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Geographic information systems (GIS) or geospatial

information systems is a set of tools that captures, stores,

analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to
location(s). In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of
cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. GIS
systems are used in cartography, remote sensing, land
surveying, public utility management, natural resource
management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry,
geography, urban planning the fallowing are components of gis

Computer Software Modules: It includes the programs and

an interface, which can be used for driving the hardware. The
GIS software module is a very important component as it is
responsible for generating, storing, analyzing, manipulating and
displaying the data or geographical information. User
friendliness, compatibilities, documentation and cost
effectiveness are the qualities of a good software module. The
producers and the main products of GIS Software are the

Computer Hardware Module: The computer or Central

Processing Unit is the general hardware component of the GIS.
It is attached to a disk drive storage unit, used for storing data
and program. Other devices like digitizer, scanner are used for
converting the data, which is available in the form of maps and
documents, into digital form and send them to computer. Along
with it a kind of display device or a plotter is used which
presents the result of the data processing. And a tape device is
used to store data or program on magnetic tape.

Data: It is the most important component of the system. It can

be purchased from a commercial data provider or collected in
house or compiled to custom specification. The key functionality
of GIS is integration of spatial and tabular data stored in

People: GIS technology is useless without people power. GIS

has wide range of users from specialists who design it to the end
users. The identification of specialist's vs. end users, known as
'brain ware', is important for proper implementation of GIS

Method: The right method is a key for successful operation of

GIS technology. The well-designed implementation plan and
business rules are unique to each organization.

Generally GIS is considered to be expensive and difficult but

with the advent of new technology like graphical user interface,
powerful and affordable hardware and software it is gaining
grounds and is slowly getting included in mainstream use.

Raster data representation

A raster data type is, in essence, any type of digital image

represented by reducible and enlargeable grids. Anyone who is
familiar with digital photography will recognize the Raster
graphics pixel as the smallest individual grid unit building block
of an image, usually not readily identified as an artifact shape
until an image is produced on a very large scale. A combination
of the pixels making up an image color formation scheme will
compose details of an image, as is distinct from the commonly
used points, lines, and polygon area location symbols of scalable
vector graphics as the basis of the vector model of area attribute
rendering. While a digital image is concerned with its output
blending together its grid based details as an identifiable
representation of reality, in a photograph or art image
transferred into a computer, the raster data type will reflect a
digitized abstraction of reality dealt with by grid populating
tones or objects, quantities, cojoined or open boundaries, and
map relief schemas. Aerial photos are one commonly used form
of raster data, with one primary purpose in mind: to display a
detailed image on a map area, or for the purposes of rendering
its identifiable objects by digitization. Additional raster data sets
used by a GIS will contain information regarding elevation, a
digital elevation model, or reflectance of a particular wavelength
of light, Landsat, or other electromagnetic spectrum indicators.

Raster data type consists of rows and columns of cells, with each
cell storing a single value. Raster data can be images with each
pixel containing a color value. Additional values recorded for
each cell may be a discrete value, such as land use, a continuous
value, such as temperature, or a null value if no data is
available. While a raster cell stores a single value, it can be
extended by using raster bands to represent RGB (red, green,
blue) colors, colour maps (a mapping between a thematic code
and RGB value), or an extended attribute table with one row for
each unique cell value. The resolution of the raster data set is its
cell width in ground units,Raster data is stored in various
formats; from a standard file-based structure of TIF, JPEG, etc.