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Gravitational Waves Explained by Grav i to Electromagnetism

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1

GRAVITOELECTROMAGNETISM

Antoine Acke

Retired Professor, Department Industrial Sciences

University College Kaho Sint-Lieven

Gent - Belgium

ant.acke@skynet.be

Abstract

In this article it is shown that “gravitational waves” are embedded in the gravito-magnetic

description of gravitation. The GEM-equations (or the “Maxwell-Heaviside” equations) imply

r r

the possible wave character of the g-field E g and of the g-induction Bg ; an oscillating point

mass with invariable rest mass is the source of a gravito-magnetic wave propagating out of it;

and the conversion of rest mass of an object into EM radiation goes along with the emission of

gravito-magnetic radiation. It is shown that it must be possible to detect gravito-magnetic

waves using an interferometer.

INTRODUCTION

masses m1 and m2 in terms of “gravitational fields”:

1. Mass m1 sets up a gravitational field in the space around itself;

2. The field acts on mass m2 , this shows up in the force that m2 experiences.

Generalized: in GEM the gravitational field plays an intermediary role in the interaction

between masses.

masses and it is, just as the electromagnetic field, defined by two three-dimensional

r r

intertwined vector fields: the “g-field” E g and the “g-induction” Bg . These vector fields

each have a value defined at every point of space and time and are thus, relative to an

inertial reference frame O, regarded as functions of the space and time coordinates. Just

r r v r

like the electromagnetic field ( E , B ), the gravitational field ( E g , Bg ) is mathematically

described by a set of four partial differential equations, the “GEM-equations” (or the

r r

“Maxwell-Heaviside equations”) that describe how E g and Bg vary in space due to their

sources - the masses and the mass flows - and how they are intertwined. In §4 of

“Gravitoelectromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons”[4], it is shown that at a

2

r

point P of a gravitational field - where ρ G is the mass density and J G is the density of the

r r

mass flow - E g and Bg must obey to the following equations:

r ρ

1. divE g = − G

η0

r

2. divB g = 0

r

r ∂B g

3. rotE g = −

∂t

r

r 1 ∂E g r

4. rotB g = 2 −ν 0 .J G

c ∂t

1

And: η 0 .ν 0 =

c2

In the appendix to this paper it is proven that these equations are mathematically

consistent. They are valid as well in situations where rest mass is converted into radiation

as in situations where rest mass is invariant.

shown that the gravitational interactions are the effect of the tendency of a material object

to accelerate in order to become blind for the gravitational fields generated by other

objects. The action of the gravitational field on a point mass is described by the “force law

of GEM”, a law analog to Lorentz force law:

r r r

A point mass, moving with velocity v in a gravitational field ( E g , Bg ), will accelerate

r

relative to its proper inertial reference frame with an amount a ' :

r r r r

a ' = E g + (v × B g )

According to the theory of informatons[4] - that explains the gravitational phenomena and

laws as the macroscopic manifestations of elementary information carriers, called

“informatons” - the gravitational field is not a purely mathematical construction. It is not

just an element of our thinking about nature but a substantial element of nature,.

The starting point of GEM differs fundamentally from the starting point of GRT, because

in the description by GEM of the gravitational phenomena and laws space and time don’t

play an active role. It are elements of the description of nature that do not participate in

the physical processes.

3

r

In free space - where ρ G = J G = 0 - the GEM equations are:

r

1. divE g = 0

r

2. divB g = 0

r

r ∂B g

3. rotE g = −

∂t

r

r 1 ∂E g

4. rotB g = 2

c ∂t

separate the various functions of space to arrive at equations that give the distributions of

each.

r

r ∂B g

It follows from (3): rot( rotE g ) = − rot ( ) (3’)

∂t

r r r

Because rot( rotF ) = grad ( divF ) − ∇ 2 F , where ∇ 2 is the Laplacian, (3’) leads to:

r

r r ∂Bg ∂ r

grad ( divE g ) − ∇ E g = − rot(

2

) = − ( rotBg )

∂t ∂t

r

r 1 ∂ 2

E

∇2 Eg = 2 . 2

g

(5)

c ∂t

This is the general form of the wave equation. This form applies as well to the g-induction,

as is readily shown by taking first the rotor of (4) and then substituting (2) and (3):

r

r 1 ∂ 2

B

∇ 2 Bg = 2 . 2

g

(5’)

c ∂t

Solutions of this equation describe how disturbances of the gravitational field propagate as

waves with speed c.

To illustrate this we consider the special case of space variation in one dimension only. If

we take the x-component of (5) and have space variations only in the z-direction, the

equation becomes simply:

4

∂ 2 E gx 1 ∂ E gx

2

= 2.

∂z 2 c ∂t 2

z z

E gx = f 1 (t − ) + f 2 (t + ) (6)

c c

The first term of (6) represents the wave or function f1 traveling with velocity c and

unchanged form in the positive z-direction, the second term represents the wave or function

f2 traveling with velocity c and unchanging form in the negative z-direction.

ω

In fig 1 we consider a point mass m that harmonically oscillates, with frequency ν = ,

2.π

around the origin of the inertial reference frame O. At the moment t it passes at P1. We

suppose that the speed of the charge is always much smaller than the speed of light and that

it is described by:

v ( t ) = V . cos ωt

r r

Z eϕ ec

r

P c

r r

v r1

r r

r e⊥ c

P1 m

θ

O Y

X

Fig 1

The elongation z(t) and the acceleration a(t) are in this case expressed as:

V π π

z (t ) = . cos(ωt − ) and a (t ) = ω.V . cos(ωt + )

ω 2 2

5

We restrict our considerations about the gravitational field of m to points P that are

sufficiently far away from the origin O. Under this condition we can posit that the

r

fluctuation of the length of the vector P1 P = r1 is very small relative to the length of the

r

time-independent position vector r , that defines the position of P relative to the origin O.

In other words: we accept that the amplitude of the oscillation is very small relative to the

distances between the origin and the points P on which we focus.

r

representation E g ⊥c of the time dependant part of the transversal component of E g and

r

the complex representation Bgϕ of the time dependant part of B g at P follow immediately

from §3.8.2 of “Gravito-electromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons”•

m.V − j . k . r 1 j.ω.ν 0

E g ⊥c = − .e .( + ). sin θ

4.π η0 .c.r 2

r

ν .m.V − j. k . r 1 j.k

Bgϕ =− 0 .e .( 2 + ). sin θ

4.π r r

ω E g ⊥c

Where k = the phase constant. Note that B gϕ = .

c c

So, an harmonically oscillating point mass emits a transversal “gravitomagnetic” wave that

propagates out of the mass with the speed of light:

E g ⊥ c ( r ,θ ; t ) ν 0 .m.V . sin θ . 1 + k 2 r 2

B gϕ ( r,θ ; t ) = = . cos(ωt − kr + Φ + π ) with tg Φ = kr .

c 4πr 2

1 c

In points at a great distance from the oscillating mass, specifically there where r >> = ,

k ω

this expression asymptotically equals:

B gϕ = = . sin(ωt − kr ) = 0 . sin(ωt − kr )

c 4πr 4πcr

r

ν 0 .m.a (t − ). sin θ

=− c

4πcr

The intensity of the “far gravitational field” is inversely proportional to r, and is determined

r

by the component of the acceleration of m, that is perpendicular to the direction of ec .

r r r

•

The same result will also be obtained by calculating E g and Bg from the vector potential Ag .

6

Another phenomenon that is the source of a gravito-magnetic wave is the conversion of rest

mass into energy (what per example happens in the case of radioactive processes). To

illustrate this, let us - relative to an inertial reference frame - consider an object with rest

mass m0 that - due to intern instability - during the period (0, Δt) emits EM radiation.

This implies that that object during that time interval is emitting electromagnetic energy UEM

carried by photons (and gravitational energy UGEM• carried by gravitons) that propagate with

the speed of light. Between the moment t = 0 and the moment t = Δt, the rest mass of

U EM ( +U GEM )

the object is, because of this event, decreasing with an amount from the

c2

value m0 to the value m0'. This implies that - because the gravitational field is determined

by the rest mass - for t < 0 the source of the gravitational field of the object is m0 and for

t > Δt it is m0'. It follows that at the moment t the gravitational field at a point P at a

distance r > c.t is proportional to m0 , and at a point at a distance r < c.(t + Δt) to m0’.

During the period (t, t+Δt) the gravitational field at a point at a distance r = c.t changes from

the situation where it is determined by m0 to the situation where it is determined by m0’.

So, the conversion of rest mass of an object into radiation is the cause of a kink in the

gravitational field of that object, a kink that with the speed of light - together with the

emitted radiation - propagates out of the object. We can conclude that the conversion of (a

part of) the rest mass of an object into radiation goes along with the emission by that object

of a gravito-magnetic wave.

Eg

(m0)

’

(m0 )

O t

r r

+ ∆t

c c

Fig 2

The effect of the decrease - during the time interval (0, Δt) - of the rest mass of an object (a

point mass) on the magnitude of its g-field Eg at the point P at a distance r is shown in the

plot of fig. 2.

•

negligible in first approximation

7

r

Until the moment t = , the effect of the conversion of rest mass into radiation has not yet

c

r

reached P. So, during the period ( 0, ) the quantity of mass-energy enclosed by an

c

hypothetical sphere with radius r centered on the point mass is still m0 (the remaining part

of the rest mass + all the radiation that during the mentioned period has arisen from the

m0

conversion of rest mass). From the first GEM equation it follows: E g = .

4πη 0 .r 2

r

From the moment t = + ∆t , the radiation generated by the conversion of rest mass has left

c

the space enclosed by the hypothetical sphere with radius r, that from that moment still only

m0 '

contains the remaining rest mass m0’. From the first GEM equation it follows: E g = .

4πη 0 .r 2

r r

During the time interval ( , + ∆t ), the mass-energy enclosed by the hypothetical sphere

c c

with radius r is decreasing (not necessary linearly) because mass-energy flows out in the

form of radiation. So, during that period E g at P is decreasing.

Let x and y be the directions of the arms L1 and L2 of the interferometer, and let z be the

direction perpendicular to the plane defined by the arms. We consider the (optimized) situation

r r

where a uniform plane gravitational wave ( E g , Bg ) of sinusoidal form is travelling in the z-direction.

r

We assume that the gravitational field E g is in the x-direction and that the gravitational

r

induction Bg is in the y-direction. If EMAX is the amplitude of the gravitational field, than -

r ω

according to GEM - E g is given in magnitude by: E g = E MAX . sin(ωt − kz ) with k = and the

c

r Eg

magnitude of Bg is given by: Bg = . When that gravitational wave is falling on the plane of

c

r

the interferometer, the gravitational field E g - being in the direction of L1 - will induce a

longitudinal mechanical wave in the tube of the arm L1 what will result in a (very slight)

r

oscillation of the mirror at the end. The mirror at the end of the arm L2 will not react on E g

because that field is perpendicular to L2. So, the effective length of the beam that is

travelling through L1 will differ (in the manner of an oscillation) from the effective length of

the other beam that is travelling through L2, and the detector will record that the outgoing

and reflected beams are out of phase. It is clear that this can be generalized and that we can

conclude that it is not impossible that the interferometer reacts on a gravitational wave as

described by GEM.

5. CONCLUSION

According to GEM gravitational waves are fluctuations of the gravitational field that can be

detected by an interferometer. According to GRT it are ripples in the curvature of

8

experimental detection of gravitational waves - to analyze the results in a careful and

unbiased way.

APPENDIX

the rest mass of a - whether or not moving - object is the source of its gravitational field

r r r

( E g , Bg ). At a point P of a gravitational field - where ρ G is the mass density and J G is the

r r

density of the mass flow - E g and Bg must obey to the following equations:

r ρ

1. divE g = − G

η0

r

2. divB g = 0

r

r ∂B g

3. rotE g = −

∂t

r

r 1 ∂E g r

4. rotB g = 2 −ν 0 .J G

c ∂t

1

And: η 0 .ν 0 =

c2

r 1 ∂ r r

Because div( rotF ) = 0 , it follows from (4): ( divE g ) − ν 0 .divJ G = 0 (4’)

c ∂t

2

1 ∂ρ G r

Substituting (1) in (4’) gives: − . − ν 0 .divJ G = 0

c η0

2

∂t

1 ∂ρ G r

And with = ν 0 , we obtain from (4’): + divJ G = 0 (4”)

c 2η 0 ∂t

(4”) is nothing else but the expression of the law of mass conservation. Indeed:

r

- The rate at which mass is flowing out form a closed surface S is: ∫∫ G .dS

S

J (A)

∂ ∂ρ

- The rate of the decrease of the enclosed mass is: − ∫∫∫ ρ G dV = ∫∫∫ ( − G ).dV (B)

∂t V V

∂t

9

r ∂ρ G

∫∫ J .dS = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV (5)

∂t

G

S V

r r

Ostrogradsky’s theorem (divergence theorem) states: ∫∫

S

F.dS = ∫∫∫ .dV

V

divF

r ∂ρ G

Substituting in (5) gives: ∫∫∫ divJ G .dV = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV

V V

∂t

r ∂ρ ∂ρ G r

It follows: divJ G = − G or + divJ G = 0

∂t ∂t

We can conclude that - in a system with invariable rest mass - the GEM equations of the

gravitational field are not in contradiction with the law of mass conservation.

Let us consider - relative to an inertial reference frame - an object with rest mass m0 that -

due to intern instability - during the period ( 0, Δt) emits EM radiation. This implies that

that object during that time interval is emitting electromagnetic energy UEM carried by

photons (+ gravitomagnetic energy• UGEM carried by gravitons) that propagate with the

speed of light. Because of that event, from the moment t = Δt the rest mass of the particle

U + (U )

is decreased with an amount EM 2 GEM to the value m0'.

c

Consider the surface S enclosing the object in whole or in part (V is the volume enclosed by

S). At a moment 0 < t < Δt:

∂ ∂ρ

- The rate of the decrease of the enclosed mass is: − ∫∫∫ ρ G dV = ∫∫∫ ( − G ).dV (A)

∂t V V

∂t

r

- J G , the density of the mass flow out from the enclosed volume at a point P of S, has

two components:

r

1. J G1 describing the outflow of massive mass;

r

2. J G 2 describing the outflow of mass in the form of energy. If we represent the

•

negligible in first approximation

10

r

r r S

density of that energy flow by S : J G 2 = 2

c

r

r r r r S

So: J G = J G1 + J G 2 = J G1 + 2 , and the rate at which mass-energy is flowing out

c

r

from the closed surface S is: ∫∫ G .dS

S

J (B)

r ∂ρ G r ∂ρ ∂ρ G r

∫∫ J .dS = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV and divJ G = − G or + divJ G = 0

∂t ∂t ∂t

G

S V

We can conclude that also in the case of a system with variable rest mass, the GEM

equations of the gravitational field are not in contradiction with the law of mass-energy

conservation.

References

1.Heaviside, Oliver. A Gravitational and Electromagnetic Analogy, Part I. sl : The Electrician 1893,

Vol. 1893.

2.Jefimenko, Oleg . Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation. sl : Electret Scientific 1992,

Vol. 1992

Journal, Vol. 36, Number 4, August 2013

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