of Piles in Pullout, 18 

1.8 Action of Piles Under Lateral Loads, 19 

1.8.1 Single Pile Under Lateral Loads, 19 

1.8.2 Pile Groups Under Lateral Loads, 23 

1.9 Buckling of Piles, 27 

1.10 Behavior of Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 28 

1.11 Action of Soil Around a Bored Pile, 31 

1.11.1 Bored Piles in Clay, 32 

1.11.2 Bored Piles in Sand, 32 

References, 33 

2 
Types of Piles and Pile Materials 
35 
2.1 Classification Criteria, 35
2.2 Timber Piles, 37
vii
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viii
CONTENTS
2.2.1 Use of Timber Piles, 38
2.2.2 Material Specifications, 39
2.2.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 39
2.3 Concrete Piles, 40
2.3.1 Types and Use of Concrete Piles,
2.3.2 Material Specifications, 50
2.3.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 51
40
2.4 Steel Piles, 52
2.4.1 Types and Use of Steel Piles, 52
2.4.2 Material Specifications, 55
2.4.3 Material Deterioration and Protection, 56
2.5 Composite Piles, 59
2.5.1 Types and Use of Composite Piles, 59
2.5.2 Material Specifications, 59
2.6 Special Types of Piles, 59
2.6.1 Expanded Base Compacted Piles (Franki Piles), 60
2.6.2 Thermal Piles, 61
2.6.3 Other Pile Types,
64
2.7 Selection Criteria and Comparison of Pile Type, 65
2.7.1 Timber Piles, 65
2.7.2 Concrete Piles,
2.7.3 Steel Piles, 66
2.7.4 Composite Piles, 67
2.7.5 Special Types of Piles, 67
66
References, 67
3 Piling Equipment and Installation
3.1 General Installation Criteria, 70
3.2 Equipment for Driven Piles, 72
3.2.1 Rigs, 74
3.2.2 Hammers, 74
3.2.3 Vibratory Pile Drivers, 77
3.2.4 Other Driving Accessories, 83
3.3 Equipment for Bored Piles, 84
3.3.1 Drilling Rigs, 84
70
3.3.2 Other Drilling (Boring) Accessories, 89
3.4 Procedure for Pile Installation,
90
3.4.1 Planning Prior to Installation, 90
3.4.2 Installation of Driven Piles, 92
3.4.3 Installation of Bored Piles, 103
3.4.4 Installation of Special Types of Piles,
106
3.5 Installation Records, 109
3.5.1 Driving Records, 109
3.5.2 Drilling Records, 112
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CONTENTS 
ix 

3.5.3 Other Records, 112 

References, 113 

4 Soil Parameters for Pile Analysis and Design 
115 

4.1 Soil Parameters for Static Design, 115 

4.1.1 Scope of Foundation Investigation, 116 

4.1.2 Soils Investigation and Testing Methods, 119 

4.1.3 Design Parameters, 153 

4.2 Soil Parameters for Dynamic Design, 159 

4.2.1 Elastic Constants of Soils, 161 

4.2.2 Factors Affecting Dynamic Modulus, 162 

4.2.3 Laboratory Methods, 169 

4.2.4 Field Methods, 176 

4.2.5 Selection of Design Parameters, 179 

4.3 Soil Parameters for Permafrost, 185 

4.3.1 Northern Engineering Basic Consideration, 185 

4.3.2 Properties of Frozen Soils, 188 

4.4 Modulus of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction, 196 

4.4.1 Validity of Subgrade Modulus Assumption and Size 

Effects, 
198 

4.4.2 Recommended Design Values of Soil Modulus, 200 

4.5 Overview, 206 

References, 209 

5 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations for Vertical 

Static Loads 
218 
5.1 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 218
5.1.1 Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesionless
Soils, _{2}_{2}_{1}
5.1.2 Wave Equation Analysis and Dynamic Pile
Drivability, _{2}_{3}_{5}
5.1.3 Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless
Soils, _{2}_{4}_{7}
5.1.4 Settlement of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soils, 249
5.1.5 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils, 253
5.1.6 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesionless Soils, 256
5.1.7 Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 264
5.1.8 Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 269
5.1.9 Settlement of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 272
5.1.10 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 272
5.1.11 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesive Soils, 277
5.1.12 Pile Design for Negative Skin Friction, 284
5.1.13 Piles in Swelling and Shrinking Soils, 289
5.1.14 Piles in a Layered Soil System, 291
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X
CONTENTS
5.1.15 Design of Franki Piles, 294
_{5}_{.}_{1}_{.}_{1}_{6} Piles on Rock, 297
5.2 Piles Subjected to Pullout Loads, 305 

5.2.1 Pullout Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesionless 

Soils, 
306 

5.2.2 Pullout Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless 

Soils, 
307 

5.2.3 Design Computations for Pullout in Cohesionless 

Soils, 
308 

5.2.4 Pullout Capacity of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 311 

5.2.5 Pullout Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils, 313 

5.2.6 Design Computations for Pullout in Cohesive Soils, 313 

5.2.7 Pullout Capacity of H Piles, 315 

5.2.8 Pullout Capacity of Belled Piles, 315 

5.3 Overview, 316 
References, 3 18
6 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations Under
Lateral Loads
6.1 Vertical Pile Under Lateral Load in Cohesionless Soil, 335
_{3}_{2}_{2}
6.1.1 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of a Single Pile in
Cohesionless Soil, _{3}_{3}_{5}
6.1.2 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of Pile Groups in
Cohesionless Soil, _{3}_{4}_{2}
6.1.3 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil:
Subgrade Reaction Approach,
343
6.1.4 Application of py Curves to Cohesionless Soils, 354
6.1.5 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil:
Elastic Approach, _{3}_{6}_{5}
6.2 Lateral Deflection of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil, 373
6.3 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesionless Soil, 374
6.4 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of a Single Pile in Cohesive
Soils, _{3}_{8}_{8}
6.5 Ultimate Lateral Load Resistance of Pile Groups in Cohesive
Soil, _{3}_{9}_{2}
6.6 Lateral Deflection of a Single Pile in Cohesive Soils, 393
6.6.1 Subgrade Reaction Approach, 393
6.6.2 Application of py Curves to Co.hesive Soils, 397
6.6.3 Application of the Elastic Approach, 405
6.7 Lateral Deflection of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soil, 411
6.8 Design Procedure for Piles in Cohesive Soils, 415
6.9 Lateral Resistance and Deflection of Piles in a Layered
System, _{4}_{1}_{7}
6.9.1 Ultimate Resistance in Layered Systems, 417
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CONTENTS
xi
6.9.2 Lateral Deflection of Laterally Loaded Piles in Layered Systems, _{4}_{1}_{8}
_{6}_{.}_{1}_{0} Design Procedure for Piles in Layered System, 430
6.11 Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads, 436
6.11.1 
Statical or Traditional Method, 438 

6.1 1.2 
Theory of Subgrade Reaction Solution for a 

Pile Group, 
441 

6.11.3 
Pile Group Solution with Soil as an Elastic 

Medium, 445 

6.11.4 
Bearing Capacity of Piles Under Eccentric and 
Inclined Loads: Interaction Relationship,
445
6.12 Vertical Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads in
Cohesionless Soil, _{4}_{4}_{5}
6.12.1 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Vertical Loads, 447
6.12.2 Ultimate Capacity Under Central Inclined Loads, 449
6.12.3
Ultimate Capacity
Under Eccentric Inclined Loads, 45 1
6.12.4 Ultimate Load Capacity due to Partial Embedment, 451
6.12.5 Pile Stiffness, 452
6.12.6 Pile Groups, 452
6.12.7 Ultimate Eccentric Vertical Load, 453
6.12.8 Ultimate Central Inclined Load, 454
6.12.9 Ultimate Load due to Partial Embedment, 454
6.13 Vertical Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads
in Cohesive Soil, _{4}_{5}_{8}
6.13.1 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Vertical Load, 460
6.13.2 Ultimate Capacity Under Central Inclined Load, 461
6.13.3 Ultimate Capacity Under Eccentric Inclined Load, 461
6.13.4 Ultimate Load Capacity due to Partial Embedment, 462
6.13.5 Ultimate Eccentric Vertical Loads, 463
6.13.6 Ultimate Central Inclined Loads, 463
6.13.7 Eccentric Inclined Loads, 464
6.13.8 Ultimate Load due to Partial Embedment, 464
6.14 Batter Piles Subjected to Eccentric and Inclined Loads, 464
6.15 Limit State Analysis for Pile Foundation Design, 467
6.15.1 Ultimate Limit States, 467
6.15.2 Serviceability Limit States, 469
6.16 Overview, 469
References, 472
7 Pile FoundationsUnder Dynamic Loads
475
7.1 Piles Under Vertical Vibrations, 479
7.1.1 EndBearing Piles, 48 1
7.1.2 Friction Piles, 484
7.2 Piles Under Lateral Vibrations, 488
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xii
CONTENTS
7.2.1 Range of Variables, 492
_{7}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} Natural Frequencies, 493
7.3 Aseismic Design of Piles, 496
7.4 Novak’s Dynamic Analysis of Piles, 501
7.4.1 Vertical Vibrations, 501
7.4.2 Lateral Vibrations, 513
7.4.3 Torsional Vibrations, 516
7.5 Group Action Under Dynamic Loading, 522
7.5.1 Vertical Vibrations, 522
7.5.2 Lateral Vibrations, 525
7.6 Design Procedure of Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 526
7.7 Centrifuge Model Tests on Piles, 530
7.7.1 Studies of a Model and a Prototype, 531
7.7.2 Studies of Model Piles and Pile Groups, 537
7.8 Examples, 549
7.9 Comparison of Predicted Response with Observed Response
of Single Piles and Pile
7.9.1 Tests of FullSize Single Piles, 570
7.9.2 Tests on Groups of Model Piles, 572
7.9.3 Horizontal Response, 573
7.9.4 Concept of Equivalent Pier, 574
Groups, 570
7.10 Piles in Liquefying Sands, 577
7.1
1
Overview, 580
References, 585
8 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundation in Permafrost
Environments
8.1 Definitions, 589
8.2 General Design Considerations, 592
589
8.2.1 LoadSettlement Behavior of Foundation in Frozen
Soils, _{5}_{9}_{3}
8.2.2 Frost Heave and Adfreeze Forces, 597
8.2.3 Frost Heave Control Methods, 599
8.2.4 Freezeback of Piles, 600
8.3 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 603
8.3.1 Axial Compression Pile Load Capacity, 605
8.3.2 Pile Settlement, 608
8.3.3 Downdrag due to Permafrost Thawing, 618
8.4 Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads, 619
8.4.1 Freeheaded Short Rigid Piles, 619
8.4.2 Laterally Loaded Flexible Piles, 624
8.5 Recommendations for Design, 625
8.6 Design Example, 627
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CONTENTS 
xiii 

8.7 
Overview, 629 

References, 63 1 

9 Pile Load Tests 
634 
9.1 Axial Compression Pile Load Tests, 634
9.1.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 635
9.1.2 Test Procedures, 643
9.1.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 646
9.1.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 652
9.2 Pullout Pile Load Tests, 655
9.2.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 655
9.2.2 Test Procedures, 658
9.2.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 658
9.2.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 659
9.3 Lateral Pile Load Tests, 661
9.3.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 661
9.3.2 Test Procedures, 663
9.3.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 665
9.3.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 665
9.4 Dynamic Pile Load Tests, 668
9.4.1 Test Equipment and Instruments, 668
9.4.2 Test Procedures, 670
9.4.3 Interpretation of Test Data, 67 1
9.4.4 Example of a Pile Load Test, 673
9.5 Overview, 673
References, 674
10 Buckling Loads of Slender Piles 
677 

10.1 
Fully Embedded Piles, 677 

10.2 Partially Embedded Piles, 686 

10.3 Effect of Axial Load Transfer, 689 

10.3.1 Fully Embedded Piles, 690 

10.3.2 Partially Embedded Piles, 690 

10.4 Group Action, 693 

References, 693 

11 Case Histories 
695 
11.1 Piles Subjected to Axial Compression Loads, 695
11.1.1 CastinPlace Belled and Bored Piles, 696
11.1.2 Expanded Base Compacted (Franki) Piles, 698
11.1.3 Driven Closedended Steel Pipe Piles, 702
11.2 Piles Subjected to Pullout Loads, 704
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xiv
CONTENTS
11.3
1I .4
Piles Under Lateral Loads, 712 Piles Under Dynamic Loads, 717
11.5 Overview, 717
References, 720
Author Index, 723
Subject Index, 729
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1
INTRODUCTION
Piles and pile foundations have been in use since prehistoric times. The Neolithic
inhabitants of Switzerland drove wooden poles in the soft bottoms of shallow
lakes 12,000 years ago and erected their homes on them (Sowers 1979). Venice
was built on timber piles in the marshy delta of the Po River to protect early
Italians from the invaders of Eastern Europe and at the same time enable them to
be close to the sea and their source of livelihood. In Venezuela, the Indians lived in
pilesupported huts in lagoons around the shores of Lake Maracaibo. Today, pile
foundations serve the same purpose: to make it possible to build in areas where
the soil conditions are unfavorable for shallow foundations.
of piles is to transfer a load that cannot be
adequately supported at shallow depths to a depth where adequate support
becomes available. When a pile passes through poor material and its tip
penetrates a small distance into a stratum of good bearing capacity, it is called a
bearing pile (Figure 1.1a). When piles are installed in a deep stratum of limited
supporting ability and these piles develop their carrying capacity by friction on
the sides of the pile, they are calledfriction piles (Figure
loadcarrying capacity of piles results from a combination of point resistance and
1.1b). Many times, the
The commonest function
skin friction.
The load taken by a single pile can be determined by a static load test. The
allowable load is obtained by applying a factor of safety to the failure load.
Although it is expensive, a static load test is the only reliable means of
determining allowable load on a friction pile.
Tension piles are used to resist moments in tall structures and upward forces
(Figure l.lc), and in structures subject to uplift,such as buildings with basements
below the groundwater level, or buried tanks.
Laterally loaded piles support loads applied on an angle with the axis of the
1
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2
INTRODUCTION
\\v
Poor soil stratum
Soil subjected
to scour
iw
=%?lL:
Retainingwall
Sheet pile
Figure 1.1
Batter pile
(d)
(e)
Different uses of piles: (a) Bearing pile, (b) friction pile, (c) piles under uplift,
(d) piles under lateral loads, (e) batter piles under lateral loads.
pile in foundations subject
(Figure l.ld and e).
to horizontal forces such as retaining structures
If the piles are installed at an angle with the vertical, these are called batter piles
(Figure 1.ld).
Dynamic loads may act on piles during earthquakes and under machine
foundations.
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ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE
_{3}
Different types of piles based on their material are steel, concrete, timber, and composite piles (see Chapter _{2}_{)}_{.} Piles may be installed by any one _{o}_{f} the following methods:
1. Driven precast
2. Driven castinsitu
3. Bored castinsitu
4. Screw
5. Jetting
6. Spudding
7. Jacking
The method of installation of a pile may have profound effects on its behavior
under load and, therefore, its load carrying capacity. The method of installation
may also determine the effect on nearby structures, for example, (a) undesirable
movements and (2) vibrations, and/or structural damage. Much of the available
data on installation effects are for driven piles in soft and loose soils, since driving
of piles generally creates more disturbance than do other methods.
In this chapter, we first describe the mechanics of pile driving and its effects on
pore pressures, and then we describe consolidation
of clays based on field
measurements.
During pile driving, the resistance to penetration is a dynamic resistance.
When a pile foundation is loaded by a building, the resistance to penetration is a
static resistance. Both the dynamic resistance and the static resistance are
generally composed of point resistance and skin friction. However, in some soils,
the magnitudes of the dynamic and static resistances may not be quite similar. In
spite of this difference,frequent use is made of estimates of dynamic resistance by
dynamic pile formulas and the wave equation (Chapter 5) for the static load
capacity of the pile. Therefore, we also describe an understanding of the soil
action during loading.
The concepts described in this chapter may not be directly used by a practicing
of these basic ideas will
engineer during the design. However, an understanding
be helpful in explaining the pile behavior.
1.1 ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE
The effect of pile driving is reflected in remolding the soil around the pile. Sands
and clays respond to pile driving differently. First, we describe the behavior of
clays and then the behavior of sands.
Clays
The effects of pile driving in clays are listed in four major categories, De Mello (1969), as follows:
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4
INTRODUCTION
1. 
Remolding or disturbance to structure of the soil surrounding the pile 
2. 
Changes of the state of stress in the soil in the vicinity of the pile 
3. 
Dissipation of the excess pore pressures developed around the pile 
4. Longterm phenomena of strength regain in the soil
The essential difference between the actions of piles under dynamic and static
loadings is the fact that clays show pronounced time effects, and hence they show
the greatest difference between dynamic and static action. These effectsmay be
mechanistically described as follows.
Let us consider piles driven into a deep deposit of a soft impervious saturated
clay. Since a pile has a volume of many cubic feet, an equal volume of clay must be
displaced when the pile is driven. The piledriving operation may cause the
following changes in the clay:
1. The soil may be pushed laterally from its original position BCDE to
1.2) or from FGHJ to F’GH’J’. If the clay has strength
which is lost on disturbance, then relatively small amount of skin friction
BCDE‘(Figure
exists during driving.
2. Since the pile is being driven into a saturated impervious clay, the ground
surface may heave considerably because of the displaced volume of clay.
In Figure 1.3, a pile of radius OCI is shown embedded in a clay stratum. The
changes in shear strength along the pile length and away from it are represented
on figure obcd with o as the origin.
Curve
A represents the shearing strength before the pile is driven and
F’
C‘
Figure 1.2
The displacement and distortion of soil caused by a pile during driving.
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Figure 13
ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE
5
Shearing strengthsin saturated clay before and after piledriving operations.
represents the undisturbed strength of the clay (quick strength). The strength at
any point b at some distance away from o is bc.
Immediately after driving the pile, the shearing strength is represented by
curve B. The clay that was at point a before driving has moved to point o; that
originally at point o has moved to point f.The skin friction now is oe, which is the
reduced shearing strength and is a small fraction of the original strength od.
The clay at point o has been remolded, and, therefore, the greater part of its
intergranular pressure has disappeared. The total overburden pressure, consist
ing of intergranular pressure plus porewater pressure, is essentially unchanged.
Therefore, the lost intergranular pressure has been transferred to the pore water
in the form of hydrostatic excess pressure. Thus, there is a large hydrostatic excess
pressure in the clay adjacent to the pile immediately after pile driving. Since the
disturbance to clay is less at a distance from the pile, therefore, the pore pressure
increase is less. In addition, the lateral pressures adjacent to the pile increase
considerably by the outward displacement of soil during driving. The gradients
resulting from these excess pressures immediately set up seepage and start a
process of consolidation. Since flow always takes place from points of high excess
pressure to points of lower pressure, the direction of flow, therefore, is radially
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6
INTRODUCTION
away from the pile. However, there may be some upward flow as well. During consolidation, clay particles move radially toward the pile because the water is flowing outward. The clay thus decreasesin void ratio adjacent to the pile surface and expands a small amount at distances farther from the pile. Hence, after pile
driving, soil builds up skin friction at a fairly fast rate. This is evidenced in a
redriving test, which consists simply by allowing the pile to stand for a while and
then driving it again (Taylor 1948).In Figure 1.3, oh represents the skin friction in
redriving, and curve C represents the strength as a function of distance from the
pile. If curve C represents strengths occurring a day or so after driving, curve D
may represent strengths aftera few weeks after driving.Sincethe soil at a distance
from the pile expands slightlyduring consolidation, strength curves C and D may
be a small distance below curve
be less than the shearing strength in the clay
resistance to shear at
a small distance from the pile surface. In this case, skin frictions are represented by
points h‘ and J’ instead of h and j.
If a loading test is run on this pile a few weeks after driving, the skin friction is
represented roughly by distance oj. If a pile is pulled a few weeks after driving, a
large mass of soil may stick to the pile and come up with it. The relative strength
values at points explain this; for a nonuniform condition, the failure surface
would not pass through od where the circumference is minimum, nor through Im
where the strength is minimum, but would take place nearer to the radius where
B in this region. If the pile is smooth, the
the surface may
the product of strength and circumference is a minimum, perhaps at point
(Taylor, 1948).
The point resistance is generally large during driving because it equals the
force required to cause all the remolding described above. Also, the soil that may
k
.5
1
Figure 1.4
10
100
Time, hours
BurtonQuay
lo00
9, ‘9
Increase of load capacity with time (after Soderberg 1962).
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ACTION OF SOILS AROUND A DRIVEN PILE
7
have a high undisturbed strength has to be pushed out of the way. It cannot be compressed, because saturated soils are incompressible under quick loading conditions (e.g., as during pile driving). Moreover, there is no convenient place for
the soil to go. Therefore, a column of soil, extending all the way to ground surface,
must be heaved up to allow the pile to penetrate the soil below its tip. Practically
all the resistance in many clays is point resistance during pile driving. De Mello
(1969) suggested that immediately after driving, the amount of remolding
100 percent at the pilesoil interface to virtually zero at
about 1.5 to 2.0 diameters from the pile surface. Orrje and Broms (1967) showed
in a sensitive clay, the undrained strength had almost
returned to its original value after nine months.
In addition to the dissipation of excess pore pressure, the rate of increase of soil
strength after pile driving also takes place due to thixotropy in soils. Soderberg
(1962) showed that the increase in ultimate load capacity of a pile (and hence,
shear strength of the soil) was very similar in character to the rate ofdissipation of
excess pore pressure
that for concrete piles
decreased from about
with time (Figure 1.4).
Pore Pressures Developed during Driving
A number of measurements of the excess pore pressure developed in a soil
because of pile driving have shown that the excess pore pressures at the pile face
may become equal to
or even greater than the effective overburden pressure.
2 F+
Au
V
1.5 
“b
0.5
d
0
\
I
I
I
I
t
\o
\/
\
\
J
I
\
‘4,
I
I
I
Average curve for sensitive
marine clay
Average curve for clays of
owmedium sensitivity
A
h
+I
X
I
+n



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8
INTRODUCTION
(Lambe and Horn 1965, Orrje and Broms 1967, Poulos and Davis 1979, DAppolonia and Lambe 1971).
In the vicinity of the pile, very high excess pore pressures are developed, in
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