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Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

TITLE: Air Conditioning Tutor


AIM: To study the various air conditioning processes

INTRODUCTION:
Though initially Air-Conditioning was need for the purpose of human comfort only. Now
days it is widely used for Commercial Centers and Industrial, Automobiles, Railways etc.
purposes also. An Air Conditioning plant incorporates all the controls for maintaining
temperature and humidity of air within the set limits in all the seasons and for various loads.
The present set-up is useful for the study of the above factors with visualization of
components. The following experiments can be done with this set-up.
1. Heating with humidification.
2. Cooling with dehumidification.

DESCRIPTION
The equipment consists of M.S.stand on which duct assembly is fitted. An Axial Flow Fan is
provided at the end of duct which forces air into the system. The conditioning duct is
provided with components like expansion valve, cooling coil, steam humidifier connections.
The air flow rate can be controlled by dimmer stat fitted on the board. Dry and Wet Bulb
thermometers are used and fitted on the duct for measurement of inlet and outlet temperature
of air. The control panel is fitted at the top of duct which consists of energy meters for heater
and compressor. A Digital Temperature Indicator is fitted for measurement of temperature at
various points. Various switches are fitted on the control panel. Below the duct compressor,
condenser, liquid receiver and steam generator are fitted on the M.S. Stand.

EXPERIMENTATIONS
The system is designed to provide wide range of experiments.
1. Study of Refrigeration Cycle.
2. Study of various controls used.
3. Study of Air Conditioning process
a) Cooling and dehumidification.
b) Heating process.
c) Heating with humidification.
4. Study of psychrometric chart and plotting the various processes on it.

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar


Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

Sr. No. Components /Auxiliaries Specification


1. Compressor : Make - Emerson, Hermitically Sealed, Model KCJ
467 (Formerly Kirloskar)
Cooling Capacity: 1411 Kcal/Hr.
2. Rotameter : Make - SPINK Controls, Range : 7.6 - 76 LPH
Sr. No.7702 Model No. : R-101
3. Air Condenser : 16" x 18" x 4 rows with FHP motor, 1350 rpm, & 12"
blade
4. Evaporator : Cooling Coil of size 10" x 11" x 4 rows
5. Thermostatic Expansion : 'Danfoss' Make
Valve
6. Liquid Receiver : Castle Make and Filter Drier - Indfoss Make
7. Pressure Gauges : 2 Nos. Range : 0-300 PSI and -30" of Hg, 0 - 150
PSI WIKA Make
8. Air Heaters : 1 Nos. : Capacity - 1 KW
9. HP/LP cutout : RANCO Make
10. Digital Temperature : Range upto 3000C
Indicator
11. Fan Motor : Single Phase, 55 W, 2500 rpm
12. Energy Meters : 2 Nos. ( 1 each for Compressor and Heater )
13. Steam Generator for : Small cooker
humidification
14. Refrigerant used : R 134a

PROCEDURE
Switch "ON" the power supply of the unit and start the Axial Air flow fan. Depending upon
the experiments to be carried out, follow the procedure as given below:

1. Cooling and Dehumidification of Air:


Start the condenser fan and wait for 2 to 3 minutes and then start the compressor. The
flow of liquid refrigerant will be observed in the Rotameter. Observe the temperature of
air and refrigerant on Dry/Wet Bulb thermometer and temperature indicator respectively.
Wait for 45 minutes for achieving steady state condition and note the readings in the
observation table.

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar


Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

Observation Table
Sr.
Description Symbol Units Readings
No.
01. Condensing Pressure Pc PSI
02. Evaporating Pressure Pe PSI
03. Rotameter Flow Rate f LPH
0
04. Condenser Inlet Temperature T1 C
0
05. Condenser Outlet Temperature T2 C
0
06. Evaporator Inlet Temperature T3 C
0
07. Evaporator Outlet Temperature T4 C

08. Compressor Energy - Time for 10 Tc Sec.


Revolution
09. Compressor Current A Amps.
10. Compressor Voltage V Volts.
0
11. Air Inlet Temperature - DBT Tdbi C
0
12. Air Inlet Temperature - WBT Twbi C
0
13. Air Outlet Temperature - DBT Tdbo C
0
14. Air Outlet Temperature - WBT Twbo C
15. Air Velocity Va m/sec

2. Heating of Atmospheric Air:


Now, adjust the heater input by rider dimmer provided on the panel. Wait for 15 minutes
to achieve steady state condition. Then note the readings in the observation table.
Observation Table:
Sr.No. Description Symbol Units Readings
Heat Energy (Time for 10 rev of
01. HE Sec.
EM)
0
02. Air inlet DBT Tdbi C
0
03. Air inlet WBT Twbi C
0
04. Air Outlet DBT Tdbo C
0
05. Air Outlet WBT Twbo C

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar


Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

3. Humidification:
Put sufficient water in steam generator and then start the steam generator. Now wait till
the sufficient pressure of steam (1Kg/cm2 ) is developed. Open the steam control valve
and admit the steam to the conditioning section. Control the opening valve so that steam
pressure is constant. Observe the steam flow in the section and note down the readings.
Observation Table
Sr.No. Description Symbol Units Readings
01. Steam Pressure Psteam Kg/cm2
0
02. Air inlet DBT Tdbi C
0
03. Air inlet WBT Twbi C
0
04. Air Outlet DBT Tdbo C
0
05. Air Outlet WBT Twbo C

Humidification may be accompanied by heating which is normally required in winter


condition.
Calculations
1) Cooling and dehumidification Cycle:
Air inlet condition - DBT : ________0C
WBT : ________0C
From psychrometric chart
Relative Humidity RH1 : ________%
Specific Humidity w1 : ________KJ/Kg of dry air.
Enthalpy h1 : ________KJ/Kg.
Air outlet condition - DBT : ________0C
WBT : ________0C
From psychrometric chart :
Relative Humidity RH2 : ________ %
Specific Humidity w2 : ________KJ/Kg of dry air.
Enthalpy h2 : ________KJ/Kg.
Get the air flow rate from the chart provided
𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 × (ℎ2 − ℎ1 )
𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟 =
𝑆𝑝. 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar


Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

Observation Table for PH Chart


Sr. No. Description Symbol Units Readings
01. Condensing Pressure Pc Bar.
0
02. Condenser Inlet Temperature T1 C
0
03. Condenser Outlet Temperature T2 C
04. Evaporating Pressure Pe Bar
0
05. Evaporator Inlet Temperature T3 C
0
06. Evaporator Outlet Temperature T4 C
07. Refrigerant Flow - LPH

Now from the P-H Chart, find enthalpy at the required pressure and temperature

ℎ4 − ℎ1
1) 𝐶𝑂𝑃𝑡ℎ =
ℎ2 − ℎ1

𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑎𝑖𝑟


2) 𝐶𝑂𝑃𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 =
𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 × 3600
𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑜𝑟 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 =
𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑛𝑜 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 × 𝐸𝑀𝐶𝑐

Where; EMC = Energy Meter Constant = 3200


𝑅𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 × (10 − 3) Kg
3) 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑡 = [ ]
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 hr
Precautions
1. Run the plant twice in a week.
2. While conducting heating experiment see that the temperature of air should not exceed
500C
3. When one experiment is over wait for 30 to 45 minutes for another experiment.
4. Before putting "ON" the steam generator, check the water level in the steam generator.
5. Before putting "ON" the room heater, start air blower.
6. Do not keep the unit in congested room. Leave about 1.5 m of space on all sides of the
Unit.
7. Operate all the switches, dimmer knob and valves gently.
8. Operate the dimmer switches gently and carefully.

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar


Lab Manual Refrigeration And Air Conditioning

Calibration by using Hand held Anemometer - Dimmer Position & Air Velocity

Sr. No. Dimmer Average Air Velocity


Position (m/sec)

01. Low 1.84

02. Medium 2.00

03. High 2.30

Saraswati College of Engineering Kharghar