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GRAVITATIONAL WAVES EXPLAINED BY GRAVITOELECTROMAGNETISM

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Antoine J.H. Acke


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1

GRAVITATIONAL WAVES EXPLAINED BY


GRAVITOELECTROMAGNETISM

Antoine Acke
Retired Professor, Department Industrial Sciences
University College Kaho Sint-Lieven
Gent - Belgium
ant.acke@skynet.be

Abstract

In this article it is shown that “gravitational waves” are embedded in the gravito-magnetic
description of gravitation. The GEM-equations (or the “Maxwell-Heaviside” equations) imply
r r
the possible wave character of the g-field E g and of the g-induction Bg ; an oscillating point
mass with invariable rest mass is the source of a gravito-magnetic wave propagating out of it;
and the conversion of rest mass of an object into EM radiation goes along with the emission of
gravito-magnetic radiation. It is shown that it must be possible to detect gravito-magnetic
waves using an interferometer.

Keywords: gravito-electromagnetism, gravitational waves

INTRODUCTION

In gravito-electromagnetism[1],[2],[3] (GEM) we think about the force acting between two


masses m1 and m2 in terms of “gravitational fields”:
1. Mass m1 sets up a gravitational field in the space around itself;
2. The field acts on mass m2 , this shows up in the force that m2 experiences.

Generalized: in GEM the gravitational field plays an intermediary role in the interaction
between masses.

1. The gravitational field is set up by a given distribution of - whether or not moving -


masses and it is, just as the electromagnetic field, defined by two three-dimensional
r r
intertwined vector fields: the “g-field” E g and the “g-induction” Bg . These vector fields
each have a value defined at every point of space and time and are thus, relative to an
inertial reference frame O, regarded as functions of the space and time coordinates. Just
r r v r
like the electromagnetic field ( E , B ), the gravitational field ( E g , Bg ) is mathematically
described by a set of four partial differential equations, the “GEM-equations” (or the
r r
“Maxwell-Heaviside equations”) that describe how E g and Bg vary in space due to their
sources - the masses and the mass flows - and how they are intertwined. In §4 of
“Gravitoelectromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons”[4], it is shown that at a
2

r
point P of a gravitational field - where ρ G is the mass density and J G is the density of the
r r
mass flow - E g and Bg must obey to the following equations:

r ρ
1. divE g = − G
η0
r
2. divB g = 0
r
r ∂B g
3. rotE g = −
∂t
r
r 1 ∂E g r
4. rotB g = 2 −ν 0 .J G
c ∂t

1
And: η 0 .ν 0 =
c2

In the appendix to this paper it is proven that these equations are mathematically
consistent. They are valid as well in situations where rest mass is converted into radiation
as in situations where rest mass is invariant.

2. In §5 of “Gravito-electromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons”[4] it is


shown that the gravitational interactions are the effect of the tendency of a material object
to accelerate in order to become blind for the gravitational fields generated by other
objects. The action of the gravitational field on a point mass is described by the “force law
of GEM”, a law analog to Lorentz force law:
r r r
A point mass, moving with velocity v in a gravitational field ( E g , Bg ), will accelerate
r
relative to its proper inertial reference frame with an amount a ' :
r r r r
a ' = E g + (v × B g )

According to the theory of informatons[4] - that explains the gravitational phenomena and
laws as the macroscopic manifestations of elementary information carriers, called
“informatons” - the gravitational field is not a purely mathematical construction. It is not
just an element of our thinking about nature but a substantial element of nature,.

The starting point of GEM differs fundamentally from the starting point of GRT, because
in the description by GEM of the gravitational phenomena and laws space and time don’t
play an active role. It are elements of the description of nature that do not participate in
the physical processes.
3

1 THE WAVE EQUATION


r
In free space - where ρ G = J G = 0 - the GEM equations are:
r
1. divE g = 0

r
2. divB g = 0
r
r ∂B g
3. rotE g = −
∂t
r
r 1 ∂E g
4. rotB g = 2
c ∂t

To attempt a solution of a group of simultaneous equations, it is usually a good plan to


separate the various functions of space to arrive at equations that give the distributions of
each.
r
r ∂B g
It follows from (3): rot( rotE g ) = − rot ( ) (3’)
∂t
r r r
Because rot( rotF ) = grad ( divF ) − ∇ 2 F , where ∇ 2 is the Laplacian, (3’) leads to:
r
r r ∂Bg ∂ r
grad ( divE g ) − ∇ E g = − rot(
2
) = − ( rotBg )
∂t ∂t

And taking into account (1) and (4):


r
r 1 ∂ 2
E
∇2 Eg = 2 . 2
g
(5)
c ∂t

This is the general form of the wave equation. This form applies as well to the g-induction,
as is readily shown by taking first the rotor of (4) and then substituting (2) and (3):
r
r 1 ∂ 2
B
∇ 2 Bg = 2 . 2
g
(5’)
c ∂t

Solutions of this equation describe how disturbances of the gravitational field propagate as
waves with speed c.

To illustrate this we consider the special case of space variation in one dimension only. If
we take the x-component of (5) and have space variations only in the z-direction, the
equation becomes simply:
4

∂ 2 E gx 1 ∂ E gx
2

= 2.
∂z 2 c ∂t 2

This equation has a general solution of the form

z z
E gx = f 1 (t − ) + f 2 (t + ) (6)
c c

The first term of (6) represents the wave or function f1 traveling with velocity c and
unchanged form in the positive z-direction, the second term represents the wave or function
f2 traveling with velocity c and unchanging form in the negative z-direction.

2. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE GENERATED BY AN HARMONICALLY OSCILLATING POINT MASS


ω
In fig 1 we consider a point mass m that harmonically oscillates, with frequency ν = ,
2.π
around the origin of the inertial reference frame O. At the moment t it passes at P1. We
suppose that the speed of the charge is always much smaller than the speed of light and that
it is described by:

v ( t ) = V . cos ωt

r r
Z eϕ ec
r
P c
r r
v r1
r r
r e⊥ c

P1 m

θ
O Y

X
Fig 1

The elongation z(t) and the acceleration a(t) are in this case expressed as:

V π π
z (t ) = . cos(ωt − ) and a (t ) = ω.V . cos(ωt + )
ω 2 2
5

We restrict our considerations about the gravitational field of m to points P that are
sufficiently far away from the origin O. Under this condition we can posit that the
r
fluctuation of the length of the vector P1 P = r1 is very small relative to the length of the
r
time-independent position vector r , that defines the position of P relative to the origin O.
In other words: we accept that the amplitude of the oscillation is very small relative to the
distances between the origin and the points P on which we focus.

Starting from the complex quantity representing v (t ) , namely V = V .e j .0 , the complex


r
representation E g ⊥c of the time dependant part of the transversal component of E g and
r
the complex representation Bgϕ of the time dependant part of B g at P follow immediately
from §3.8.2 of “Gravito-electromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons”•

m.V − j . k . r 1 j.ω.ν 0
E g ⊥c = − .e .( + ). sin θ
4.π η0 .c.r 2
r
ν .m.V − j. k . r 1 j.k
Bgϕ =− 0 .e .( 2 + ). sin θ
4.π r r

ω E g ⊥c
Where k = the phase constant. Note that B gϕ = .
c c

So, an harmonically oscillating point mass emits a transversal “gravitomagnetic” wave that
propagates out of the mass with the speed of light:

E g ⊥ c ( r ,θ ; t ) ν 0 .m.V . sin θ . 1 + k 2 r 2
B gϕ ( r,θ ; t ) = = . cos(ωt − kr + Φ + π ) with tg Φ = kr .
c 4πr 2

1 c
In points at a great distance from the oscillating mass, specifically there where r >> = ,
k ω
this expression asymptotically equals:

E ⊥c ν 0 .k .m.V . sin θ ν .m.ω.V . sin θ


B gϕ = = . sin(ωt − kr ) = 0 . sin(ωt − kr )
c 4πr 4πcr
r
ν 0 .m.a (t − ). sin θ
=− c
4πcr

The intensity of the “far gravitational field” is inversely proportional to r, and is determined
r
by the component of the acceleration of m, that is perpendicular to the direction of ec .

r r r

The same result will also be obtained by calculating E g and Bg from the vector potential Ag .
6

3. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE GENERATED BY AN OBJECT WITH VARIABEL REST MASS

Another phenomenon that is the source of a gravito-magnetic wave is the conversion of rest
mass into energy (what per example happens in the case of radioactive processes). To
illustrate this, let us - relative to an inertial reference frame - consider an object with rest
mass m0 that - due to intern instability - during the period (0, Δt) emits EM radiation.
This implies that that object during that time interval is emitting electromagnetic energy UEM
carried by photons (and gravitational energy UGEM• carried by gravitons) that propagate with
the speed of light. Between the moment t = 0 and the moment t = Δt, the rest mass of
U EM ( +U GEM )
the object is, because of this event, decreasing with an amount from the
c2
value m0 to the value m0'. This implies that - because the gravitational field is determined
by the rest mass - for t < 0 the source of the gravitational field of the object is m0 and for
t > Δt it is m0'. It follows that at the moment t the gravitational field at a point P at a
distance r > c.t is proportional to m0 , and at a point at a distance r < c.(t + Δt) to m0’.
During the period (t, t+Δt) the gravitational field at a point at a distance r = c.t changes from
the situation where it is determined by m0 to the situation where it is determined by m0’.
So, the conversion of rest mass of an object into radiation is the cause of a kink in the
gravitational field of that object, a kink that with the speed of light - together with the
emitted radiation - propagates out of the object. We can conclude that the conversion of (a
part of) the rest mass of an object into radiation goes along with the emission by that object
of a gravito-magnetic wave.

Eg

(m0)


(m0 )

O t

r r
+ ∆t
c c

Fig 2

The effect of the decrease - during the time interval (0, Δt) - of the rest mass of an object (a
point mass) on the magnitude of its g-field Eg at the point P at a distance r is shown in the
plot of fig. 2.


negligible in first approximation
7

r
Until the moment t = , the effect of the conversion of rest mass into radiation has not yet
c
r
reached P. So, during the period ( 0, ) the quantity of mass-energy enclosed by an
c
hypothetical sphere with radius r centered on the point mass is still m0 (the remaining part
of the rest mass + all the radiation that during the mentioned period has arisen from the
m0
conversion of rest mass). From the first GEM equation it follows: E g = .
4πη 0 .r 2
r
From the moment t = + ∆t , the radiation generated by the conversion of rest mass has left
c
the space enclosed by the hypothetical sphere with radius r, that from that moment still only
m0 '
contains the remaining rest mass m0’. From the first GEM equation it follows: E g = .
4πη 0 .r 2
r r
During the time interval ( , + ∆t ), the mass-energy enclosed by the hypothetical sphere
c c
with radius r is decreasing (not necessary linearly) because mass-energy flows out in the
form of radiation. So, during that period E g at P is decreasing.

4. ON THE DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES USING AN INTERFEROMETER

Let x and y be the directions of the arms L1 and L2 of the interferometer, and let z be the
direction perpendicular to the plane defined by the arms. We consider the (optimized) situation
r r
where a uniform plane gravitational wave ( E g , Bg ) of sinusoidal form is travelling in the z-direction.
r
We assume that the gravitational field E g is in the x-direction and that the gravitational
r
induction Bg is in the y-direction. If EMAX is the amplitude of the gravitational field, than -
r ω
according to GEM - E g is given in magnitude by: E g = E MAX . sin(ωt − kz ) with k = and the
c
r Eg
magnitude of Bg is given by: Bg = . When that gravitational wave is falling on the plane of
c
r
the interferometer, the gravitational field E g - being in the direction of L1 - will induce a
longitudinal mechanical wave in the tube of the arm L1 what will result in a (very slight)
r
oscillation of the mirror at the end. The mirror at the end of the arm L2 will not react on E g
because that field is perpendicular to L2. So, the effective length of the beam that is
travelling through L1 will differ (in the manner of an oscillation) from the effective length of
the other beam that is travelling through L2, and the detector will record that the outgoing
and reflected beams are out of phase. It is clear that this can be generalized and that we can
conclude that it is not impossible that the interferometer reacts on a gravitational wave as
described by GEM.

5. CONCLUSION

According to GEM gravitational waves are fluctuations of the gravitational field that can be
detected by an interferometer. According to GRT it are ripples in the curvature of
8

spacetime. To reach a final conclusion about their nature it is necessary - In case of an


experimental detection of gravitational waves - to analyze the results in a careful and
unbiased way.

APPENDIX

In “Gravito-electromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons” [4] it is shown that


the rest mass of a - whether or not moving - object is the source of its gravitational field
r r r
( E g , Bg ). At a point P of a gravitational field - where ρ G is the mass density and J G is the
r r
density of the mass flow - E g and Bg must obey to the following equations:

r ρ
1. divE g = − G
η0
r
2. divB g = 0
r
r ∂B g
3. rotE g = −
∂t
r
r 1 ∂E g r
4. rotB g = 2 −ν 0 .J G
c ∂t

1
And: η 0 .ν 0 =
c2

We will prove that these equations are mathematically consistent.

I. The case of an object with invariable rest mass.

r 1 ∂ r r
Because div( rotF ) = 0 , it follows from (4): ( divE g ) − ν 0 .divJ G = 0 (4’)
c ∂t
2

1 ∂ρ G r
Substituting (1) in (4’) gives: − . − ν 0 .divJ G = 0
c η0
2
∂t

1 ∂ρ G r
And with = ν 0 , we obtain from (4’): + divJ G = 0 (4”)
c 2η 0 ∂t

(4”) is nothing else but the expression of the law of mass conservation. Indeed:
r
- The rate at which mass is flowing out form a closed surface S is: ∫∫ G .dS
S
J (A)

∂ ∂ρ
- The rate of the decrease of the enclosed mass is: − ∫∫∫ ρ G dV = ∫∫∫ ( − G ).dV (B)
∂t V V
∂t
9

( V is the volume enclosed by S)

Because of the law of mass conservation (A) = (B), so

r ∂ρ G
∫∫ J .dS = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV (5)
∂t
G
S V

r r
Ostrogradsky’s theorem (divergence theorem) states: ∫∫
S
F.dS = ∫∫∫ .dV
V
divF

r ∂ρ G
Substituting in (5) gives: ∫∫∫ divJ G .dV = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV
V V
∂t

r ∂ρ ∂ρ G r
It follows: divJ G = − G or + divJ G = 0
∂t ∂t

We can conclude that - in a system with invariable rest mass - the GEM equations of the
gravitational field are not in contradiction with the law of mass conservation.

II. The case of an object with variable rest mass.

Let us consider - relative to an inertial reference frame - an object with rest mass m0 that -
due to intern instability - during the period ( 0, Δt) emits EM radiation. This implies that
that object during that time interval is emitting electromagnetic energy UEM carried by
photons (+ gravitomagnetic energy• UGEM carried by gravitons) that propagate with the
speed of light. Because of that event, from the moment t = Δt the rest mass of the particle
U + (U )
is decreased with an amount EM 2 GEM to the value m0'.
c

Consider the surface S enclosing the object in whole or in part (V is the volume enclosed by
S). At a moment 0 < t < Δt:

∂ ∂ρ
- The rate of the decrease of the enclosed mass is: − ∫∫∫ ρ G dV = ∫∫∫ ( − G ).dV (A)
∂t V V
∂t
r
- J G , the density of the mass flow out from the enclosed volume at a point P of S, has

two components:
r
1. J G1 describing the outflow of massive mass;
r
2. J G 2 describing the outflow of mass in the form of energy. If we represent the


negligible in first approximation
10

r
r r S
density of that energy flow by S : J G 2 = 2
c
r
r r r r S
So: J G = J G1 + J G 2 = J G1 + 2 , and the rate at which mass-energy is flowing out
c
r
from the closed surface S is: ∫∫ G .dS
S
J (B)

(A) = (B) because of the law of mass-energy conservation, so

r ∂ρ G r ∂ρ ∂ρ G r
∫∫ J .dS = ∫∫∫ ( − ).dV and divJ G = − G or + divJ G = 0
∂t ∂t ∂t
G
S V

We can conclude that also in the case of a system with variable rest mass, the GEM
equations of the gravitational field are not in contradiction with the law of mass-energy
conservation.

References

1.Heaviside, Oliver. A Gravitational and Electromagnetic Analogy, Part I. sl : The Electrician 1893,
Vol. 1893.

2.Jefimenko, Oleg . Causality, Electromagnetic Induction, and Gravitation. sl : Electret Scientific 1992,
Vol. 1992

3.Acke, Antoine. Gravitatie en elektromagnetisme. Gent : Uitgeverij Nevelland, 2008.

4.Acke, Antoine. Gravito-electromagnetism explained by the theory of informatons. Hadronic


Journal, Vol. 36, Number 4, August 2013

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