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Cellular Network Generation: A Survey

Desti Mina Rahayu1, Kuncoro Triandono Mukti2, Muhammad Faris Ruriawan3

Computer Engineering Telkom University
St. Telekomunikasi No. 01, Terusan Buah Batu, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40257 Indonesia

Abstrak— Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membahas perkembangan teknologi jaringan seluler mulai dari generasi 0
hingga yang sedang dibicarakan sekarang yaitu 5G atau generasi 5. Dengan membandingkan standarisasi, teknologi,
kecepatan, teknologi pendukung tulisan ini diharapkan dapat menjadi panduan bagi masyarakat umum yang belum
terlalu memahami tebtabg perbedaan antara setiap generasi.
Kata kunci— Jaringan Selular, Generasi 4 (4G), Generasi 5(5G) dan Komparatif.

Abstract— This paper aims to discuss the development of cellular network technology from generation 0 to 5G or fifth
generation. By comparing the standardization, technology, speed and supporting technology of this paper is expected to
be a guide for the general public who have not really understood the difference between every generation.
Keywords— Cellular network, FOURTH Generation, FIFTH Generation and Comparative.

I. INTRODUCTION currently has entered an era where 4G LTE broadband

network "first stage" in Indonesia have been applied in the
Now, it can not be avoided if the development of cellular 900 MHz frequency bands at the end of the year 2014 and
technology greatly affects the consumer's need for the will be continued in the "second stage" at 1800 frequency
availability and completeness of the telecommunication bands MHz in the first quarter of the year 2015 based on
device features. In the past, just chatting and sending short information from the Minister of communications and
messages was enough. These days, all demands the Informatics, Rudiantara. Although telecommunications
existence of data communications, images and video to technology is evolving very rapidly, there is still a challenge
form multimedia communication. Multimedia to increase the demand for the following data access speed
communication is a must and this is possible because of the with reliability of service where any 4G technology can not
convergence of some services such as voice, data, images meet and this has stimulated the presence research on the
and video [1]. latest technology to meet those needs. Some countries have
The development of 2nd generation (2G) cellular started examining the possibility of the application of
technology based on Time Division Multiple Access technology by forming a consortium of 5G or working
(TDMA) such as Global System for Mobile Communication project such as METIS, 5GNOW, and others which the
(GSM), 2.5 generation (2.5G) based such as Global System working project is a combination of several vendors of
for Mobile Communication / general packet radio service telecommunications along with academics and regulators
(GSM / GPRS) and 3G based division multiple access 2000 who were trying to find technology that can meet the
(CDMA 2000) and WCDMA, has created a communication requirements as a 5th generation technology [2].
system that is not only for voice communication but also for
data, text, images and video. The successful implementation II. RELATED RESEARCH
of 2G and 2.5G mobile communications technologies
encourages the development of future cellular technologies Before we start to describe about various cellular network
that have better capacity, speed and quality as well as more there are some conclusion from related research has been
efficient bandwidth width. The development of multimedia done.
today is increasing quite rapidly. Multimedia applications 1. A Comparative Study on 4G and 5G Technology for
that initially only computer network has grown to be applied Wireless Applications [4]: Conclusion from this paper
to wireless networks. If initially the computer network is is to address 5G applications, there are many
still using the cable, now is changed to wireless technology, developments to be considered above the introductory
such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) is able to build a computer model. In order to handle higher data rates, the
network without cables even though the distance is limited operating frequency has to be increased to a millimeter
and the bit rate is low. Low speed on Wi-Fi has been range from which we can achieve a wider bandwidth.
improved on Wi-Max which have a wide bandwidth with a This will result in higher path loss between
broad reach than with WLAN. Technology transmitters and receivers, so antennas need to provide
Telecommunications experience convergence with existing higher gain to reach a longer distance.
computer network, where 3G technology wireless computer 2. A Comparative Study of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G [5]: From
networks appear to exist [3]. this paper we know first generation (1G) has fulfilled
4G technologies are expected to meet the needs of the basic mobile voice using analog techniques, while
wireless application access like MMS, video chat, mobile the second generation (2G) has introduced capacity
TV, High Definition TV (HD TV), as well as the Digital and coverage using digital techniques. This is followed
Video Broadcasting (DVB), as well as service standards of a by the third generation (3G), which has quest for data
more clear and obvious at the same moment (real time at higher speeds to open the gates for truly “mobile
system). Development of cellular technology in Indonesia broadband” experience, which will be further realized
by the fourth generation (4G). 4G will provide better- networks also have a greater data transfer rates than
than-TV quality images and video-links. The 3G networks.
communications model has new developed versions of 7. Comparisons in all generations 1g, 2g, 3g, 4g ,4.5G
HTML, Java, GIF, HTTP, and many more. New [10]: As mentioned in this paper, the last decade stood
standards will need to be developed for use in 4G. The witness to an astounding growth in the network
5G technologies include all type of advanced features communication industry. Attempts have been made to
which makes 5G technology most powerful and in reduce a number of technologies to a single global
huge demand in near future. standard or The ever-increasing demands of users
3. 0G to 5G Mobile Technology: A Survey [6]: This triggered research and led to development of various
paper studied about the different wireless technologies generations of technologies, which recently lead to a
and generation bands of 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G. The comprehensive manifestation of upcoming 4.5G
paper shows how the evolution of wireless system(LTE-Advanced). As the history of mobile
technologies occurred and how they came into communications shows, attempts have been made to
existence. Advanced Wireless technologies have reduce numerous technologies to a single global
proved to be of great boon to the telecommunication standard. 1G had fulfilled the need for a basic mobile
sector in developing it. With latest research and voice, the 2G had introduced capacity and coverage,
advances, the purpose of the user has been served followed by 3G, which had a quest for data at higher
more rather than the operator making it more reliable speeds to open the gates for truly a mobile broadband
for the user. As a result, the user centric networks are experience, which was further realized by the 4G.
given more priority nowadays giving the provided 8. Transformation of Mobile Communication Network
services which the user may not have experienced from 1G to 4G and 5G [11]: The wireless organization
before. is busy with standardization of the 4G cellular
4. An overview on 5G technologies [7]: Conclusion from network. This paper concentrates on innovation of
this paper is the development of the mobile and word wide wireless web (www) 5G. 5G technology is
wireless networks is going towards higher data rates going to be another development in mobile market .5G
and all IP principle. Mobile terminals are obtaining technology has a great future as it can deal with best
each year more processing power, more memory on innovation and offer pries handset to their client. As
board, and longer battery life for the same information activity has great development potential,
applications. 5g include latest technologies such as under 4G existing voice driven telecom pecking orders
cognitive radio, SDR, nanotechnology, cloud will be moving flat IP design where, base stations will
computing and based on All IP Platform. It is expected be specifically associated with media portals. 5G will
that the initial Internet philosophy of keeping the forward the idea of Super Core, where all the system
network simple as possible, and giving more networks will be associated with one single center and
functionalities to the end nodes, will become reality in have one single infrastructure, paying little attention to
the future generation of mobile networks, here referred their get to advancements. 5G will bring assessment of
to as 5G. dynamic infra sharing and overseen administration,
5. 4G and 5G Mobile Communication Networks: and in the long run all current system administrators
Features Analysis, Comparison and Proposed will be MVNOs (Mobile virtual network operators).
Architecture [8]: In this survey paper discussed the 9. A Comparative Study of Mobile Wireless
technology evolution trends seen from 1G to 4G Communication Network: 1G to 5G [12]: Conclusion
mobile communication. We go through the needs for is by Increasing demand of people or users encourages
the 5G technology expected in 2020 and stated the the industries and the researchers to develop new
details gathered from several ongoing studies in this technology and the result is mobile communication
area referring to architecture, requirements, etc. A industry reaches to 5G (fifth generation). Fifth
detailed functionality based architecture and generation communication allow users to
prospective features of the 5G technology are communicate at very high speed with higher
mentioned. We also did comparison between 4G and bandwidth and high data rate.
5G networks in terms of radio access technologies, 10. A Review on mobile technologies: 3G, 4G and 5G
core network architecture, and prospect services. The [13]: This research describes a detailed review of 3G,
proposed architecture can provide internet to 4G and 5G wireless standards. Wireless network
everyone, anytime, anywhere at a very high network provides efficiency, scalability, and reliable services.
data rate of up to 1Gbps. This paper vastly discussed the key features,
6. Comparative Study of 3G and 4GLTE Network [9]: In applications, and challenges of the mobile generations.
this paper they provide a high level overview from 1G The 3G, 4G and 5G consist of every form of advanced
to 4GLTE network and some factors responsible for characteristics which makes mobile technology as
migration from each network to another. We discuss more powerful; especially 5G have a huge demand in
the advantages of 4GLTE network over 3G network. close to upcoming era.
The speed, in particular, the downlink and uplink,
latency and the data transmission rates were analyzed III. CELLULAR NETWORK GENERATION
to show the superiority of 4GLTE to 3G networks.
Based on these proved features, 4GLTE network A. Zero Generation (0G)
offers a highly competitive performance and it Wireless telephones started with what you might call 0G.
provides a good platform for further evolution. The 0G refers to pre-cell phone mobile technology. Such as
downlink speed in 4GLTE is higher than 3G, and the radio telephones that some had in cars before the advent of
uplink data in 4GLTE is better off in 4GLTE and these cell phones. Mobile radio telephone systems preceded
cellular mobile telephony technology. Since their arrival C-Netz Austria and German
was before the First generation of technology, these systems Mobitex Europe (Swedia) and North America
are called Zero generation of mobile technology. In 0G,
United State of America (by ARDIS)
different technologies used include PTT (push to talk), MTS DataTAC and Australia (by Telecom
(Mobile telephone system), IMTS (Improved Mobile Australia/Telstra)
telephone system), AMTS (Advanced Mobile telephone CDPD (Cellular Digital
United States of America
system), OLT (Norwegian for offending landmobil Telefoni Packet Data)
public land mobile Telephony) and MTD (Swedish
abbreviation for Mobilelefoni system D) [6]. Some C. Second Generation (2G)
technologies are classified into the zero generation, shown The second generation of telecommunication system
in table 1. move-based to digital signals. System on this generation
TABLE 1. TECHNOLOGY OF 0G still focuses upon the transmission of sound, with the excess
Push to Talk (PTT) on the facility short message services (SMS). Bandwidth
used on this generation between 20-200 kHz. In this
Mobile Telephone System (MTS)
generation, some research related value added services have
Improved Mobile Telephone System (IMTS) been started. This generation using time-based multiplexing
Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS) technology, i.e. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
technology and multiplexing-based code, i.e. Code Division
B. First Generation (1G) Multiple Access (CDMA). On the second generation of this
The first generation mobile communication system was technology, Global System for Mobile Communication
introduced in the beginning of 1980 and using the analog (GSM).
transmission for speech services. In 1979, the first cellular Key features and facilities of 2G
system in the world became operational by Nippon • Enhanced Spectrum proficiency.
Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) in Tokyo, Japan. Two • Provides data rate of 64kbps.
years later, the cellular epoch reached Europe. The two most • Improved framework limit, and network coverage.
popular analogue systems were Nordic Mobile Telephones • Roaming benefits.
(NMT) and Total Access Communication Systems • Voice and data service.
(TACS)[1]. Using the frequency modulation technique for • Enhanced security.
radio transmission using frequency division multiple access Basic disadventages of 2G
(FDMA) with channel capacity of 30 KHz and frequency • It doesn't bolster high information rates.
band was 824-894 MHz [6], which was based on a
• Weaker computerized signal.
technology known as Advance Mobile Phone Service
• Unable to deal with comp
(AMPS) [12].
Key features and facilities of 1G TABLE 3. TECHNOLOGY OF 2G IN EACH COUNTRY [14]
• Based on analog system.
• It gives data speed of up to 2kbps. Based on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
• Cordless phone. AMPS (IS-54) / D-
Basic disadventages of 1G United States of America and Canada
AMPS (IS-136)
• Only voice, no data communication. GSM Europe and Asia
• Low capacity. PDC (Personal Digital
• Negative handoff. Cellular)
• Less secure. PHS (Personal Handy RRC, Japan, Taiwan and some country on
System) Asia
• Poor voice link.
CSD United States of America
HSCSD (High Speed
Circuit Switched Data)
United States of America, Canada,
AMPS (IS-136) (Advanced iDEN (Integrated Argentina. Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia,
United States of America
Mobile Phone Service) Digital Enhanced El Salvador, Ekuador, Gaum, Israel, Japan,
NMT (Nordic Mobile Network) Jordan, South Korea, Mexico, Philippina,
All country in Skandavia
Telephony) Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Singapore.
HICAP Japan Based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
TACS (Total Access England, Italia, Spainish, Austria, CDMAone or Interim USA, South Korea, Canda, Mexico, Hindi,
Communications System) Ireland, Japan, some of Europe Standard 95 (IS-95) Israel, Australia, Srilangka, Venezuela,
C 450 West German, Portugal, South Africa CDMA or TIAEIA-95 Brazil, and RRC


1G 2G
It existed in 1980s. It came in 1990.
It works on analog signals. It works on digital signals.
1G cell phones are used for voice calls. It is essentially utilized for mobile Communication.
Band width per frequency channel of 1G is up to 30Khz. Band width per frequency channel of 2G is up to 200Khz
D. Third Generation (3G) variety of perspective, such as personal life, work,
3G launched in Japan on October 2001 by NTT DoCoMo [13], health, entertainment, identify the location of the
with a transmission speed of 144 kbps-2 Mbps. Third object, discovering nearest bank machine, vehicle
generation implemented on multimedia cell phone or better tracking services, parcel tracking, friend or
known as smart phones, with facilities such as video call, employee.
Voice over IP (VoIP), Mobile TV, Online Gaming. The 4) Mobile TV (MTV): Television was watched
essential factor of this technology is to merge the wireless through a mobile device and hand-held device with
principles like Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), 3G speed.
Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) and CDMA. 5) Video conferencing (VC): Video conference was
Three interface modes are W-CDMA, CDMA2000 and Wi-Max,
allowed in multiple locations to communicate
compatible easy with previous network standards [13].
instantly with 3G speed.
Key features and facilities of 3G
Application of 3G: 3G has supported real time application
services to the smart phone users with high speed access. Some of • Faster data rates.
the application are [13]: • Supports multimedia applications such as video
1) Video on Demand (VOD): Video on Demand has and photography.
provided a scalable service to the 3G subscribers • Value added services like mobile television, GPS
than 2G. VOD has offered the service to the users (global positioning system), video call and video
based on the availability of a network. It has conferencing.
provided the services through a satellite network • Fast mobile internet access.
over a wide geographic area. • Increased capacity.
2) Global Positioning System (GPS): GPS has Basic disadvantages of 3G
provided the exact location and on time • Needs 3G compatible handsets.
information in geographical areas, based on • The cost of upgrading to 3G devices is high.
satellite navigation system. • Power utilization is high.
3) Location-Based Services (LBS): It considered the • 3G requires closer base stations which is costly.
same as a general class of computer program-level
services in 3G network. LBS has make use of in a


2G 3G
It came in 1990 It came in 2000
It is successor to 1G 3G is successor to 2G
It depends on digital signals It depends on high capacity broadband data
Band width per frequency channel of 2G is up to 200Khz Band width per frequency channel is up to 20Mh

E. Fourth Generation (4G) phones are guiding the mobile owners in right way, 4G has
4G launched on 2010 by Telia sonera from Finland. It is a facility of network interoperability, and it makes available
providing a better solution than 2G and 3G. Third personalized multimedia communication tools and services.
generation project partnership (3GPP) was standardised as Key features and facilities of 4G
LTE-Advanced and other standard shown in table 4. The • High spectral efficiency.
main difference between 3G and 4G are access • High voice quality.
methodology, data transfer rate, transmission terminology • Easily get to web, streaming media, video
and security. “Anytime”, “Anywhere” mobile user can conferencing.
access the multimedia data like videos and voice calls with • Very low inactivity.
securely [5]. The user can access the Internet and send e- • Simple protocol architecture.
mails by using HSPA (high-speed packet access). It can • Efficient multicast/communicate
enable for notebooks and replace their fixed Digital Basic disadvantages of 4G
subscriber line (DSL) modems with HSPA modems. 4G
• Higher data costs for users.
IMT-advanced wireless systems consist of LTE-Advanced,
• It is very costly and difficult to execute.
3GPP and mobile Wi-Max. LTE–A and IEEE family
• Complex hardware.
standards increase data rates and enhance system spectral
efficiency in addition to supports compatibility with their • Power consumption more.
respective earlier release [13].
Application of 4G: 4G gives more integrity through OFDM
with Wi-Max, it can be delivered up to 70 mbps over a
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
wireless technology, and indoor user can be reach up to
1Gbps. 4G has a facility to transfers data like audio, video Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)
and pictures during voice call. Based on environmental Mobile Wimax II (IEEE 802.16m)
factors, it has changed the time and other settings. Mobile

3G 4G
It came in 2000 It came in 2010-2015
It is known as tri band 3G 4G is the fourth generation mobile communication
Speeds for 4G are further increased to keep up with data
The maximum data transfer speed is up to 3.1 mbps
access demand used by different services
4G provide high definition streaming and some additional
It provides digital navigation and access to video qualities such as multimedia Newspaper and ultra-broadband
internet access which were not absent in 3G.

F. Fifth Generation (5G) fifth generation, accompanied with alternative

This technology still under the auspices of 4G technology solutions to the challenges faced.
because the fifth generation (5 g) is still in the research • Analysis of the condition of the infrastructure and
phase, is expected to be implemented starting in 2020. the readiness of the industry today in the
Various Telecommunications industries in the world has implementation of the fifth generation of the
started a number of preparations to welcome the era of 5 g. supporting technology.
In order not to be left behind from other countries, • An analysis of the various related regulations, in
Indonesia, which is currently a new era technology fourth support of the implementation of the fifth-
generation (4G), the need to do an analysis of the readiness generation technology.
of technology and infrastructure, as well as regulations to Key features and facilities of 5G
prepare for entry of the era of the fifth generation (5G) [15]. • Fast, high power and minimal cost per bit. It
Some of the technologies that are included in the criteria Support intuitive interactive media, voice,
to be applied to the technology of the fifth generation (5G) streaming video, Web, and other broadband
[15]: administrations, greater compelling and more
• Masive MIMO alluring, Bidirectional, exact measurements [2].
• Milimeter Wace Small Cell Network • Presentation of another radio framework is
• Device to Device (D2D) conceivable in which diverse radio innovations will
• Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA) circulate the same range. This should be possible
• Software Define Network (SDN) by finding unused range and afterward adjusting to
• Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) the innovation of the radio innovation with which
• Visible Light Comunication (VLC) the range is being shared [2].
• It is giving large broadcasting capacity up to
Various technologies have been available with the Gigabit which supporting very nearly65,000
advantage and the disadvantage masingmasing. To be able connections at a time. [6]
to support the fifth generation technologies, advanced • 5G technology gives Global access and service
development needs to be done to improve the existing portability [6].
technology. On the writings of [15] have discussed about • Each portable in a 5G system will have an IP
the development potential of the technology and get address (IPV6) as indicated by the area and system
conclusions as follows: being utilized.
• comparison and performance analysis of each • The innovation is probably going to bolster virtual
technology which can potentially support the private systems and propelled charging interfaces.
telecommunications needs of the future. • The movement insights by 5G innovation makes it
• An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of more precise and it likewise bolster virtual private
each technology which can potentially support the system.


4G 5G
It came in 2010-2015 5G will come completely in 2020
4G is the fourth generation of mobile communication 5G is the revolution in 4GCell phone communication
technology. technology
Speeds for 4G are further increased to keep up with data 5G will provide very high speed as well as good use of
access demand used by various services available band width to the client
4G provide high definition streaming and some more eatures 5G includes hugephone memory, dialing speed, and many
such as multimedia Newspaper and ultra-broadband internet more and also we can connect our 5G cell phones with laptop
access which were not present in 3G to get broadband internet access

0G 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
Introduced 1970s 1980s 1993 2001 2009 Probably 2020
Location of
unknown USA Finland Japan South Korea Unknown
Technology IS-95, GSM LTE, WiMAX 4G+WWWW

MTD, IMTS, IMT-2000, Single unified
MTS, AMTS, GSM, GPRS, Single unified
Standards AMTS, OLT, HSPDA, Standard
IMTS EDGE Standard
Autoradiopuhel HSUPA WiMax, LTE
in, B-Netz,
Altai, AMR
Address/Acces Unknown FDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
s system
switching for Packet
Circuit Voice and switching
Switching type Unknown All Packet All Packet
switching Packet except for Air
switching for Interface
Speed (data 2.4 Kbps to
Unknown 14.4 Kbps 3.1 Mbps 100 Mbps < 1 GBps
rates) 14.4 kbps
Digital version
Special Phone First wireless broadband, Very high
of 1G Unknown
Characteristic communication communication speed speeds, All IP
Multiple users Multimedia High Speed,
Features Voice only Voice only on single features, Video real time
channel Call streaming
Devices with
AI Capabilities
Supports Voice only Voice only Voice and Data Voice and Data Voice and Data Voice and Data
Internet Ultra
No Internet No Internet Narrowband Broadband Unknown
service Broadband
Bandwidth Analog 25 MHz 25 MHz 100 MHz Unknown
Operating 850 MHz, 1800
2 MHz 800 MHz 1800MHz 2100 MHz Unknown
frequencies MHz
Ultra Wide
(Frequency) Unknown Narrow band Narrow band Wide band Unknown
Unknown 30 KHZ 200 KHz 5 MHz 15 MHz Unknown
Speed, High
Simpler (less speed handoffs,
features (SMS, High security,
complex) MIMO
Advantage Simple MMS), Internet international Unknown
network technology,
access and SIM roaming
elements Global
Limited Limited High power Hard to
capacity, not capacity, not Low network consumption, implement,
Disadvantages secure, poor secure, poor range, slow Low network complicated Unknown
battery life, battery life, data rates coverage, High hardware
large phone large phone cost of required
size, size, spectrum
background background licence
interference interference
Voice calls, High speed Ultra High
Short applications, definition
Applications Unknown Voice Calls messages, mobile TV, video + Virtual
mobile TV,
browsing Wearable Reality
(partial) devices application
Flatter IP
Network & 5G
Core Network Unknown PSTN PSTN All IP Network Network
Interfacing (5g-
Horizontal and Horizontal and
Handoff Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal
Vertical Vertical

V. CONCLUSIONS of Computer Science and Information Technology Research ISSN

2348-120X (online) Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp: (430-433), Month: July -
September 2014.
Based on previous research and writing on this paper, [13] E. Ezhilarasan, M.Dinakaran, ”A Review on mobile technologies: 3G,
increasing a person's or kebetuhuan users to get a better 4G and 5G”, 2017 Second International Conference on Recent
communication service makes the researchers must continue Trends and Challenges in Computational Models.
to upgrade existing technology, with the 0G – 4G service in Generation)”, PAPER SISKOM, STT Telematika Telkom
its time we can say "enough", but if there are newer Purwokerto, 2015.
technology the users will always try that technology so it [15] Eddy Wijanto, 2017, “Analysis of Technology Readiness for the
make everybody feel never"enough". Implementation of Fifth Generation (5G) Telecomunication
Technology”, Jurnal Teknik dan Ilmu Komputer Vol. 06 No. 23, Jul
5G technology will make the world into a more modern – Sep 2017.
eras and different to now. Before that each State should
ensure all supporting devices already work well and this
technology can replace the 4G position as well without
misbehaving or not ready.


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