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Clase 3: 14/11/18

WRITING PART 1:
Going over the task.

1. TIME MANAGEMENT.
The two text are worth equal points so you should spend equal time on them. That gives you 40 minutes
per text. Spend some of that time planning and some checking. For example:
-Planning, 10 min
- Writing, 25 min.
- Checking, 5 min.
2. PLANNING
Imagine a chef in a restaurant, does he go to the kitchen and start throwing vegetables into the soup? No,
he gets a recipe and follos the plan.
So take a deep breath and think about what you have to write, what you want to write, and how you can
write it.
You can also think of complex vocabulary and advanced sentences that you know, so you won’t forget them.

3. CONTENT
Now let's look at what Cambridge cares about in your writing.
The first point is the content itself. If you are asked to write a letter to your friend and you write a
poem - well, it doesn't matter how good that poem is. Maybe you can write the best poem in the
history of the world - the examiner will be impressed, and then give you zero points.

You have to write about pollution and the environment, and you have to include 3 points. 2 of those points must
be transport, and rivers and seas. If you don't include transport you can't get full marks in the exam. If you don't
write about damage to the environment, you can't get full marks.

READ THE TASK AND DO EXACTLY WHAT IT SAYS

4. COMMUNICATIVE ACHIEVEMENT

The next thing Cambridge wants is for you to show that you understand about tone. In the previous example, you
were asked to write an essay for your English teacher. How formal should that be? You're not writing to a lawyer
so you don't have to be super formal, but you aren't writing to your best friend, so you shouldn't be too casual.

For that essay, you should use a neutral or slightly formal style.

That means you need to study how to write in different ways. Spot the difference in tone in this extracts from
letters:

1. Yo, John,
Guess what? I bunked off school and tramped up and down the beach all day. Great fun! I found some nearly-
fresh muffins in a box, so that was lunch sorted. Free food! Niiiiiice.

2. Dear Mr and Mrs Biggins,

I regret to inform you that we have taken the decision to suspend Jack from school for the next week.
Not only did he fail to come to school today, but we received a call that he had stolen a container of
confectionery from a local business.

In short, try to make sure that what you write is appropriate for the person you are writing to.

5. ORGANISATION

Cambridge love when you link sentences together with words like 'whereas' and 'however', and link paragraphs
with phrases like 'Firstly, secondly'. You must learn how to use these phrases if you want a
good grade. One easy way to get a higher score in 'organisation' is to ask a question, and then
answer it.

6. LANGUAGE

Your writing will be more interesting and you'll get a better grade if you can use a wide variety of language. Use
high-level vocabulary when you know it; don't repeat the same word too many times; don't make too many
mistakes; try to use a variety of grammar (not just 'subject verb object' all the time).

You will be rewarded if you learn (and use) some appropriate phrasal verbs, idioms, and collocations. Compare
these sentences: 1. The food was good and the service was good and we had a
good time. 2. The food was delicious, while the service was faultless. Did we have a good time?
Absolutely!

I hope you agree that the second is much nicer to read. Is it much harder to write? Not really. And if you don't
know the word 'faultless' you might know a different word that would fit. Even if you said 'good' again, the
sentence would get you a much better score in FCE because the 'while' connects the first two parts and the
question connects the last two.

PRESENT PERFECT
FORM
have/has + past participle *

USE
1.1. result of actions in the past is important in the present – It is not important when the actions happened.

I have cleaned my room.

1.2. recently completed actions

He has just played handball.

1.3. states beginning in the past and still continuing

We have lived in Canada since 1986.

1.4. together with lately, recently, yet

I have been to London recently.


Affirmative: I have cleaned my room.

Negative: I haven’t cleaned my room.

Interrogative: Have I cleaned my room?

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

The present perfect continuous is used to refer to an unspecified time between 'before now' and 'now'. The
speaker is thinking about something that started but perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is
interested in the process as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or may have just finished.

ACTIONS THAT STARTED IN THE PAST AND CONTINUE IN THE PRESENT


She has been waiting for you all day (= and she's still waiting now).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= and I still haven't finished it).
They have been travelling since last October (= and they're not home yet).

ACTIONS THAT HAVE JUST FINISHED, BUT WE ARE INTERESTED IN THE RESULTS
She has been cooking since last night (= and the food on the table looks delicious).
It's been raining (= and the streets are still wet).
Someone's been eating my chips (= half of them have gone).

Affirmative: I have been living Negative: I haven’t been living


Interrogative: Have I been living?

PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs are those that are followed by a preposition or an adverb that changes it meaning.

I. INTRANSITIVE: Are those that need a direct object to complete its meaning
i. You will need to fill out this form.
ii. I’m looking for my keys.
b) SEPARABLE: The direct object goes between the verb and the preposition.
c) INSEPARABLE: The verb and the preposition goes together and then the direct object.

EXERCISE:
1. Ordena las palabras en frases y añade la palabra que falta.
a) Cut/to/should/sugar/you/try/back
b) 5:00/can/check/at/you
c) Look/you/could/the/number
d) Today/daughter/after/friends/I’m/my
Answer:
a) You should try to cut back on sugar.
b) You can check in at 5:00.
c) Could you look up the number?
d) I’m looking after my friend’s daughter today.