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NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION

GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

GES P.06

PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING

Rev Date Description Checked Approved


0 1999 Issued for Implementation DL

Compiled by Teknica (UK) Ltd


GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 2 of 23
Rev 0 1999

INDEX

SECTION TITLE PAGE

1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION 4

1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Other NOC Specifications 4

2.0 DEFINITIONS 4

2.1 Technical 4
2.2 Contractual 5

3.0 DESIGN 6

3.1 Codes and Standards 6


3.2 Application 7
3.3 Design Pressures and Temperatures 9
3.4 Pressure Relieving Systems 10

4.0 MATERIALS 10

4.1 General 10
4.2 Polyethylene Pipe (PE) 10
4.3 Polypropylene Pipe (PP) 10
4.4 Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC) 10
4.5 Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) Pipe 11
4.6 Flanges 11
4.7 Gaskets 11
4.8 Valves 11

5.0 FABRICATION AND ERECTION 12

5.1 General 12
5.2 Polyethylene and Polypropylene 12
Piping Fabrication and Installation
5.3 PVC Piping Fabrication and Installation 13
5.4 GRP Piping Systems Fabrication and Erection 13

6.0 STRESS AND SUPPORTS 14

6.1 Unreinforced Thermoplastic Piping 14


6.2 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipe 15
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SECTION TITLE PAGE

7.0 INSPECTION 20

7.1 Procedures 20
7.2 Scope 20
7.3 Prior to Testing 20

8.0 TESTING 21

8.1 Required Tests 21


8.2 Test Procedures 21
8.3 Test Certificates 21

9.0 DOCUMENTATION 22

9.1 Introduction 22
9.2 Schedules and Reports 22
9.3 Data and Calculations 22
9.4 Drawings 22
9.5 Fabrication 22

10.0 PRIOR TO SHIPMENT 23

10.1 Protection 23
10.2 Warranty 23
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1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 This specification covers the general requirements for design, material supply, installation, inspection and
testing of unreinforced thermoplastic and glass reinforced plastic (GRP) piping systems, located above or
below ground.

1.1.2 This specification applies to applications for refineries, onshore oil and gas installations, processing, water
treatment facilities, alkaline effluent drainage, acid and solutions encountered in process applications
including items purchased either directly or as part of a package.

1.1.3 The Vendor/Contractor shall comply fully with the provisions laid down in this specification. Any
exceptions must be authorised in writing by the Owner.

1.1.4 In the event of any conflict between this specification and any of the applicable codes and standards, the
Vendor/Contractor shall inform the Owner in writing and receive written clarification before proceeding
with the work.

1.1.5 This general engineering specification will form part of the Purchase Order/Contract.

1.2 Other NOC Specifications

The following NOC specifications are an integral part of this specification and any exceptions shall be
approved in advance by the Owner.

GES P.07 Underground Piping

GES Q.01 Earthworks (inc. Site Preparation, Pits and Trenches)

GES Q.04 Concrete Structures

GES Q.07 Rainwater, Oily Water and Sanitary Sewer Systems

2.0 DEFINITIONS

2.1 Technical

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) Pipe

A piping material consisting of a glass fibre reinforcement embedded in or surrounded by a cured


thermosetting resin or plastic (RTRP) without aggregate

RTRP

Reinforced Thermosetting - Resin Pipe.

Stiffness Class

The nominal stiffness of a specified plastic pipe. (Refer to Paragraph 3.3.4)

Aging

The effect on plastic materials of exposure to an environment for an interval of time.


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Brittle Failure

A pipe failure which shows no material deformation (stretching, elongation) in the area of break.

Burst Strength

The internal pressure required to cause a plastic pipe or fitting to fail.

Hydrostatic Design Stress (HDS)

The estimated maximum tensile stress in the pipewall due to internal hydrostatic pressure that may be
applied continuously with a high degree of certainty that failure of the pipe will not occur.

Polyethylene (PE)

A polymer prepared by the polymerization of ethylene as the sole monomer

Polypropylene (PP)

A polymer prepared by the polymerization of propylene as the sole monomer

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

A polymer prepared by the polymerization of vinyl chloride as the sole monomer.

2.2 Contractual

The commercial terms used in this specification are defined as follows:

Owner

The oil or gas company, an associate or subsidiary, who is the end user of the equipment and facilities.

Vendor

The company supplying the equipment and material.

Contractor

The main contractor for a defined piece of work (which could be exclusively piping fabrication).

Sub-Contractor

A company awarded a contract by a Contactor to do part of the work awarded to the Contractor.

Inspection Authority

The organisation representing the Owner or Vendor/Contractor that verifies that the equipment and
facilities have been designed, fabricated, inspected and tested in accordance with the requirements of this
specification and the Purchase Order/Contract.

Inspector

A qualified individual representing the Owner, Vendor/Contractor or the assigned Inspection Authority,
who verifies that the equipment and facilities have been designed, fabricated, inspected and tested in
accordance with the requirements of this specification and the Purchase Order/Contract.
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3.0 DESIGN

3.1 Codes and Standards

The governing codes for plastic and glass fibre piping are ASME B31.3 Chapter VII "Non-metallic piping
and piping lined with non-metals", and AWWA C950 "Fiberglass Pressure Pipe".

The codes listed above, together with the following codes and standards and references herein shall be
deemed to be part of this specification. All recommendations shall apply, unless specifically modified
herein.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME B31.3 Process Piping

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)

Note: References to "Fiberglass" below applies to glass-fibre reinforced thermosetting resin.

ASTM D2122 Method for determining dimensions for thermoplastic pipe and fittings

ASTM F714 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on outside diameter

ASTM D2774 Practice for underground installation of thermoplastic pressure piping

ASTM D2683 Specification for socket type polyethylene fittings for outside diameter-controlled
polyethylene pipe and tubing

ASTM D2672 Specification for joints for IPS PVC pipe using solvent cement

ASTM D1785 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe schedules 40, 80 and 120

ASTM D2241 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)

ASTM D2992 Practice for obtaining Hydrostatic or Pressure Design Basis for "Fiberglass"(Glass-Fibre-
Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe and Fittings.

ASTM D2996 Specification for Filament-Wound "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Thermosetting


Resin) Pipe.

ASTM D3517 Specification for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced) pressure pipe

ASTM D4161 Specification for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced) pipe joints using flexible
elastomeric seals

ASTM F679 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) large diameter plastic gravity sewer pipe
and fittings.

ASTM D3350 Specification for polyethylene plastic pipe and fitting materials

ASTM D3567 Practice for determining dimensions of Fiberglass (Glass-Fiber-Thermosetting-Resin)


pipe and fittings

ASTM F477 Specification for elastomeric seals (Gaskets) for joining plastic pipe
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ASTM D5421 Specification for contact molded "Fiberglass" (Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting
Resin) Flanges.

ASTM D3839 Practice for underground installation of "Fiberglass" pipe

American Water Works Association (AWWA)

AWWA C950 "Fiberglass Pressure Pipe".

3.2 Application

3.2.1 General

Thermoplastic and GRP piping may be installed either above or below ground. Thermoplastic and GRP
piping may only be used in a non-hydrocarbons hazardous area above ground, such as utility plant, water
treatment plant etc,.

3.2.2 Polyethylene Pipe

Polyethylene pipe has an advantage over steel pipe in lightness of weight, and ease of fabrication and
installation. The advantage over other plastics is in retaining its ductile properties at lower temperatures
and good fatigue strength, with good resistance against surge pressure.

Polyethylene pipe is used mainly for small diameter (NPS 6 and below) water supply lines, such as potable
water to buildings, and chemical process packages in non-hazardous areas.

Polyethylene has a pressure temperature rating related to the estimated life span of a system.
e.g. See Table 1

Table 1 Pressure - Temperature and estimated system life relationship


(based on sch. 40 black polyethylene pipe, NPS 3, Grade PE 2305).

Maximum Operating Maximum Sustained System Life Years


Temperature °F (°C) Pressure psig (kPag)
68 (20) 147 (1010) 50
85 (30) 129 (889) 25
105 (40) 118 (813) 25

120 (50) 82 (565) 25


140 (60) 82 (565) 10
160 (70) 72 (496) 5
175 (80) 50 (345) 5

3.2.3 Polypropylene Pipe

Polypropylene pipe has a high resistance to attack from aggressive chemicals and has a high temperature
tolerance from -4°F (-20°C) to 230°F (110°C), but it has a high cost ratio to polyethylene pipe, and is less
ductile.

The estimated life span of a polypropylene system is dependant on the operating temperature and pressure
of the system, e.g. see Table 2 below.
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Table 2. Pressure-temperature and estimated system life relationship


(based on heavy duty co-polymer pipe to series 2, BS 4991).

Maximum Operating Maximum Sustained Pressure System Life Years


Temperature of°F (°C) psig (kPag)
68 (20) 147 (1010) 50
168 (1158) 10

85 (30) 118 (813) 50


138 (951) 10

105 (40) 88 (606) 50


112 (772) 10

120 (50) 70 (482) 50


92 (634) 10

140 (60) 73 (503) 10


73 (503) 5

160 (70) 48 (330) 10


60 (413) 5

175 (80) 32 (220) 10


44 (303) 5

195 (90) 31 (213) 5


56 (386) 1

212 (100) 19 (131) 5


34 (234) 1

3.2.4 Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (UPVC)

Due to inherent rigidity, UPVC piping is generally used for buried drainage systems, e.g. storm water, land
drainage and sanitary systems. UPVC piping shall not be used for oil contaminated systems.

3.2.5 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe (GRP)

GRP piping is highly corrosion resistant, with high mechanical properties in comparison with other
thermoplastic materials. Hydrostatic design pressure is based on a life cycle extrapolated to 50 years, (ASTM
D2992), thus GRP systems are designed for a projected 50 years life for the appropriate pressure class.

GRP piping may be used above or below ground, although any above ground location shall be limited to areas
where hydrocarbon fire hazards are not present.

GRP piping is used mainly for pressure water lines, particularly for water with a high saline content, and
where highly aggressive soils are present.

3.3 Design Pressures and Temperatures

3.3.1 General

Design pressures and temperatures for unreinforced thermoplastic pipe shall generally be in accordance with
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ASME B31.3 Chapter VII and the relevant standards quoted in ASTM standards section 8, Volume 08.04.

Design pressures and temperatures for glass reinforced plastic pipe shall be in accordance with AWWA C950,
and the relevant ASTM standards quoted therein.

3.3.2 Wall Thickness

Minimum wall thickness for plastic and GRP pipe shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3.

3.3.3 Maximum and Minimum Operating Temperatures

The maximum and minimum recommended operating temperature limits for unreinforced thermoplastic piping
shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 Table B.1.

The maximum and minimum recommended operating temperature limits for GRP piping shall be in
accordance with ASME 31.3 Table A323.4 2c.

Note

Recommended limits apply to low pressure applications for water or non-aggressive fluids.

3.3.4 Maximum Sustained Pressures

Maximum sustained pressures for unreinforced thermoplastic pipe are directly related to maximum
temperatures, see Tables 1 and 2 (Paragraphs 3.2.2 and 3.2.3) for maximum pressures for polyethylene and
polypropylene pipe.

Water pressure ratings for PVC pipe at a standard temperature of 73°F (23°C) shall be in accordance with
ASTM D1785 Tables X1. through X1.3.

Standard pressure classes for pipe conveying water and non-aggressive liquids shall be 50 (345), 100 (689),
150 (1034), 200 (1379) and 250 (1724) psig (kPag).

These classes refer to the maximum sustained working pressure at a water temperature of 73.4°F (23°C).

The pressure design basis for GRP pipe shall be in accordance with ASTM D2992.

GRP pipe is also classified by stiffness classes of 9 (62), 18 (124), 36 (248) and 72 (496) psig (kPag).
Stiffness classes are selected depending on estimated external pressure when the pipe is buried, from
surrounding soil, or axle loading from traffic when the pipe is passing under roads.

3.4 Pressure Relieving Systems

Unreinforced thermoplastic and GRP piping system shall not be subjected to variations of pressure or
temperature or both, above the specified design conditions, and as such shall be supplied with "Over-Pressure"
protection by using pressure relieving safety devices. Pressure relieving systems shall be in accordance with
ASME B31.3, paragraphs 322.6 and A322.6.

4.0 MATERIALS

4.1 General

Materials for unreinforced thermoplastic pipe shall be in accordance with the relevant standards in ASTM
Section 8, as listed below.
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Materials for glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe shall be in accordance with the requirements for AWWA
C950 and the ASTM standards listed below.

4.2 Polyethylene Pipe (PE)

Polyethylene pipe and fittings material shall be in accordance with ASTM D3350.

Material shall be high density black polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE pipe shall be supplied in sch 40 and sch 80
wall thickness, based on outside diameter as per ASTM D2447. Pipe shall be supplied in 20 ft (6.0m) standard
lengths.

The size range for HDPE pipe shall be from NPS ½ to NPS 12 for sch 40 and NPS ½ to NPS 6 for sch 80
pipe. HDPE fittings shall be the heat fusion socket type, and shall be in accordance with ASTM 2683.

Fabricated bends for HDPE shall not be less than 4d radius, or to manufacturers standard.

4.3 Polypropylene Pipe (PP)

Polypropylene pipe and fittings are not covered by ASTM specifications therefore the relevant DIN standards
shall be used (DIN 8077/78 & DIN 16962). Material shall be in grey high heat stabilized co-polymer.
Pressure pipe shall be in heavy gauge material.

Pipe shall be supplied in 20 ft (6.0m) standard lengths. The size range for polypropylene pipe shall be from
NPS ½ to NPS 6.

PP pressure fittings shall be socket heat fusion type, dimensions to manufacturer's standard.

4.4 Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC)

PVC pipe and fittings material shall be in accordance with ASTM D1784.

PVC pipe shall be supplied sch 40 and shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D1785 and ASTM
D2241. Maximum pipe size shall be NPS 12. Pipe shall be supplied in 20 ft (6m) lengths. PVC fittings shall
be the socket type and shall be in accordance with ASTM D2466 up to a maximum size of NPS 12.

Large diameter PVC gravity sewer pipe and fittings shall be in accordance with ASTM F679.

Solvent cements for PVC pipe and fittings shall be in accordance with ASTM D2564.

4.5 Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) Pipe

GRP pipe and fitting materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D2996.

Material shall be made from continuous or discontinuous glass filament wound resin of either phenolic or
vinyl ester.

Discontinuous glass filament wound pipe shall be supplied with bell and spigot ends, and may be used for all
pressures, and for above or below ground applications. Continuous glass filament wound pipe shall be
supplied with plain ends for butt and strap application. Pipe manufactured by this method shall be limited to
gravity and low pressure, 90 psig (620 kPag), service and for below ground application.

Fittings shall be the bell end type, to manufacturer's standard in accordance with ASTM D3567, or the plain
end type, where plain end pipe is specified, using the butt and strap method of joint. For most applications,
the bell and spigot method is preferred.

Bell and spigot joints shall use single or double elastomeric seals, in accordance with ASTM D4161.
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Alternatively, joints may be flanged or butt and strap type, the latter to be limited to low pressure or gravity
buried installations.

4.6 Flanges

Flanges for polyethylene and polypropylene piping systems shall use stub ends of the same material and bore
of the pipe, with carbon steel backing flanges. Flanges shall be to ASME B16.5 Class 150# dimensions in all
sizes. Flanges for PVC piping systems shall be to ASME B16.5 Class 150# socket type FF and shall be in
PVC material to ASTM D1784, bore to match pipe in all sizes.

Flanges for GRP piping systems shall be in GRP material, using backing flanges with stub ends, except where
flanges are matching with lined metallic valves or equipment nozzles, when the backing flanges shall be in
carbon steel.

4.7 Gaskets

Gaskets for polyethylene and propylene piping systems shall be ASME Class 150# ring type in elastomer
material to the requirements of ASTM F477. Gaskets for PVC piping shall be ASME Class 150# FF in
elastomer material to ASTM F477.

Elastomer material shall be natural or synthetic rubber or a combination of both, or alternatively a


thermoplastic elastomer.

Elastomeric single or double 0-rings shall be used for sealing bell and spigot joints in GRP piping systems.

4.8 Valves

4.8.1 For all plastic piping materials covered in this specification, operating stop valves, normally open and normally
closed, shall be steel butterfly valves or steel diaphragm valves, both suitably lined for the fluid to be handled.

4.8.2 Manual flow control valves shall either be butterfly or diaphragm valves as specified above.

4.8.3 The size range for diaphragm valve shall be NPS ½ to NPS 6. The size range for butterfly valves shall be NPS
2 and above. Valves shall be NPS 2 to NPS 24. Butterfly valves shall be to ASME Class 150# wafer type for
all plastic piping systems. Diaphragm valves shall be to ASME Class 150# FF for all plastic piping systems.

4.8.4 The lining for diaphragm valves shall be brought outside the valve body to cover the surface of the valve
flanges.

4.8.5 Check valves NPS 1½ and below shall be the vertical ball type or horizontal lift type.

Check valves NPS 2 and above shall be the swing check or wafer check type.

Check valves for plastic pipe systems shall be flanged ASME Class 150# FF for all sizes. Check valves shall
be suitably coated or lined for the fluid to be handled. The Vendor/Contractor shall specify the internal
coating or lining to be used, subject to Owner's approval.

5.0 FABRICATION AND ERECTION

5.1 General

5.1.1 Fabrication of Polyethylene and Polypropylene piping systems shall be carried out by a Vendor/Contractor
who has expertise in the fabrication and installation of these systems.

Fabrication and installation of PVC piping systems may be carried out by a general contractor, where PVC
piping fittings are used for non-pressure or gravity sewer systems.
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GRP piping systems shall generally be fabricated and installed by a Vendor/Contractor or who has expertise in
this field, and who is capable of fabricating and supplying all materials on site, and either shop or field
fabricate complete systems above or below ground, including inspection and testing.

Bell and spigot GRP piping systems may be installed by local labour under supervision of a representative of a
contractor or subcontractor with expertise in GRP piping systems.

5.2 Polyethylene and Polypropylene Piping Fabrication and Installation

5.2.1 Fabrication shall be carried out by either electrofusion or heat fusion methods. The electrofusion method
requires the use of special fittings that incorporate an electrical coil in the socket of the fitting. The coil is
energised by an electrofusion control unit for a predetermined jointing time. Heat fusion is carried out using a
thermostatically controlled heating tool to melt the interior of the socket of the fitting and the exterior of the
pipe. When installing above ground systems care shall be taken that the piping components are installed true
and straight. The Vendor/Contractor shall ensure that the plastic system is well supported when erection is
taking place with temporary supports or hangers before the final assembly.

5.2.2 Underground installation of unreinforced thermoplastic pressure piping systems shall be in accordance with
ASTM D2774, together with the additional requirements listed below.

(a) The normal depth of cover shall be 3 ft (0.9m) over the top of the pipe.

(b) Long lengths of butt or electrofused jointed pipeline having joints made above ground, may be rolled
or snaked into a trench, after being allowed to cool. For uniform soft fine grained soils or sand that is
cleared of sharp stones or other hard objects, the plastic pipe may be laid directly onto the bottom of
the trench. In all other cases the trench shall be excavated to a depth below the bottom of the pipe to
allow for the required thickness of selected bedding material in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations and ASTM D3839 "Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Fiberglass
Pipe".

5.3 PVC Piping Fabrication and Installation

Fabrication of PVC bell and spigot piping systems shall be carried out by using approved solvent cement for
jointing.

Inhalation of solvent cement fumes can cause permanent damage to personnel, and extreme care shall be taken
when using the solvent.

Solvent cement shall only be applied in an outdoor location or in well ventilated areas if used indoors. A "no-
smoking" rule shall also be strictly applied.

Procedures for jointing PVC pipe and fittings shall be as follows:

(a) Cut pipe to required length, ensuring that the cut is square. Bevel cut the end and remove all burrs

(b) Examine bell and pipe end for damage.

(c) Check the fit of the pipe in the bell. If a loose fit, apply a coat of cement to the pipe before assembly.

(d) Joining surfaces shall be prepared by applying an approved primer. Primer shall be applied above an
ambient temperature of 40°F (5°C).

(e) Immediately after priming apply the solvent cement, a heavy coat to the pipe, and a light coat to the
bell. Use an extra heavy bodies cement to extend the working time on hot desert conditions.
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(f) The pipe must immediately be pushed into the bell, and the joint held in place for 1 to 2 minutes
before the joint may be handled. The joint final setting times and casing times shall be in accordance
with Tables X1.1 and X1.2 in ASTM D2672 appendix.

PVC drainage pipe shall be suitably protected by a steel sleeve when passing under a road or access way
subject to heavy traffic.

5.4 GRP Piping Systems Fabrication and Erection

5.4.1 Fabrication

GRP pipe and fittings shall be fabricated and assembled by using either a bell and spigot joint, using single or
double elastomeric o-rings as a seal, or a butt and strap joint, or tapered adhesive joint. Flanged joints may be
used when connecting to valves or equipment, using backing flanges and stub ends.

Before fabrication, the pipe shall be examined to determine that it is free from all defects, and is as uniform as
practicable in colour and opacity. Roundness of the pipe shall be checked, and the inside wall of the pipe shall
be checked for smoothness.

When a joint is made by bonding, the bonding requirement shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 section
A328.5.

Butt and strapped joints shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 paragraph A328.5.6.

5.4.2 Assembly and Installation of GRP Piping

For GRP above ground piping, care shall be taken that there is no distortion of piping to bring it into alignment
for joint assembly to equipment or valves, and that piping is well supported with temporary supports and
hangers before final assembly. Flanged joints may be made in any combination of flange material and facing,
except when raised face flanges or GRP flanges with stub ends are used, consideration shall be given to the
strength of the flange and to sustained loads imposed on them by bolt-up forces.

Appropriate bolt-up sequence should be made and implemented, and limits on bolt-up torque should be
imposed. GRP piping installed above ground shall not be laid directly on the ground surface but shall be
supported clear of the ground surface by a minimum of 1 ft (0.3m). See section 6.0 "Stress and Supports"
below.

GRP piping should not be subject to vibration from rotating equipment, particularly if the machinery
frequency is at or near the natural frequency of the pipeline. The pipe should be isolated from the machinery
by installing a flexible joint between the rotating equipment and the pipe.

GRP piping is not subject to degradation through sunlight due to inhibitors introduced in manufacture.

The installation of buried GRP pipe shall generally be in accordance with AWWA C950 and ASTM D3839.

Generally the higher the soil resistance, the less the pipe will deflect. The Vendor/Contractor shall apply the
correct installation method to develop passive soil resistance in order to prevent excessive pipe deflections.
Installation procedures shall include monitoring of pipe deflection, compaction and alignment. Consideration
shall be given to long term deformation in soft or medium soils. Lower deflection limits may be required,
which will require an increase in cover (i.e. trench depth) or a higher pipe stiffness class.

The minimum soil cover for GRP pipe shall not be less than 2.5 ft (0.76m).
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The Vendor/Contractor shall consider the depth of the water table in the burial location, and shall ensure that
the weight of soil exceeds the buoyancy force due to the presence of water, particularly if the water table is
near or at ground level.

6.0 STRESS AND SUPPORTS

6.1 Unreinforced Thermoplastic Piping

6.1.1 Pipe Above Ground

Pipe shall not be laid directly on the ground,but shall be run at a level elevation at a minimum of 12 inches
(0.3m) above the grade level to bottom of pipe. For installation above ground, supports must be provided at
intervals not exceeding those given in Tables 3 and 4.

Support spacing for vertical lines can be increased by 50 percent. Minimum spacings are dependent on the
maximum operating temperature, and shall be in accordance with the spacings given in Tables 3 and 4.
Polyethylene piping operating at higher temperatures shall be continuously supported.

Pipe supports shall be designed to give lateral constraint against movement, while allowing free movement in
an axial direction.

Heavy items such as valves and meters must be independently supported.

Sufficient changes in direction, expansion loops, or rubber expansion bellows shall be provided to
accommodate pipe expansion due to temperature changes.

6.2 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipe

6.2.1 Above Ground Piping

Above ground piping shall not be laid directly on the surface, but shall be supported a minimum of 12 inches
(0.3m) from grade level to underside of pipe.

Thermal expansion of piping in unrestrained systems is calculated by

_L = c.L._t (Equation 1)

where: _L = change in length in inches (mm)

c = Thermal Expansion Coefficient

= 1.0 x 10-5per °F. (1.8 x 10-5per °C)

L = Initial Pipe length in inches (mm)

_t = Net temperature change from ambient installed temperature.

Piping in unrestrained systems shall be provided with sufficient changes of direction and expansion loops to
accommodate linear movement due to temperature changes.

For restrained systems thermal end forces are determined by the following equation.

F = c._t.E.A._L (Equation 2)

where: c = Thermal Expansion Coefficient


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_t = Net temperature change from ambient installed temperature

E = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity psi (Mpa)

A = Cross sectional area in inches 2 (mm2)

F = Thermal end load in psi (N)

_L - Change in length in inches (mm) (from Equation 1)

Pipe support spacing shall be determined by the following criteria.

1) The maximum axial strain shall not exceed the allowable value.

2) The mid span deflection is less than 1/500 of the span length. Tables 5 and 6 give the maximum
allowable spans for each pressure class with respect to temperature. The spans quoted are for water
systems only.

6.2.2 Below Ground Piping

Buried piping will normally be continuously supported on the trench embedment.

The Vendor/Contractor shall ensure that when the pipe is installed below ground, there will be no excessive
bending moments imposed on the pipe through washout or collapse of soil beneath the trench floor. Normal
thermal movement of the pipe will be resisted by the passive reaction of the soil.

Where bell and spigot joints are used for pressure piping systems, whether using locking devices or not,
concrete thrust blocks shall be provided at every change of direction below ground, to prevent blow-out of the
joint from internal pressure.

For pipe joined by the butt and strap method or tapered adhesive joints, a concrete anchor block shall be
provided at the end of a header, before the riser to above-ground piping.

Table 3 Maximum support spacing in feet (m) for polyethylene pipe

Temperature oF (oC)
NPS
Inches
68 85 105 120 140 160 175
(20) (30) (40) (50) (60) (70) (80)

*½ 2.0 (0.60) 1.8 (0.56) 1.8 (0.54) c c c c


*¾ 2.2 (0.67) 2.1 (0.63) 2.0 (0.60) 1.9 (0.57) 1.8 (0.54) c c
*1 2.5 (0.75) 2.3 (0.7) 2.2 (0.68) 2.1 (0.65) 2.0 (0.60) c c

* 1½ 3.1 (0.95) 3.0 (0.9) 2.8 (0.85) 2.6 (0.80) 2.5 (0.75) 2.3 (0.70) 2.3 (0.70)
2 2.0 (0.6) 1.7 (0.53) 1.6 (0.49) 1.5 (0.45) c c c

3 2.6 (0.8) 2.3 (0.7) 2.1 (0.65) 2.0 (0.6) 1.8 (0.55) 1.6 (0.50) c
4 3.3 (1.0) 3.0 (0.9) 2.8 (0.85) 2.5 (0.75) 2.3 (0.7) 2.2 (0.66) 2.0 (0.62)
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 16 of 23
Rev 0 1999
6 4.6 (1.4) 4.3 (1.3) 3.9 (1.2) 3.6 (1.1) 3.3 (1.0) 3.0 (0.9) 2.6 (0.8)
8 6.2 (1.9) 5.9 (1.8) 5.6 (1.7) 5.2 (1.6) 4.9 (1.5) 4.6 (1.4) 4.3 (1.3)

10 7.5 (2.3) 7.2 (2.2) 6.9 (2.1) 6.6 (2.0) 6.2 (1.9) 5.9 (1.8) 5.6 (1.7)
12 8.2 (2.5) 7.9 (2.4) 7.5 (2.3) 7.2 (2.2) 6.9 (2.1) 6.6 (2.0) 6.2 (1.9)

Notes

1. Support spacing is based on sch 40 pipe (Except as noted), water filled

2. c = continuously supported

3. * - sch 80 pipe
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 17 of 23
Rev 0 1999
Table 4 Maximum support spacing in feet (m) for polypropylene pipe

Temperature °F (°C)
NPS

Inches
68 85 105 120 140 160 175 195 212
(20) (30) (40) (50) (60) (70) (80) (90) (100)

½ 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 c c


(0.60) (0.56) (0.54) (0.51) (0.49) (0.47) (0.45)

¾ 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5


(0.67) (0.63) (0.60) (0.57) (0.54) (0.52) (0.50) (0.48) (0.46)

1 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7


(0.76) (0.71) (0.68) (0.65) (0.61) (0.59) (0.57) (0.54) (0.52)

1½ 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2


(0.95) (0.89) (0.85) (0.81) (0.77) (0.74) (0.71) (0.67) (0.66)

2 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4


(1.07) (1.00) (0.96) (0.91) (0.86) (0.83) (0.80) (0.76) (0.74)

3 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.90


(1.27) (1.20) (1.15) (1.08) (1.03) (0.99) (0.95) (0.90) (0.88)

4 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2


(1.41) (1.32) (1.27) (1.20) (1.14) (1.10) (1.06) (1.00) (0.97)

6 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.8


(1.70) (1.60) (1.53) (1.44) (1.37) (1.32) (1.27) (1.21) (1.17)

8 6.6 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.1 5.0 4.7 4.6


(2.01) (1.89) (1.81) (1.71) (1.63) (1.57) (1.51) (1.43) (1.39)
10 7.4 6.9 6.6 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.1
(2.25) (2.11) (2.02) (1.91) (1.82) (1.75) (1.68) (1.59) (1.55)

12 7.8 7.3 7.0 6.6 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.5 5.4


(2.38) (2.24) (2.14) (2.03) (1.93) (1.86) (1.79) (1.69) (1.64)

Notes

1. Support spacing is based on heavy gauge pipe, water filled.

2. c = Continuously supported
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 18 of 23
Rev 0 1999
Table 5 Maximum Support Spacing in feet (m) for GRP Pipe at 105°F (40°C)

NPS Pressure Class - psig (kPag)


Inches
50 100 150 200 250
(345) (689) (1034) (1379) (1724)

1 S S S S S
1½ S S S S S
2 S S S S S

3 S S S S S
4 S S S S S

6 S S S S 11.5
(3.5)

8 S S S S 12.8
(3.9)

10 S S 13.4 13.8 14.1


(4.1) (4.2) (4.3)

12 S 13.1 14.1 14.4 15.1


(4.0) (4.3) (4.4) (4.6)

14 S 13.8 15.1 15.7 16.4


(4.2) (4.6) (4.8) (5.0)

16 S 14.4 16.1 17.1 18.4


(4.4) (4.9) (5.2) (5.6)

18 S 15.1 16.7 17.7 19.0


(4.6) (5.1) (5.4) (5.8)
20 S 16.4 18.0 19.0 20.3
(5.0) (5.5) (5.8) (6.2)

24 S 19.0 20.7 21.6 23.0


(5.8) (6.3) (6.6) (7.0)

30 S 21.0 22.6 S S
(6.4) (6.9)

Notes

1. Support spacing is based on Filament Wound GRP, Pipe, Water Filled.


2. At operating temperature of 105°F (40°C).
3. S = Use manufacturer's standard for support spacing
4. Pressure classes are in accordance with AWWA C950.
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 19 of 23
Rev 0 1999
Table 6 Maximum Support Spacing in feet (m) for GRP Pipe at 160°F (70°C)

NPS Pressure Class - psig (kPag)


Inches
50 100 150 200 250
(345) (689) (1034) (1379) (1724)

1 S S S S S
1½ S S S S S
2 S S S S S

3 S S S S S
4 S S S S S

6 S S S S 10.2
(3.1)

8 S S S S 11.5
(3.5)

10 S S 11.8 12.1 12.8


(3.6) (3.7) (3.9)

12 S 11.5 12.8 13.1 13.8


(3.5) (3.9) (4.0) (4.2)

14 S 12.1 13.4 14.1 14.8


(3.7) (4.1) (4.3) (4.5)

16 S 12.8 14.4 15.4 16.0


(3.9) (4.4) (4.7) (5.0)

18 S 3.4 (4.1) 15.1 16.1 17.1


(4.6) (4.9) (5.2)
20 S 14.8 16.4 17.1 18.0
(4.5) (5.0) (5.2) (5.5)

24 S 16.4 18.4 19.0 19.7


(5.0) (5.6) (5.8) (6.0)

30 S 18.70 20.3 S S
(5.7) (6.2)

Notes

1. Maximum support spacing is based on Filament Wound, GRP, Pipe, water filled.
2. At operating temperature of 160°F (70°C)
3. S = use manufacturer's standard for support spacing
4. Pressure classes are in accordance with AWWA C950.
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 20 of 23
Rev 0 1999
7.1 Procedures

The Vendor/Contractor shall allow the Inspector free access to all areas of fabrication, assembly and
testing.

The Vendor/Contractor always has the responsibility to provide adequate quality control and inspection of
materials. Any inspection by the Owner or his Inspector shall not relieve the Vendor/Contractor of these
responsibilities or those under his guarantees.

7.2 Scope

7.2.1 Unreinforced Plastic Pipe

The inspection requirements of unreinforced plastic piping shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3,
Chapter VII. Pipe shall be homogenous throughout and free from defects such as holes and cracks. Pipe
shall not be deformed or warped in any way through accidental exposure to heat and it shall be consistent
in colour, opacity and density.

Dimensions and Tolerances for PVC pipe and fittings shall be as per Table 1 and 2 ASTM D1785, when
measured in accordance with ASTM D2122.

7.2.2 GRP Pipe

The inspection requirements of GRP piping shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3, Chapter VII.

Pipe and fittings shall be free from all defects, that would detrimentally affect the strength and
serviceability of the pipe. The pipe shall be as uniform in colour, density and opacity as is commercially
practical.

7.3 Prior to Testing

7.3.1 The Inspector shall ensure that the piping assembly conforms with the Piping and Instrument Diagrams and
Piping General Arrangements.

7.3.2 Checks shall be made that all pipe supports are correctly installed in the case of above ground piping, and
for underground piping, the pipe has been correctly embedded in the pipe trench.

7.3.3 Checks shall be made to ensure that the correct gaskets have been installed, and the correct torque applied
at flanged joints, so that joints are not over-stressed.

7.3.4 Where butt fusion jointing has been used, joints shall be inspected to ensure that the electrofusion jointing
procedure has been correctly applied.

7.3.5 Where bell and spigot joints are used, the joints shall be randomly inspected to ensure that hydraulic
sealing is achieved through the double or single elastomeric o-ring seals. Where locking keys are specified,
the joints shall be inspected to ensure these are installed.

8.0 TESTING

8.1 Required Tests


GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 21 of 23
Rev 0 1999

8.1.1 Field Tests

All unreinforced thermoplastic piping and GRP piping assemblies shall be field pressure tested with water
in accordance with the requirements of ASME B31.3 Section A345.

8.1.2 Shop Tests

Polyethylene and Polypropylene pipe shall be subjected to hydrostatic testing by the manufacturer in
accordance with ASTM D2447. Density/elevated temperature environmental stress cracking tests shall be
carried out by the manufacturer in accordance with the above ASTM standard.

PVC pipe shall be subjected to hydrostatic testing by the manufacturer in accordance with ASTM standard
D1785.

Sustained and burst pressure tests shall be conducted by the manufacturer. An accelerated regression test
may be used as a substitute for both pressure tests. GRP pipe shall be subjected to hydrostatic leak tests in
accordance with AWWA C950. GRP piping is classified in stiffness classes, as well as pressure classes.
Standard stiffness classes are 9 (62), 18 (124), 36 (248) and 72 (496) psig (kPag).

The manufacture of GRP pipe shall include pipe stiffness tests in accordance with AWWA C950. Other
quality control tests shall be tensile strength and axial tensile strength tests. These tests shall be in
accordance with AWWA C950.

8.2 Test Procedures

The Vendor/Contractor shall submit his shop/field test procedures in writing to the Owner for approval
prior to the start of the testing programme.

8.2.1 Shop/field test procedure for all plastic piping including GRP piping shall be in accordance with ASME
B31.3 Section A345 and GES P.10, Section 8.0. Pneumatic testing shall not be applied to plastic piping
systems.

8.2.2 Manufacturing shop test procedures shall be in accordance with the AWWA and ASTM codes as given in
Section 8.1, Testing, this specification.

8.3 Test Certificates

Test certificates for the successful field testing of plastic and glass fibre piping shall be submitted by the
Vendor/Contractor, detailing all the applicable data which shall be signed by the Vendor's/Contractor's
employee responsible for supervising the test, and the Inspector.

Test certificates shall be generated by the manufacturer detailing the successful shop testing of plastic and
glass fibre piping in accordance with the relevant ASTM or AWWA code as detailed in Section 8.1,
Testing, this specification.

9.0 DOCUMENTATION

9.1 Introduction

This section covers the documentation required for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, testing
and inspection of plastic and glass fibre piping.
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 22 of 23
Rev 0 1999

9.2 Schedule and Reports

The Vendor/Contractor shall supply a schedule showing the documents for review and approval, proposed
sub-contractors, material procurement and a production/fabrication programme.

9.3 Data and Calculations

9.3.1 Project specific instructions will be issued to the Vendor/Contractor with the Purchase Order/Contract,
which describes the data and calculations to be submitted, and the methods of submission.

9.3.2 The Vendor/Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining approvals from the Inspection Authority.

9.3.3 All calculations shall be carried out in clear and logic manner. Where conditions involve the use of
formulae or methods not specified in the Design Code, the source of these formulae or methods shall be
clearly referenced.

9.3.4 Computer calculations will only be acceptable if all input is shown, together with calculated values of
intermediate terms and factors and options chosen, as well as final calculated dimensions, stresses or other
values and the computer program has been validated to the satisfaction of the Purchaser/Owner.

9.4 Drawings

Process and Instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) and piping general arrangements shall be submitted to the
Owner and/or Inspection Authority for review and approval. "Issued for Construction" status drawings
shall be issued after Final approval.

9.5 Fabrication

Documentation of all welding, fabrication and construction activities shall be maintained. It is the
responsibility of the Vendor/Contractor to collate all documentation and certification relating to a specific
contract and to generate and issue Data Books in accordance with Purchase Order/Contract requirements.

These Data Books as a minimum requirement, shall include the following where applicable:

(a) Quality Plans,

(b) Manufacturer's Material Certificates of conformity and Test Reports,

(c) Description and Location of all repairs,

(d) Tie-in Temperatures and Location of all tie-ins,

(e) All survey data and as-built drawings,

(f) Grade and wall thickness of pipe and fittings,

(g) Welding procedures,

(h) Welding qualification Certificates,

(i) Welding/Material Maps,

(j) Notes on land reinstatement, including any drainage modifications,

(k) Details of other buried installations crossing plastic and glass fibre piping,
GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES P.06
PLASTIC AND GLASS FIBRE PIPING Page 23 of 23
Rev 0 1999
(l) Pressure test procedures,

(m) Pressure test reports,

(n) Inspection reports,

(o) Concession documents,

(p) Release notes.

9.5.2 Following completion of construction work, all appropriate documentation and certification necessary to
complete the contract data shall be collated, checked and authorised by the Inspector prior to despatch to
the Owner. Two copies of the completed data books shall be despatched to the Owner.

The manuals shall be presented in A4 format, securely bound in heavy duty 4 ring binders.

9.5.3 The Vendor/Contractor shall supply one set of reproducible original drawings.

10.0 PRIOR TO SHIPMENT

10.1 Protection of Plastic and Glass Fibre Piping against Damage in Storage, Transport and Handling.

Plastic and GRP Piping and fittings shall not be shipped, stored or handled at temperatures below the
recommended minimum limit established in ASME B31.3, Appendix F, for the specific grade under
consideration.

Pipes, fittings and specials shall be protected against damage in storage, transport and handling, e.g. by
using straw or wood wool pads.

Care must be taken during loading, handling and lifting of any section of plastic/GRP pipe. Slings shall be
used for lifting plastic pipes, the use of hooks in pipe ends is not permitted. Pipe and fittings shall be
adequately braced, supported and protected from vibration during transit and tied down to prevent shifting
or distortion of pipe sections.

10.2 Warranty

The Vendor/Contractor shall warrant all equipment, materials and services supplied against any defect for a
period of 12 months after commissioning or 24 months from the date of delivery to site, whichever is the
shorter period, or for the period stipulated in the Purchase Order/Contract.

Should any item be found defective, the Vendor/Contractor shall be responsible for all costs associated
with restoring the equipment to the standard specified by the Purchase Order/Contract.