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| |volttayout 1 11/8/10 4:10 PM Pago 9t Creating Anglo-America, CHAPTERS | 1 660-1750 Opening with the crisis of King Philip's War, this chapter concentrates on the rea- sons behind colonial crises as well as the unifying experience of a uniquely Anglo- American understanding of liberty. The chapter begins with a description of the growth of the English commercial empire in North America through mercantiism, slavery, and the establishment of colonies in New York, Carolina, and William Penn’s Pennsylvania, whose “holy experiment” offered many liberties forall ofits residents. However, many inhabitants of these new colonies were indentured ser- vvants and non-English immigrants, who had varying views on the freedoms offered in the new lands; their opinions can be gleaned from two excerpts found in “Voices of Freedom.” The next section, which examines the origins of American slavery, discusses the sometimes ambiguous line between slavery and freedom in the seventeenth century. Another colonial crisis highlighted is Bacon’s Rebellion, which demonstrated many poor farmers’ frustration with Virginia’s privileged clite. The Glorious Revolution in England, which placed the Protestant William of (Orange and his wife Mary on the throne and gave England a constitutional monar- chy, threw the colonies into crisis once again, as American colonists began to demand that they be given certain liberties. The chapter also discusses population growth in colonial Ametica and touches on its religious and regional diversity. It concludes with a broad look at cighteenth-century colonial society, which was ‘becoming increasingly diverse, stratified, and consumer driven. CHAPTER OUTLINE 1. King Philip's War A. In 1675 King Philip and his forces attacked nearly forty-five New England towns. B. The settlers counterattacked in 1676, breaking the Indians’ power ‘once and for al 1 vol {Layout 1 11/8/10 4:10PM Page 92 92 | Chapter 3 UL, The Expansion of England’s Empire ‘A. The Mercantilist System 1. England attempted to regulate its economy to ensure wealth and national power. a. Commerce, not territorial plunder, was the foundation of the English empire. 2, The Navigation Acts required colonial products to be transported in English ships and sold at English ports. B. The Conquest of New Netherland 1. The restoration of the English monarchy came in 1660, and the government chartered new trading ventures such as the Royal ‘African Company. 2, Tn 1664, during an Anglo-Dutch war, New Netherland was surrendered by the Dutch without a fight in order to retain their holdings in Africa, Asia, and South America. C._ New York and the Rights of Englishmen and Englishwomen 1. The terms of Dutch surrender guaranteed some freedoms and liberties but reversed others, especially for blacks. 2. The Duke of York governed New York, and by 1700 nearly 2 million acres of land were owned by only five New York families. D. New York and the Indians 1, The English briefly held an alliance with the Five Nations known as the Covenant Chain, but by the end of the century the Five Nations adopted a policy of neutrality. E._The Charter of Liberties 1, Demanding liberties, the English of New York got an elected assembly, which drafted a Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1683. Fhe Founding of Carolina 1. Carolina was established as a batrier to Spenish expansion north of Florida. 2. Carolina was an offshoot of Barbados and, as such, a slave colony from the start; yet agriculture was not initially central to the economy. 3. From 1670 until 1720, Carolina engaged in a slave trade that sold captured local Indians to other mainland colonies and to the West Indies. 4, ‘The Fundamental Constitutions of Carotina envisioned a feudal society, but it was not established as such. ‘The colonial government did allow for religious toleration, an elected assembly, and a generous headright system. 5. The economy grew slowly until planters discovered rice, which ‘would make them the wealthiest elite in English North America, | [puesta 115/10 4:10 PM Page 33 G. iH. L ee Creating Anglo-America, 1660-1750 | 93 ‘The Holy Experiment 1. Pennsylvania was the last seventeenth-century colony to be established and was given to proprietor William Penn. 2. A Quaker, Penn envisioned a colony of peaceful harmony between colonists and Indians and a haven for spiritual freedom, Quaker Liberty 1. Quakers believed that liberty was a universal entitlement. a, Liberty extended to women, blacks, and Indians. 2. Religious freedom was a fundamental principle. a. Quakers upheld a strict moral code. Land in Pennsylvania 1, Penn established an assembly elected by male taxpayers and “freemen,” which meant that a majority of the male population could vote. 2. He owned all of the colony's land and sold it to setters at low prices rather than granting it outright. 3, Pennsylvania prospered under Penn's policies, Origins of American Slavery A Englishmen and Afticans 1. The spread of tobacco led setters to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants. 2. Inthe seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed. 3. Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices. Slavery in History 1. Although slavery has a long history, slavery in North America ‘was markedly different. 2. Slavery developed slowly in the New World because slaves were expensive and their death rate was high in the seventeenth century. Slavery in the West Indies 1. By 1600, huge sugar plantations worked by slaves from Avftica ‘were well-established in Brazil and in the West Indies. 2. Prior to 1600, Indians and white indentured servants had done the labor, but by 1600 disease had killed off the Indians and white indentured servants were no longer willing to do the backbreaking work required on sugar plantations. Slavery and the Law 1. The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would become later. a. Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court. . Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave but became a slave- ‘owning plantation owner.