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TITLE OF THE PROJECT

“A STUDY ON MENSTRUATION AWARENESS AND


SANITARY NAPKINS DISPOSAL IN INDIA”

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Menstrual Hygiene Management is a subject of ‘Silence’ and discussion of the subject amongst
girls or even among mother and daughter could be very confined. Menstruation is a totally
important body procedure among ladies which cannot be averted. It is a wonderful step into
womanhood for the adolescent women. Therefore it is vital for each one in all them to have
recognition about menstrual hygiene. But missing basic education and fitness understanding, it
will become hard for many women, mainly in rural villages and slum regions, to comprehend the
long time impact of poor menstrual hygiene and that they eventually turn out to be with
numerous fitness troubles consisting of infertility.

Sanitary waste disposal has become problem in India as the plastic used in disposable sanitary
napkins are not degradable and creates environmental risks. The effect is greater because of the
unorganized approaches of municipal strong waste management and terrible community
collection, disposal and transportation networks in the towns and villages. Further, one principal
issue of sanitary waste has usually been their categorization, i.e., whether it's miles biomedical or
plastic waste. Soiled napkins, diapers, condoms, tampons and blood-soaked cotton, that are
family waste according to the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016, are being disposed after
segregation into biodegradable and non-biodegradable components. However, the Bio Waste
Management Rules, 2016 imply that items infected with blood and frame fluids, including
cotton, dressings, dirty plaster casts, traces and bedding, are bio-scientific waste and should be
incinerated, autoclaved or microwaved to break pathogens.

Problem Statement:

 To study the menstrual awareness and Sanitary Napkins Disposal system in


India.

Research Objectives:

 To study the menstrual awareness and health care deed among women.
 To study the Napkin disposal method used by Indian women.

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Hypotheses sets
H0: Menstrual hygiene is not important.

H1: Menstrual hygiene is important.

H0: Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins properly.

H1: Indian women do dispose sanitary napkins properly.

Research Design:

The research design for this study is Exploratory and Descriptive in nature.

Literature review:

This Research conducted by various elements including primary data collection by circulating
questionnaire, secondary data through various online articles, books, websites, newspapers etc.
This project gives idea about the Menstrual awareness and sanitary napkins disposal system in
India.

Data Collection Method

• Collection method –Survey

• Instrument – Questionnaire

Sampling Method

We will use Non – Probability sampling

Sampling Procedure: Random sampling was used .

Sample Size: Sample Size for the research will be 100 woman.

Details of Sample: Gender – Female

Age – 12 to 50 years.

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Planned For Data Analysis
Data gathering through survey and calculations will be performed on the historical data with the
help of MS-excel.

Findings

Finding No. 01: It is observed that females between age group 12-18 are 21%, 18-28 are 26%,
28-40 are 33% and 40-50 are 20% who responded. By this we can analyze age and awareness
among different age group of people.

Finding No.2: It is observed that 35% respondents are student, 36% are Homemaker and
remaining 29% are working professionals. We have received respond from different class of
women so we can make analyses of about their thinking and awareness.

Finding No.3: It is observed that 87% females are aware about changes during puberty, 9% are
not aware and remaining may be aware.These changes during should be discuss with all the teen
agers so they may not feel uncomfortable during their puberty phase and they can discuss openly
with their parents and tachers.

Finding No.4: It is observed that 82% females are aware about why menstruation takes place,
and remaining 12% do not know why women menstruate. We should give knowledge to both
male and female students from their beginning of school days so they will feel comfortable
during talking about menstrual cycle . this will stop incident of ragging the girl child and also
reduce absenteeism in schools.

Finding No.5: It is observed that 86% females are aware about physical changes during
menstrual cycle and remaining is unaware about physical changes.we can observe that most
respondent are observe physical changes in their body during Menstrual cycle.

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Finding No.6: It is observed that 54% respondent sometime get restricted to access puja rooms,
kitchen and temple. 21 % respondent do not get restricted and 25 % respondent always get
restricted to access the kitchen, puja room. We can observe that still some families are following
old beleifs and myths and do not allow women to enter kitchen and Puja room. This can be
change by giving them proper education about menstruation.

Finding No.7: It is observed that all respondent said sanitary pads are available in their locality.
Out of 100, 45% said Tampons are available at their locality and only 20 % said Menstrual Cups
are available in their locality. We can observe that sanitary napkins are more popular than the
other products.

Finding No.8: It is observed that 89% women use sanitary napkins, 31% use cotton cloths , 29%
use Tampons and only 9% use menstrual cup.it shows that people are still not educated about
Menstrual cup and Tampons.Women in india still afraid of using other options of sanitary
products they still use sanitary napkins during menstruation.

Finding No.9: It is observed that 86% women said menstrual hygiene is important and 14 5 said
may be. This shows women in india are aware about menstrual hygiene and they think thst
hygiene should be maintain during menstruation

Finding No.10: It is observed that 60% women use number of pad as per flow, 10% uses 2 pads, 29%
uses 3 pads and only 1% uses 1 pad daily during menstruation. By this we can think that how much
sanitary wastage get accumulated in the country and disposal of this become a big issue. To avoid this
disposal issue there must be proper disposal system like burning machines or women should switched to
other option like reusable hygienic products.

Finding No.11: It is observed that 56% women throw used pads in dustbin , 25% women flush it
in toilet, 7% throe them openly , 7% burns the pads and only 5 % uses machines to burn the used
pads.at most of the places proper disposal system is not available in India because of that women
throw pads in dustbin and flushesh in the toilet which leads to further problem like chocking of
drainage system of toilet few women throw these pads at open places this can spread diseases in
eco system

Finding No.12: It is observed that most of people are unaware about government campaigns and
schemes very few people are aware about all these schemes. We can say that government is

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unable to spread the awareness and also advertisement related to these schemes and
programmes.Government should use public platforms and educational institutes to make people
aware about all these schemes. Awareness can bring changes in thinking and can break myths
and taboos from people’s mind.

Finding No.13: It is observed that 60% women said government is doing something to spread
awareness.16% women said government not doing anything to spread awareness about
menstruation.24% women said government may be doing something to spread awareness. This
picture should be change by providing good facilities and assistance to women during their
menstrual phase.

HYPOTHESES TESTING
Set 1

H0: Menstrual hygiene is not important.

H1: Menstrual hygiene is important.

Finding No.9: It is observed that 86% women said menstrual hygiene is important and 14 5
said may be. This shows women in india are aware about menstrual hygiene and they think
thst hygiene should be maintain during menstruation

We accept H1 Menstrual hygiene is important and reject H0.

Set 2

H0: Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins properly.

H1: Indian woman does dispose sanitary napkins properly.

Finding No.11: It is observed that 56% women throw used pads in dustbin , 25% women
flush it in toilet, 7% throe them openly , 7% burns the pads and only 5 % uses machines to
burn the used pads.at most of the places proper disposal system is not available in India
because of that women throw pads in dustbin and flushes in the toilet which leads to
further problem like chocking of drainage system of toilet few women throw these pads at
open places this can spread diseases in eco system

We accept H0 Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins properly and reject H1.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

To study the menstrual awareness and Sanitary Napkins Disposal system in India.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:

 To study the menstrual awareness and health care deed among women.
 To study the Napkin disposal method used by Indian women.

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HYPOTHESES SET
Set 1

H0: Menstrual hygiene is not important.

H1: Menstrual hygiene is important.

Set 2

H0: Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins properly.

H1: Indian women do dispose sanitary napkins properly.

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RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design for this study is Exploratory and Descriptive in nature.

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Introduction
Youth For Seva (2017) 1 Menstrual Hygiene Management is a subject of ‘Silence’ and

discussion of the topic amongst women or maybe among mother and daughter is very

constrained. Menstruation is a very crucial natural frame technique amongst women which can't

be averted. It is a distinct step into womanhood for the adolescent ladies. Therefore it's far vital

for each one in all them to have attention approximately menstrual hygiene. But missing

fundamental training and health knowledge, it becomes tough for many ladies, especially in rural

villages and slum regions, to comprehend the long time impact of terrible menstrual hygiene and

they ultimately emerge as with a variety of health problems inclusive of infertility. Awareness on

the right age could make a big distinction inside the betterment of their fitness and hygiene.

Goonj (2017) 2There was lively efforts by means of people and enterprises to make awareness

concerning menstrual hygiene through building lavatories, offering low cost and free pads and

esay disposal facilities to girls who previously did now not get this. For instance, governments of

Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, offer unfastened sanitary napkins to government faculties in a bid

to save you girls from lacking classes as a consequence of menstruation. Studies by UNICEF

show that 28% of female students do not attend school when on their menstruation because of

the unavailability of hygienic absorbent substances. This in flip results in them in the long run

losing out of school. Yash Mehrotra, co-founder of Shebleeds says, “Girls staying out of

colleges, and finally dropping out ends in them being trapped in infant marriages, toddler labour,

and can be even trafficking. By concurrently imposing a length pleasant policy, dispensing

hygiene products and developing awareness, it's miles feasible to address such problems.”

Initiatives just like the birthday party of the World Menstrual Hygiene Day is a definitive step

toward bringing such issues into mainstream spotlight.

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Menstruation related myths in India

Suneela Garg (2015) 3 Menstruation is a phenomenon specific to women.


However, it has continually been surrounded by means of taboos and myths that
exclude girls from many elements of socio-cultural existence. In India, the topic
has been a taboo till date. Such taboos about menstruation found in many societies
impact on ladies’ and girls's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most
significantly, fitness. The project, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and
beliefs in menstruation, is in addition compounded by way of the low girls’
knowledge tiers and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive
health. Thus, there may be the want to follow a strategic method in fighting those
troubles.

Tanu Anand (2015) 4 Menstruation is the natural part of the reproductive cycle
wherein blood from the uterus exits via the vagina. It is a herbal system that first
occurs in women commonly among the age of 11 and 14 years and is one of the
signs of the onset of puberty amongst them. Despite being a phenomenon
particular to women, this has constantly been surrounded with the aid of secrecy
and myths in lots of societies. Taboos surrounding menstruation exclude ladies and
girls from many components of social and cultural existence. Some of those are
useful; however others have probably dangerous implications.

Agarwal L (2015 ) 5 In India even mere mention of the topic has been a taboo
within the beyond and even to this date the cultural and social impacts appear like
a hurdle for advancement of knowledge at the problem. Culturally in many
elements of India, menstruation is still considered to be grimy and impure. The
starting place of this delusion dates lower back to the Vedic times and is frequently
been connected to Indra's slaying of Vritras. For, it's been declared in the Veda that
guilt, of killing a brahmana-homicide, seems every month as menstrual flow as
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ladies had taken upon themselves part of Indra's guilt. Further, in the Hindu
religion, women are prohibited from taking part in regular lifestyles whilst
menstruating. She need to be “purified” before she is permitted to return to her
own family and each day chores of her existence. However, scientifically it is
recognized that the real cause of menstruation is ovulation observed via a
neglected threat of being pregnant that results in bleeding from the endometrial
vessels and is accompanied through instruction of the next cycle. Therefore, there
seems no purpose for this belief to persist that menstruating ladies are “impure.”

Srivastava K (2012) 6 Many women and ladies are concern to restrictions in their
daily lives truly because they're menstruating. Not coming into the “puja” room is
the essential restriction amongst urban girls whereas, not getting into the kitchen is
the main limit a few of the rural ladies during menstruation. Menstruating ladies
and ladies are also constrained from offering prayers and touching holy books. The
underlying foundation for this delusion is also the cultural beliefs of impurity
related to menstruation. It is similarly believed that menstruating ladies are
unhygienic and unclean and subsequently the meals they put together or cope with
can get contaminated. According to take a look at in 2011, participating girls also
stated that during menstruation the frame emits some unique smell or ray, which
turns preserved meals bad. And, consequently, they are now not allowed to the
touch bitter meals like pickles. However, as long as popular hygiene measures are
taken under consideration, no clinical take a look at has shown menstruation as the
purpose for spoilage of any food in making. Cultural norms and religious taboos on
menstruation are often compounded by means of traditional associations with evil
spirits, shame and embarrassment surrounding sexual replica. In a few cultures,
ladies bury their garments used at some point of menstruation to save you them
being used by evil spirits. In Surinam, menstrual blood is assumed to be risky, and

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a malevolent individual can do harm to a menstruating woman or female by using
the usage of black magic. It is likewise believed that a woman can use her
menstrual blood to impose her will on a person. Interestingly, in Asia which
includes India, such ideals are nonetheless practiced. However, there seems to be
no logical or medical reason for this.

Srivastava K (2012) 6 In a few elements of India, some strict dietary regulations


are also observed all through menstruation inclusive of sour food like curd,
tamarind, and pickles are typically averted by means of menstruating women.It is
believed that such ingredients will disturb or forestall the menstrual go with the
flow.As a long way because the exercising is involved, many research in India and
someplace else have discovered that many adolescent girls trust that doing
exercising/bodily interest throughout menses aggravate the dysmenorrhea whilst in
real workout can help relieve the menstruating ladies with signs and symptoms of
premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea and relieve bloating. Exercise also
reasons a release of serotonin, making one feel a lot happier. In some elements of
India, perceptions of Hinduism center on notions of purity and pollution. Bodily
excretions are believed to be polluting, as are the bodies while producing them. All
ladies, no matter their social caste, incur pollutants through the bodily tactics of
menstruation and childbirth. Water is considered to be the most common medium
of purification. The protection of water resources from such pollutants, that is the
bodily manifestation of Hindu deities, is, consequently, a key problem. This
highlights the viable purpose why menstruating women aren't allowed to take a
bathtub specially for the primary few days of their menstrual duration. It is
assumed that if a lady or ladies touches a cow even as she is on her length, that the
cow will become infertile – leading ladies to accomplice their very own our bodies
with curse and impurity.

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Effects of taboos and myths on Women’s life
Sanjana Kaushik (2017 ) 7 Such taboos approximately menstruation found in many societies
impact on ladies’ emotional state, mentality and way of life and most importantly, fitness. Large
numbers of women in many much less economically developed international locations drop out
of school once they begin menstruating. This consists of over 23% of ladies in India. In addition
to this, the month-to-month menstruation period also creates obstacles for lady instructors. Thus,
the gender – unfriendly school way of life and infrastructure and the dearth of ok menstrual
safety options and/or clean, safe and personal sanitation facilities for girl instructors and women
undermine the right of privacy. There are health and hygiene troubles additionally to don't forget
referring to women and menstruation. Over 77% of menstruating girls and girls in India use an
antique fabric, that's often reused. Further, 88% of girls in India now and again motel to the
usage of ashes, newspapers, dried leaves and husk sand to resource absorption. Poor protection
and insufficient washing facilities may also will increase susceptibility to contamination, with
the odor of menstrual blood putting girls vulnerable to being stigmatized. The latter may also
have enormous implications for his or her mental fitness. The venture, of addressing the socio-
cultural taboos and ideals in menstruation, is similarly compounded with the aid of the truth the
girls understanding stages and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health
are very low.

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Effect of Menstruation on Schooling of girls

Agatha K (2013) 8 Lack of menstrual expertise, non-use of sanitary products and a non-
facilitating school environment could make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India,
interventions were advanced to reduce the load of menstruation for college women by using the
government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

To acquire gender equality, it's far important that girls can attend and attain their complete
capacity in faculties. Inadequate options for menstrual hygiene lately obtained attention as a
barrier to training for ladies in low and middle earnings international locations. Studies have
referred to negative sanitation in colleges and lack of access to properly great sanitary products
can be related to decrease enrolment in colleges, absenteeism, and dropout. Inadequate menstrual
hygiene can probably have fitness effects consisting of expanded threat of reproductive and
urinary tract infections. The problem of menstrual hygiene is multifaceted; girls want to be aware
about menarche and be able to manipulate their menstruation in an permitting environment with
get right of entry to hygienic menstrual materials and centers for converting and disposal of
menstrual objects at home and college. National and global issues approximately menstrual
hygiene have been spearheaded via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) packages in schools
and coverage and programming frameworks to improve know-how and infrastructure to control
menstrual hygiene.

Simon M (2013) 9 According to 2011 census estimates 10% of India’s populace had been
woman young people elderly 10-19 years, which interprets into about 120 million girls.
Although menstruation is well known in lots of components of India, cultural taboos exist which
regularly limit girls from activities in the course of menstruation, inclusive of non-secular
restrictions, and freedom to go away the house. This contributes to negative attitudes towards
menstruation amongst women, setting a huge bodily and psychological burden on younger
ladies. A systematic evaluate of Indian studies estimated that barely half of (47%) of adolescent
ladies in India were aware about menarche earlier than their first menstruation, and had
insufficient know-how when reaching menarche. It also documented that the paucity of secure
and hygienic disposal structures for menstrual items became worrisome.

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The Government of India has identified the significance of menstrual hygiene to the health, well-
being and academic achievements of women and women, and has advanced numerous programs
to enhance menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in schools, centered at enhancing
knowledge, get right of entry to and disposal of menstrual waste, and improving sanitation in
faculties, with support from some of establishments. Some examples consist of the production
and advertising of low fee sanitary pads, authorities backed sanitary pads in rural regions, faculty
vending machines for sanitary pads and pad incinerators, and increasing gender separated rest
room centers.

Simon M (2013) 9 In light of these government initiatives, a study became developed to assess
progress on menstrual control in faculties in India, and to become aware of facilitators and
limitations to menstrual management in Indian colleges in 2015. This paper gives facts on go-
sectional surveys carried out amongst women in a consultant sample of government colleges in
three states in India, and a evaluation with “version” faculties receiving additional/extreme
WASH aid in the identical states, which allowed us to assess if version faculties carried out
upgrades with reference to menstrual control.

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Initiatives taken by government to spread menstrual awareness.

Sara Hussain (2016) 10 In a look at by using the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in
2015-2016, it became recorded that approximately 70% of women across India had no
knowledge of menstruation on the onset of menarche. With the assist of Plan India, AC Nielsen
carried out a study ‘Sanitary Protection: Every Woman’s Health Right’ in 2010 which claims
that simplest 12% of the approximately 620 million girls in India use sanitary napkins, ninety
three% of ladies in rural regions are most of the people non-customers

Following are some Initiatives taken by Government of India to spread awareness about
menstrual hygiene.

 Sanitary Napkins are exempted From GST

After the 28th GST Council meet in the year 2018 sanitary napkins that were formerly in the
12% GST regime. The criticism from society and other group’s government exempted sanitary
napkins from GST. The tax exemption is expected to make sanitary pads extra cheaper for girls
and will help to, maintain their health and hygiene.

 Toilets for women were built with basic menstrual hygiene amenities

The year 2018 additionally saw the development of many Pink Toilets or women-pleasant
lavatories across India with an goal to provide primary menstrual hygiene to increasingly more
women of the India. While the delhi got its first Pink Toilet within the 12 months 2017 in
Vikaspuri location we saw the development of many more. New Delhi Municipal Corporation
built 3 red toilets in Central Delhi.Along with Uttar Pradesh government of Karnataka too has
taken action towards menstrual hygiene management. Karnataka State Commission for
Protection of Child Rights has sent circulars to state officials to set up pink toilets across the state
on urgent basis.

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 Educational Institutes Welcome move to install Sanitary napkin Vending Machines

in institute.

Sandhya Srinivas (2015) 11 Nearly 23 million girls drop out of school per year due to

unviability of proper menstrual hygiene facilities, which include the availability of sanitary

napkins and awareness of menstruation. NMMC has helped installed forty sanitary napkin

dispensing vending machines across schools that provide sanitary napkins at Rs.2. In the next

round, NMMC also plans to install incinerators machines in schools so that sanitary napkins can

be disposed safely.

 Traveling become Easy for Women with Menstrual Hygiene Facilities at Railway

Stations and Airports.

Railway Minister Piyush Goyal announced railways plan to set up factory units for cheaper and

bio-degradable sanitary napkins at 8,000 railway stations in India that will help provide low-cost

sanitary pads. The Airports Authority of India decided to install sanitary napkin vending

machines at airports across the country. Currently, airports in Indore, Kolkata, Jaipur,

Bhubaneswar, Trivandrum, Vishakhapatnam, Vadodara, Pune, Guwahati, Varanasi, Surat,

Chandigarh and Kolkata have sanitary pads vending machine for women travelers.

 Celebrities Promoted The Use Of Sanitary Pads

Gopal K (2018) 12 Along with states to promote menstrual hygiene in the country, actors also

contributed towards the cause.In Movie PadMan Actor Akshay Kumar, did his bit to break the

stigma of menstruation. The film is a biopic on a resident of T Nadu Arunachalam

Muruganantham who developed low-cost sanitary pad making machine in India and broke the

taboo attached with menstruation in his region.

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Disposal of Sanitary Napkins

Introduction to Issue of disposal

Hosam El-Din M. Saleh (2016) 13 We are left with 432 million soiled pads (per month);
weighing over 9000 tones spread over 24 hectares of land. It can take 800 years for sanitary pads
to decompose as they are made up of non-biodegradable plastic, synthetics and heavily treated
with preservatives. It is also a very normal practice to flush the used pad leading to clogging of
sewer lines forcing sanitation workers to go down to drain to clear the blockage caused due to go
down to drain to clear the blockage caused due to improper disposal of sanitary pads. This pad
contains microorganisms like E-coli, salmonella staphylococcus, HIV and pathogens that cause
hepatitis and tetanus.

What does sanitary napkin contains ?

Gabriel Weinberg (2015) 14 If we consider the elements of a sanitary napkin. It is made up of


plastic, wood cellulose and silicon paper, bleach etc. Therefore, waste that cannot decompose in

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nature. This creates the problem of classifying it into separate waste categories so its disposal
and also segregation should be proper.

The disposal of soiled sanitary napkin is still questionable. Soiled napkins are either dumped in
open grounds or are flushed down the drain causing clogged sewer lines, spreading chronic
diseases among rag pickers and sanitation workers due to direct contact with these napkins.
Contamination of the surroundings, as badly-wrapped pads can provide a breeding ground for
mosquitoes, flies, and many other carriers of diseases. Infections amongst people handling the
waste, as they can come in direct contact with menstrual blood, if pads are not disposed
hygienically and wrapped properly. Piling up of non-biodegradable and non-recyclable waste, as
most sanitary pads are made of plastics, and do not decompose for hundreds of years.

Why Proper disposal is important

Jaydeep Mandal (2018)15 The hassle of fallacious disposal of menstrual waste is a primary
roadblock to our accomplishing the Swachh Bharat Mission’s goal to create a clean India.
Inappropriate disposal of menstrual waste is problematic for numerous reasons. The fabric used
to make plastic napkins is non-biodegradable, for that reason main to the buildup of used napkins
in massive heaps in landfills. Used sanitary napkins which have no longer been disposed off well
on occasion block the drainage device. Burning plastic sanitary napkins reasons dangerous
pollutants to be released into the ecosystem, and is therefore now not a surroundings-friendly
method. Women from rural backgrounds who cannot have enough money to shop for plastic
sanitary napkins use material napkins, and regularly either do no longer dispose of them or
dispose of them in methods that aren't hygienic.

Menstrual blood on napkins stagnates for an extended duration, as a result permitting pathogens
to build on it. Stagnant menstrual blood accumulates a number of microorganism such as
Escherichia coli, which hastily multiplies at an exponential rate. The crimson blood cells in the
menstrual blood nourish the bacteria and emit a bad smell when they die. Heaps of sanitary
napkins with a massive quantity of disease-causing bacteria on them pose a giant danger to
hygiene within the surrounding areas.

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Option to Dispose Sanitary Napkins

Jackie Bolen (2018) 16

 Fold your used sanitary pad in half to cover the menstrual blood Wrap a few layers of
toilet paper or newspaper around the used pad, If you prefer, you can place the wrapped
sanitary pad inside a small plastic or paper bag, or inside the wrapper that belongs to your
next sanitary pad and throw that pad in a dustbin.
 Don’t flush a pad in the cumboard. It will lead to the blockage of your drainage
system.
 Use an incinerator to burn used Sanitary Napkins
 Use reusable menstrual cups, cloth pads and never think about disposal

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SAMPLING STRATEGY
UNIVERSE: Perception of citizen towards plastic ban in India.

TARGET SAMPLE: Females of age group Between 12 to 50.

SAMPLING METHOD: Non Probability Sampling

SAMPLING PROCEDURE:

The sampling technique that adapted to conduct the survey was ‘Random Sampling’ and the area
of the research was concentrated in various cities. The survey was conducted in various colleges,
offices etc.

SAMPLE SIZE

Sample size for the research will be 100 females.

SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATION

In order to estimate the sample size we will use the following formula: n= (ZS/E)*(ZS/E)

Where,

E= Tolerence limit S= Standard deviation

N= Number of elements (sample) Z= Accuracy

CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE

E= 5%

S= 0.525%

Z= 95%

n= (ZS/E)*(ZS/E)

n= (0.95*0.525/0.05)* (0.95*0.525/0.05) n= 100

Hence sample size is 100.

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DATA COLLECTION METHOD

Primary Research

Survey guidelines were designed to tap the view of different females in the specified region.

The prepared survey tool was used. The outcome of the survey was then analyzed

thoroughly and necessary observations and suggestions were prepared. Data collected

through online survey method.

Secondary Research

Secondary research comprised collecting documents relating to the sanitary napkin

industry and NGOs from the varied sources in the public domain. The following aspects

were covered in the secondary research:

 Use of Sanitary hygiene products

 Alternatives to Sanitary Napkins

 Disposal behavior of women

 Awareness about menstrual cycle

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DATA ANALYSIS

01) WHAT IS THE AGE?

Table No. 01: AGE OF RESPONDENTS

AGE % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

12-18 21% 21
18-28 26% 26
28-40 33% 33
40-50 20% 20

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q.1

Graph No. 01: Age

Source:-Data collection from Table No. 01

Finding No. 01: It is observed that females between age group 12-18 are 21%, 18-28
are 26%, 28-40 are 33% and 40-50 are 20% who responded. By this we can analyze
age and awareness among different age group of people.

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2. OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENT

Table No. 02:

Occupation % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Student 35% 35
Homemaker 36% 36
Working professional 29% 29
Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 02

Graph No. 02

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 02

Finding No.2: It is observed that 35% respondents are student, 36% are Homemaker and
remaining 29% are working professionals. We have received respond from different class
of women so we can make analyses of about their thinking and awareness.

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3) ARE YOU AWARE ABOUT PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EMOTIONAL
CHANGES DURING PUBERTY?

Table No. 03:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes 87% 87
No 9% 9
May be 4% 4

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 03

Graph No. 03

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 03

Finding No.3: It is observed that 87% females are aware about changes during puberty,
9% are not aware and remaining may be aware.These changes during should be discuss
with all the teen agers so they may not feel uncomfortable during their puberty phase and
they can discuss openly with their parents and tachers.

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4) DO YOU KNOW WHY FEMALES MENSTRUATE?

Table No. 04:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes 82% 82

No 18% 18

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 04

Graph No. 04

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 04

Finding No.4: It is observed that 82% females are aware about why menstruation takes
place, and remaining 12% do not know why women menstruate. We should give knowledge
to both male and female students from their beginning of school days so they will feel
comfortable during talking about menstrual cycle . this will stop incident of ragging the girl
child and also reduce absenteeism in schools.

28
5) ARE YOU AWARE ABOUT PHYSICAL CHANGES DURING MENSTRUAL
CYCLE?

Table No. 05:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes 86% 86
No 12% 12
May be 2% 2

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 05

Graph No. 05

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 05

Finding No.5: It is observed that 86% females are aware about physical changes during
menstrual cycle and remaining is unaware about physical changes. We can observe that
most respondent are observe physical changes in their body during Menstrual cycle.

29
6) DO YOU GET RESTRICTED TO ACCESS CERTAIN AREAS LIKE KITCHEN,
TEMPLE, AND ‘PUJA ROOM’ETC.?

Table No. 06:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Sometimes 54% 54
No 21% 21
Always 25% 25

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 06

Graph No. 06

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 06

Finding No.6: It is observed that 54% respondent sometime get restricted to access puja
rooms, kitchen and temple. 21 % respondent do not get restricted and 25 % respondent
always get restricted to access the kitchen, puja room. We can observe that still some
families are following old beleifs and myths and do not allow women to enter kitchen and
Puja room. This can be change by giving them proper education about menstruation.

30
7) WHICH SANITARY PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE IN YOUR LOCALITY FOR
MENSTRUATING WOMEN?

Table No. 07:

Response % Of Respondents
Sanitary Pad 100%
Tampons 45%
Menstrual Cup 20%

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 07

Graph No. 07

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 07

Finding No.7: It is observed that all respondent said sanitary pads are available in their
locality. Out of 100, 45% said Tampons are available at their locality and only 20 % said
Menstrual Cups are available in their locality. We can observe that sanitary napkins are
more popular than the other products.

31
8) WHICH PRODUCT DO YOU USE DURING MENSTRUATION CYCLE?

Table No. 08:

Response % Of Respondents
Sanitary Napkins
89%
Cotton Cloths 31%
Tampons 29%
Menstrual Cups 9%

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 08

Graph No. 08

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 08

Finding No.8: It is observed that 89% women use sanitary napkins, 31% use cotton cloths ,
29% use Tampons and only 9% use menstrual cup.it shows that people are still not
educated about Menstrual cup and Tampons.Women in india still afraid of using other
options of sanitary products they still use sanitary napkins during menstruation.

32
9) DO YOU FEEL MENSTRUAL HYGIENE IS IMPORTANT?

Table No. 09:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes 86% 86

No 0 0

May be 14% 14

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 09

Graph No. 09

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 09

Finding No.9: It is observed that 86% women said menstrual hygiene is important and 14 5

said may be. This shows women in india are aware about menstrual hygiene and they think

thst hygiene should be maintain during menstruation

33
10) HOW MANY PADS REQUIRE ON DAILY BASIS WHILE MENSTRUATING?

Table No. 10:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

1
1% 1
2 10% 10

3 29% 29

Depend on Flow 60% 60

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 10

Graph No. 10

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 10

Finding No.10: It is observed that 60% women use number of pad as per flow, 10% uses 2 pads,
29% uses 3 pads and only 1% uses 1 pad daily during menstruation. By this we can think that how
much sanitary wastage get accumulated in the country and disposal of this become a big issue. To
avoid this disposal issue there must be proper disposal system like burning machines or women
should switched to other option like reusable hygienic products.

34
11) HOW DO YOU DISPOSE SANITARY NAPKINS PRODUCTS?

Table No. 11:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Dustbin
56% 56
Flushing in Toilet 25% 25

Throw them openly 7% 7

Burning 7% 7

Electric machine (To burn) 5% 5

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 11

Graph No. 11

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 11

Finding No.11: It is observed that 56% women throw used pads in dustbin , 25% women
flush it in toilet, 7% throe them openly , 7% burns the pads and only 5 % uses machines to
burn the used pads.at most of the places proper disposal system is not available in India
because of that women throw pads in dustbin and flushesh in the toilet which leads to
further problem like chocking of drainage system of toilet few women throw these pads at
open places this can spread diseases in eco system

35
12) ARE YOU AWARE ABOUT FOLLOWING GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS?

Table No. 12:

Response Yes No

The Adolescent Reproductive


27 73
and Sexual Health (ARSH)

Adolescence Education 28 72
Programme (AEP)

SABLA 31 69

Kishori Card 45 55

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 12

Graph No. 12

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 12

Finding No.12: It is observed that most of people are unaware about government
campaigns and schemes very few people are aware about all these schemes. We can say
that government is unable to spread the awareness and also advertisement related to theses
schemes and programmes.Government should use public platforms and educational
institutes to make people aware about all these schems. Awareness can bring changes in
thinking and can break myths and taboos from people’s mind.

36
13) DO YOU FEEL THAT GOVERNMENT IS DOING SOMETHING FOR
SPREADING AWARENESS AND MAINTAINING MENSTRUAL HYGIENE?

Table No. 13:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes
60% 60
No 16% 16

May be 24% 24

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 13

Graph No. 13

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 13

Finding No.13: It is observed that 60% women said government is doing something to
spread awareness.16% women said government not doing anything to spread awareness
about menstruation.24% women said government may be doing something to spread
awareness.This picture should be change by providing good facilities and assistance to
women during their menstrual phase.

37
HYPOTHESES TESTING
Set 1

H0: Menstrual hygiene is not important.

H1: Menstrual hygiene is important.

Table No. 09:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Yes 86% 86

No 0 0

May be 14% 14

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 09

Graph No. 09

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 09

Finding No.9: It is observed that 86% women said menstrual hygiene is important and 14 5
said may be. This shows women in india are aware about menstrual hygiene and they think
thst hygiene should be maintain during menstruation

Conclusion: According to survey we can observe that Menstrual Hygiene is Important


Hence; we accept H1 Menstrual hygiene is important and reject H0.

38
Set 2

H0: Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins properly.

H1: Indian women does dispose sanitary napkins properly.

Table No. 11:

Response % Of Respondents No Of Respondents

Dustbin
56% 56
Flushing in Toilet 25% 25

Throw them openly 7% 7

Burning 7% 7

Electric machine (To burn) 5% 5

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 11

Graph No. 11

Source:-Data collection from respondent’s to Q 11

39
Finding No.11: It is observed that 56% women throw used pads in dustbin, 25% women
flush it in toilet, 7% throe them openly, 7% burns the pads and only 5 % uses machines to
burn the used pads.at most of the places proper disposal system is not available in India
because of that women throw pads in dustbin and flushes in the toilet which leads to
further problem like chocking of drainage system of toilet few women throw these pads at
open places this can spread diseases in eco system

Conclusion: The proper disposal technique is to burn the used sanitary napkins but data
received from survey we can observe that most of respondent use other unhygienic method
of disposal. Hence, WE Accept H0 that Indian women do not dispose sanitary napkins
properly. And Reject H1.

40
Findings

Finding No. 01: It is observed that females between age group 12-18 are 21%, 18-28 are 26%,
28-40 are 33% and 40-50 are 20% who responded. By this we can analyze age and awareness
among different age group of people.

Finding No.2: It is observed that 35% respondents are student, 36% are Homemaker and
remaining 29% are working professionals. We have received respond from different class of
women so we can make analyses of about their thinking and awareness.

Finding No.3: It is observed that 87% females are aware about changes during puberty, 9% are
not aware and remaining may be aware.These changes during should be discuss with all the teen
agers so they may not feel uncomfortable during their puberty phase and they can discuss openly
with their parents and tachers.

Finding No.4: It is observed that 82% females are aware about why menstruation takes place,
and remaining 12% do not know why women menstruate. We should give knowledge to both
male and female students from their beginning of school days so they will feel comfortable
during talking about menstrual cycle . this will stop incident of ragging the girl child and also
reduce absenteeism in schools.

Finding No.5: It is observed that 86% females are aware about physical changes during
menstrual cycle and remaining is unaware about physical changes.we can observe that most
respondent are observe physical changes in their body during Menstrual cycle.

Finding No.6: It is observed that 54% respondent sometime get restricted to access puja rooms,
kitchen and temple. 21 % respondent do not get restricted and 25 % respondent always get
restricted to access the kitchen, puja room. We can observe that still some families are following
old beleifs and myths and do not allow women to enter kitchen and Puja room. This can be
change by giving them proper education about menstruation.

41
Finding No.7: It is observed that all respondent said sanitary pads are available in their locality.
Out of 100, 45% said Tampons are available at their locality and only 20 % said Menstrual Cups
are available in their locality. We can observe that sanitary napkins are more popular than the
other products.

Finding No.8: It is observed that 89% women use sanitary napkins, 31% use cotton cloths , 29%
use Tampons and only 9% use menstrual cup.it shows that people are still not educated about
Menstrual cup and Tampons.Women in india still afraid of using other options of sanitary
products they still use sanitary napkins during menstruation.

Finding No.9: It is observed that 86% women said menstrual hygiene is important and 14 5 said
may be. This shows women in india are aware about menstrual hygiene and they think thst
hygiene should be maintain during menstruation

Finding No.10: It is observed that 60% women use number of pad as per flow, 10% uses 2 pads, 29%
uses 3 pads and only 1% uses 1 pad daily during menstruation. By this we can think that how much
sanitary wastage get accumulated in the country and disposal of this become a big issue. To avoid this
disposal issue there must be proper disposal system like burning machines or women should switched to
other option like reusable hygienic products.

Finding No.11: It is observed that 56% women throw used pads in dustbin , 25% women flush it
in toilet, 7% throe them openly , 7% burns the pads and only 5 % uses machines to burn the used
pads.at most of the places proper disposal system is not available in India because of that women
throw pads in dustbin and flushesh in the toilet which leads to further problem like chocking of
drainage system of toilet few women throw these pads at open places this can spread diseases in
eco system

Finding No.12: It is observed that most of people are unaware about government campaigns and
schemes very few people are aware about all these schemes. We can say that government is
unable to spread the awareness and also advertisement related to theses schemes and
programmes.Government should use public platforms and educational institutes to make people
aware about all these schems. Awareness can bring changes in thinking and can break myths and
taboos from people’s mind.

42
Finding No.13: It is observed that 60% women said government is doing something to spread
awareness.16% women said government not doing anything to spread awareness about
menstruation.24% women said government may be doing something to spread awareness.This
picture should be change by providing good facilities and assistance to women during their
menstrual phase.

43
LIMITATIONS

All research work is having certain limitations. Limitations cannot be ignored while working on research
project. This project has its own limitations, which are as follows:

 The analysis and interpretations of the study are correct only to the information provided by the

people.

 Lack of time and unavailability delayed the analysis of data.

 Survey carried through online form.

 Some of the respondents in spite of the request made were not ready to fill the questionnaire due

to lack of time and interest.

 Target audience was only females.

44
CONCLUSION

 Menstrual hygiene should be promoted by implementing a course on menstruation and


menstrual hygiene management in school, colleges and other educational institutes.
 Educators should be educated and trained to impart knowledge about menstruation and
menstrual hygiene management among students.
 Paper and social media also play an important role to make the girls and women aware
about the latest menstrual products, government policies, and so forth.
 Tax Subsidies should be given on menstrual products so that every girl or women can
afford them easily.
 NGOs should come forward to educate rural people about menstruation, menstrual
hygiene management, diseases related to reproductive tract due to poor hygiene, and so
forth. Emphases should be given on the use of reusable sanitary products or cloth pads to
overcome the problem of disposal.
 Women should be aware of the effect of disposing used menstrual products in open or
flushing them in toilets. Dustbins with proper lids should be placed in the toilets.
 If possible, incinerators should be installed at homes, schools, and community levels.
This study reveals that lack of Disposal system lead to Increase in Sanitary product
waste.
 Also, ignorance, misconceptions, unsafe practices, and illiteracy of the mother and child
regarding menstruation are the root causes of many problems. So, there is a big need to
encourage adolescents at school levels to practice safe and hygienic behaviors. And
government should promote reusable products and should install incinerators at public
toilets.

45
BIBLIOGRAPHY
o https://thelogicalindian.com/health/menstruation-in-rural-india/

o https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/menstrual-hygiene-drive-increases-

sanitary-napkin-use-but-problems-remain-118070400147_1.html

o https://swachhindia.ndtv.com/23-million-women-drop-out-of-school-every-year-when-they-start-

menstruating-in-india-17838/

o https://swachhindia.ndtv.com/womens-day-2018-meet-the-award-winning-27-year-old-who-has-

come-up-with-100-per-cent-biodegradable-sanitary-napkins-17666/

o https://acadpubl.eu/jsi/2018-118-20/articles/20a/48.pdf

o https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408698/

o http://sanitation.indiawaterportal.org/english/node/3495

o https://www.thebetterindia.com/102475/menstrual-hygiene-invisible-women

o https://www.quora.com/How-can-we-dispose-sanitary-pads-naturally

BOOKS

 Girls in Power: Gender, Body, and Menstruation in Adolescence, Laura Fingerson, 1st
Edition
 The Female Brain, Louann Brizendine,1st Edition
 Handbook of Biology 2017, ARIHANT
 The Sabarimala Confusion - Menstruation Across Cultures: A Historical Perspective,
Nithin Sridhar, Hardcover

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