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SNOXTM

– the clean way to turn high-sulphur residues into power and steam

ARTC 2011, Singapore

Presentation - main contents


 Refinery overview and introduction to the SNOX
technology

 The SNOX process

 Comparison: SNOX vs. limestone scrubbing

 Case story from PETROBRAS

 Summary of Topsøe SNOX technology

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Refinery overview

H2S

Visbreaker

Refinery overview

H2S

Power / Steam
CLAUS Units
Sulphuric Acid
Visbreaker or
Delayed Coker Heavy Residues (Tar/Coke)

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Sulphur challenges
 More sulphur in  less sulphur out..?

 Producing petcoke or other HS residues


is one way to address the sulphur issue

 Cement kilns or marine market are


possible off-takers - but with potential
risks / higher cost for cutter stocks

IMO regulations for Sulphur in HFO

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SNOX – the future solution
 Replace expensive fuels in steam boiler plant with
heavy residues  Excessive amounts of SO2 and NOx
in the flue gas

 SNOXTM reduces NOx and converts SO2 into


commercial-grade sulphuric acid

 Compliance with current and future environmental


standards

 No consumption of chemicals or other additives

 No waste products

 Increases power plant thermal efficiency by additional


energy recovery

Conceptual intro High SO


Clean gas2, dust & NOx
of SNOX™

Valuable products $

H2S, SWS or other SNOX H2SO4


waste streams?

Petcoke or Power or boiler Steam


visbreaker residue plant Power

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SO2 < 200 mg/Nm3
SNOXTM – 100°C
NOx < 75 mg/Nm3
Dust < 2 mg/Nm3

flow diagram Reaction:

Reaction: Clean flue gas SO3 + H2O → H2SO4 (g)


to stack
H2SO4 (g) → H2SO4 (liq) Reaction:
SO2 + 0.5 O2 → SO3
Cooling air
blower SO2
Condenser converter
Cooling air
Steam turbine/
Hot combustion air
generator
~
Heat exchanger
Steam to
process plants
Sulphuric
Acid 95%
ESP Ammonia
Heater
Flue
gas

Flue gas SWS & ARU


blower gases

High- Boiler Ashes


Reaction: SCR reactor/
Sulphur DeNOx
Residues NO + NH3 + 0.25 O2 →
N2 + 1.5 H2O

The benefit of treating refinery waste gases


(H2S and SWS) in SNOX plant

 Smaller or no Claus plant required

 No problems with high content of NH3 in SWS gas

 No problems with fluctuating hydrocarbons content in SWS gas

 Direct utilization of heat from H2S gas and SWS gas for HP steam
generation

 Better fuel economy in boiler

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SNOXTM vs. Limestone scrubbing
STEAM and PREHEATED
COMBUSTION AIR CLEANED GAS

+$
FLUE GAS
SNOXTM SULPHURIC ACID

+$

LIMESTONE CLEANED GAS

–$ Limestone LIQUID and


FLUE GAS scrubber SOLID WASTE

–$

Cost of flue gas desulphurisation


€/kWh
TOTAL COST (CAPEX + OPEX) OF
FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION

Normal coal Heavy Residue Petcoke

Limestone
scrubber

Topsøe SNOXTM

SULPHUR IN FUEL %

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SNOX vs. wet FGD
(800 MW - 7% sulphur in the petcoke)
Conventional wet
SNOX
FGD process
SO2 removal efficiency 95-98% > 98%
CaCO3 consumption 340,000 t/year 0
CaSOx disposal 588,000 t/year 0
Water consumption 2,100,000 m3/year 0
Waste water 504,000 m3/year 0
Net plant electrical efficiency 38% 40.7%
Coke consumption 2,545,200 t/year 2,377,200 t/hr
Sulphuric acid 0 350,000 t/year

CO2 emission 0.963 kg/kWh 0.862 kg/kWh

Reduction in CO2 emission


 4 - 5% reduction from saving in fuel consumption

and

 3 - 5% compared to conventional FGD


(CaCO3 + SO2 + ½O2 →
CaSO4 + CO2)

 Total reduction in CO2 emission: 7-10%

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Case story – Petrobras Brazil
 Petrobras Pernambuco Refinery

 Grassroot project  start-up in 2013

 230,000 barrels/day (Marlim crude)

 Burning petcoke in boilers for power and steam


production

Alternative flue gas cleaning solutions


studied by PETROBRAS
 SOx abatement with limestone
- Large gypsum production, high cost of limestone
- Storage facilities required, difficult handling
- Additional CO2 emission

 SOx abatement with solvents


- Bad mix ratio between SO2 and H2S, require Claus
- Large consumption of water and steam

 SOx abatement with NH3


- No relevant references
- Large scale storage and transport required

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Why PETROBRAS chose the SNOXTM
technology
 Avoid limestone and gypsum in the refinery
- Infrastructure, storage
- Avoid dust and CO2 emission

 Limited water consumption

 Handling of other sulphur waste streams


- H2S and SWS gas
- Claus tail gas

 Energy efficiency
- Recycle of hot, preheated air to the boilers
- Production of medium pressure steam

Petrobras RNEST SNOX configuration


Superheated
HP steam Stack
Combustion air

Petcoke
Boilers Flue gas
Heavy fuel oil SNOX
(3)
(2)

Steam Power Sulphuric acid


SWS gas (4 units)

Tail
H2S gas (4 units) Claus gas
(2)

Elemental sulphur

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Petrobras RNEST SNOXTM – birds view
Stack
SO2 converter SCR reactor

Gas/gas heat
WSA condensers
exchanger

Flue gas
blowers

Cooling air
ESP’s blowers

Hot air return

Flue gas inlet

Other SNOX references


 NEFO, Aalborg, Denmark (1991)
Coal-fired 300 MW power plant

 Ohio Edison, Niles, Ohio, USA (1991)


Coal-fired 35 MW demonstration project

 Raffineria di Gela, Sicily, Italy (1999)


Petcoke-fired 300 MW steam and power plant

 OMV Refinery, Schwechat, Austria (2007)


Residual oil-fired steam and power plant
SNOXTM also treats Claus tail gas

 Petrobras RNEST Refinery, Brazil (2013)


Residual oil/petcoke fired steam and power plant.
2 SNOXTM plants also treat Claus tail gas, H2S gas, SWS gas
and other sulphur-containing waste streams

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References on SNOX
 AGIP, Gela Refinery
– No. of boilers: 4 (total 1,200 MWth)
– Fuel: Petcoke (88%)
– Total gas flow: 1,200,000 Nm3/h
– H2SO4 (95%): 384 mtpd
– Commissioned: 1999

References on SNOX
 OMV Refinery, Austria
– Boiler: 180 MWe + 1,000 t/h steam
– Fuel: Liquid HS residues + Claus tail gas
– Total gas flow: 820,000 Nm3/h
– H2SO4 (93%): 225 mtpd
– Commissioned: 2007

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Summary for SNOX
 No consumption of absorbents and water

 No production of waste solids and liquids

 Valuable sulphuric acid product – used in fertilizer production

 Increases boiler net efficiency by 2-3%

 Significant reduction in CO2 footprint

 Potential treatment of other sulphur streams

Benefits that count!

 Cheap & reliable power/steam


 No consumption of expensive fuels
 No transport/disposal issue of coke
 Saving of SRU & SCOT
 ~10% reduction in CO2 footprint

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Thank you for your attention

Anne Mette Sørensen, Technology Sales Manager

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