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Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Function

Relations

A relation connects elements in set A (domain) to elements in set B (codomain) according to


the definition of the relation.

Relation between two sets can be represented by


(a) Arrow diagram
(b) Ordered pairs
(c) Cartesian graph

Example 1

The relation ‘is a factor of’ between set A = { 3, 4} and set B = {4, 6, 8} can be
represented as below:

(a) Arrow diagram

(b) Ordered pairs

{(3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 8)}

(c) Cartesian graph

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Domain, Codomain, Image, Object and Range

Example 2

The diagram above shows the relation between set A and set B. Find the domain, codomain and range
of the relation.

Answer

The domain is {a, b}

The codomain is {p, q, r, s}

The range is {p, q, r}

Example:

Domain = {3, 4, 5}
Codomain = {7, 9, 12, 15}
Range = {9, 12, 15} [Note: 7 is not an image because it is not mapped to any object.

3 is the object of 9, 12 and 15.


4 is the object of 12.
5 is the object of 15.

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Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

9, 12 and 15 are the images of 3.


12 is the image of 4.
15 is the image of 5.

Type of Relation

Types of Relation Diagram


1 One to One Relation

In this relation, each object in the


domain has only one image in the
codomain.

2 One to Many Relation

In this relation, one or more than one of


the objects in the domain has more than
one image in the codomain.

3 Many to One Relation

In this relation, there are more than one


objects in the domain that have the same
image in the codomain.

4 Many to Many Relation

In this relation, one or more than one of


the objects in the domain has more than
one image in the codomain, and there
are more than one object in the domain
that have the same image in the
codomain.

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Function as a special kind of relation

 A function is a relation in which every element in the domain has a unique image
(exactly one) in the codomain.
 One-to-one relation and many-to-one relation are examples of a special kind of
relation which we call function.
 A function should has the following properties:
o All objects must have at least 1 image.
o It is not necessarily that all elements in the codomain have object.
o An object cannot has more than 1 image.
o More than 1 object is allowed to have the same image.

Function is A Special ind of Relation


One to One Relation Many to One Relation

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Notation of function

As shown in figure above, for a function f:X→Y f:X→Y , each element x in


the domain X has a unique image y in the codomain Y.

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

COMPARARIOSN METHOD

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Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Finding a new function given a composite function.

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Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Finding new function given a composite function (Case B : Second function is given) Harder.
Make sure you try it !

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

Inverse Function

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Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809


Form 4: Additional Maths Chapter 1

CIKGU RS MURUGAN 016-4761809