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Cluster analysis techniques ( SPSS commands)

1. K-means clustering technique ( non-hierarchical technique)

Here seeds are created means categories or clusters are created and then cases or
respondents are put in those clusters

Analyze → classify →k-means cluster (assign no. of clusters say w2 or3 or more) →
on right side of click label cases by id (or leave blank) →transfer scale variables ( they
are criteria for clusters)to right side→ click iterate (Max iterations 10) →click save
(highlight both if needed) →continue →click options (high light ANOVE if needed,
highlight cluster information for each case (this tells which respondent, which firm or
which person clustered in which cluster) → continue →ok.

Cluster can be seen in variable view also .analyse → descriptive statistics →


frequency → transfer the new variable cluster number to right side → ok.

2. Hierarchical cluster analysis

Here, algorithm creates number of clusters initially is equal to numbers of cases or


respondents then after it goes on grouping them together on the basis of similarity

Analyze → classify → hierarchical cluster → on right side of click label cases by id (or
leave blank) on right side of click label cases by id (or leave blank) →transfer scale
variables ( they are criteria for clusters)to right side→ click statistics →highlight
Agglomeration schedule → continue → plots →click dendrogram →continue → click
method → click between-groups linkage or ward’s method → under interval click
Squared Euclidian distance or Euclidian distance → under transform value click z
scores or -1 to 1 or 0 to 1 → continue → click save → under cluster membership click
single solution under which click cluster nos. ( this is the beauty of hierarchical
technique) generally 2 or 3 or specify the range over there. →continue→ok.

Clusters created in main sheet ( ward method).Analyze → descriptive statistics →


frequency → transfer the new variable ward method to right side → ok.

3. Two-step clustering techineque ( very interesting technique)

It uses both categorical and non-categorical variables to classify our data

Analyze → classify →two-step cluster analysis ( you can put both categorical
variables and continuous variables separately) → transfer scale variables ( they are
criteria for clusters)to right side→ under determine specify the max no. of clusters
transfer scale variables ( they are criteria for clusters)to right side→ click options (
may be no change) →continue →click on output ( if I want to see how clusters differ
acroos one variable then highlight that variable and transfer it to evaluation field
(right side) → create cluster membership variable → continue → ok

Input indicate no. of variables used and tells about no. of clusters and also quality of
clusters.
1.For further information, double click on output chart → on right hand side cluster
sizes (tells about percentage objects in clusters)
2.For further analyse click on predictor importance under cluster sizes. This tells
about which predictors are more important criteria in creating these clusters.
3.For further analysis, go to left hand side, click model summary→ chose cluster (
this become interesting) this tells the clusters and mean values of parameters
(variables ) chosen. Click on display →highlight evaluation fields → which indicates
the important parameter for clustering (if we want to see further difference in value
corresponding to parameter highlighted,) → click ok → this gives new chart and we
can see that most frequently occurring category in clusters)

Note:category means response 1 to 5 given by respondent on some attribute orf


variable
We can explore many more