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LG7004 Teaching Language for Specific Purposes

Report – Designing a short course for a cruise company’s employees


1. Introduction

This report uses an imagined situation of a Spanish cruise company and the specific
occupational needs of its employees. Most personnel on board is from a non-native English
speaking background, mainly Spanish-speaking, South American countries. Based on this
situation, an LSP approach is necessary. Language for specific purposes (LSP) or English for
specific purposes (ESP) is used for students with specific occupational needs (Basturkmen,
2010, p. 1). The report outlines the context of the situation, the communicative needs of such
employees/learners that result from it and the proposal for a short course including a syllabus,
sample lesson plan and examples of tasks employed. It also details the principles that motivate
the choices for the course. They are based in the relevant literature regarding ESP and the
reflection that followed the attendance of lectures and workshops during the ESP module for
which this report is intended.

2. Context

According to the British Office for National Statistics, in the 12 months to September
2016, the number of visits abroad by UK residents was 7% higher when compared with a year
earlier. Key destinations were North America and Europe which saw increases in British
visitors of 4% and 9% respectively (Ons.gov.uk, 2018). The Association of British Travel
Agents’ Travel Trends Report for 2017 informs that in 2016, people opted for more city breaks
and fewer traditional beach holidays. The ABTA report also reveals as part of their research
results for tourism trends in 2017 that one in ten holidaymakers (13%) are planning a cruise
in the next 12 months. The chance to see multiple destinations, the quality of the food and
drink on board and the quality of accommodation are quoted as being the main factors drawing
people to cruise (Abta.com, 2018). The Mediterranean was the most popular choice for British
customers in 2016, whilst the Canary Islands, the Norwegian Fjords and the Caribbean
continued to see increases in passenger numbers (Cruisecritic.co.uk, 2018).

In order to achieve the quality standard mentioned by the above publications which
reflect the British clientele’s desires and the positive impact it would represent to its planned
expansions into the British customer oriented market, the imagined company has decided to
invest in language instruction so that employees can better communicate and carry out duties
while dealing with the English-speaking passengers on the ship. A course, entitled EOP at
Sea, was proposed by the language instructors with the intent to employ LSP as “tool for
communication rather than as sets of phonological, grammatical and lexical items to be
memorized” (Nunan, 2004, p. 7). This ideology has an effect of what is taught to the students,
the approaches to teaching, and the relationship between the student and the teacher.

Tasks the learners will have to carry out which will be the subject of close observation
by the LSP practitioners are related to duties that may include restaurant waiting, room
service, shop keeping, gambling, and spa duties. Where possible, cooperation between those
members of staff with higher level of proficiency in English and the teachers will fill in the
knowledge gap about hospitality industry jobs those teachers are likely to experience. That
could be done on a regular basis, in and out of the classroom through informal conversation,
for example.

Officers, managers and supervisors as well as lower deck employees are excluded
from the course for they are either required to already possess excellent level of English as
part of the recruitment criteria process or because there is no need for passenger x staff
interaction. Managers of departments will have their perceptions of what is considered to be
the appropriate language to be acquired by their crew expressed and discussed with the LSP
team. This collaboration will provide vital data regarding what is to become the real content of
EOP at sea while its deliverance is carefully fitted within the carrier content of situational
themes which will define the units of the syllabus. This is in line with Dudley-Evans and St
John’s (1998) beliefs that “ESP work extends beyond teaching”, exercising other key roles
and, with EOP at Sea, where the course is “specifically oriented towards the work that the
students are engaged in”, this is a fundamental approach if the course is to “generate genuine
content in the classroom” (pp. 13-14).

Those involved in carrying out duties related to hospitality and expected to attend the
course will have had some prior experience in the industry in their homeland which leaves
only one major problem to solve: their English language needs. There is, however, a minimum
level of English competence required and, everyone expected to interact with passengers will
have to prove an elementary level of competence during the recruitment process. That comes
as a result of consultations with the company directors by the language instructors which
revealed that there would be a high demand for complex English workplace literacy in the
restaurant to start with. Another need for more sophisticated language needs emerged for the
staff in the gambling section of the cruise ship aimed at achieving the communicative purpose
of selling. There is also a need for other staff in housekeeping to have a good basis level of
competence on which appropriate language to handle foreseeable daily communication with
the tourists will be built upon. All decisions derive from a view to ensure the success of the

3. Class Profile

The figures used in this section of the report are part of the imagined scenario. They
have been devised solely for the purpose of illustrating the class profile for which the course

is designed. There are 617 crew members working on the ship. There are 402 staff members
who need to be trained. They work in the service part of the ship and are required to interact
with the customers on a daily basis. The workers are also ethnically diverse, which will affect
the design of the course. Out of the 402 staff, 113 of them are dining room waiters and
bartenders. 104 are casino staff. 84 are working as housekeeping and 101 are working as
retail clerks. Out of the 402 staff, 48.9% are male and 51.1% are female. All have a secondary
diploma from their native countries. 70% of them are from Spanish-speaking countries with
their first language being Spanish. This group also accounts for the waiters, retail clerks, and
casino staff. They have had some English education in secondary school and/ or private
language schools. This group consists of staff from the age of 25-40. The 25% represent
housekeeping and some waiters. 17% come from Brazil and speak Portuguese as their first
language. 8% come from other countries. The age group here consists of staff from 35-50
years old. L1 as a tool in the classroom will be encouraged but as a ‘tool’ only. The LSP
practitioners are aware of the implications, good or bad, that large homogeneous groups are
exposed to when it comes to use L1 in the classroom and so, the use of Spanish in the
classroom is set to be supervised.

4. Needs Analysis

“Analysis of target situation needs is concerned with language use. But language use
is only part of the story. We also need to know about language learning. Analysis of the target
situation can tell us what people do with language. What we also need to know is how people
learn to do what they do with language. We need, in other words, a learning-centred approach
to needs analysis” (Hutchinson and Waters 1987, p. 53). As a means to start the process of
identifying the learners’ needs, an initial needs analysis was carried out using Hutchinson and
Waters’ (1987) learner-centred suggestions for frameworks that cover both target situation
and learning needs analysis. It is subsequently followed by a more detailed framework, this
time following Dudley-Evans and St John’ s “current concept of needs analysis” (1998). The
former provides for a practical overview of the subject in question paving the way for the latter,
a more comprehensive scrutiny. Please refer to the breakdown of info gathered in these
attempts to analyse EOP at sea’s learners’ needs as it follows:

1. Appendix 2 - Final Needs Analysis following Dudley-Evans and St John’ s “current

concept of needs analysis” (1998) – p. 21

2. Appendix 3 - Initial Learning needs analysis following a framework suggested by

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) – p. 25

3. Appendix 4 - Initial Target situation analysis framework following a framework

suggested by Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) – p. 27

5. Syllabus

5.1. Underlying principles

A key function of LSP is its provision of instruction carefully tailored to meet the
particular needs of the learners (Belcher, 2009). Belcher’s statement is the foundation upon
which other principles guiding the course design will be based. There’s an emerging
consensus amongst the LSP team to create a course that will maximize authentic language
retention and give students opportunities to communicate employing the appropriate language
needed for the target setting while simultaneously providing extra skills required for social
interaction during the time when workers are not on duty. This is to ensure the course remains
appealing, motivating and engaging, even for those who are not entirely satisfied with their
employment status and sees the learning of a foreign language as a route to better
themselves. Life on the vessel can become extremely repetitive and some of the roles may
prove too strenuous. The well-being of the crew is not a priority for the LSP team, but they
understand the impact the learning might have on social interaction which is key to avoid
problems such as isolation or even depression.

The requirements of an ESP course comprise of a needs assessment, content-based

teaching methods, and content-area informed instructors for specific purpose teaching (Huhta
et al., 2013, p. 135). The role of a teacher in ESP teaching is not only that of an expert in
English but also of a course designer, materials provider, collaborator, researcher and
evaluator. (Dudley-Evans and St John’s 1998, p.13). In this case, EOP at sea must have
instructors who are willing to broaden their knowledge of the work-related operations that take
place on the vessel and, to a certain extent, the ins and outs of hospitality good practices. “If
there is to be meaningful communication in the classroom, it is essential that there is a
common fund of knowledge and interest between teacher and learner. This implies inevitably
that the ESP teacher must know something about the subject matter of the ESP materials”
(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987, p.163).

The team have taken into consideration the 20 principles outlined by Nation and
Macalister (2010) in relation to content and sequencing, format and presentation and
monitoring and assessment (pp. 38,39) as framework to guideline the syllabus design and
teacher training. They have also agreed that due to the nature of the premises they will be
working at, namely a vessel on the move, some of the free time available which cannot be
spent on shore could be used for self-study and enhancement of their knowledge on the
theoretical aspects of LSP. So, for instance, while looking at the format and presentation
principles from Nation and Macalister related to comprehensible input and output, the teachers
could consider examining related relevant literature available as to assist the application of

those principles consistently. For the purposes of illustration for this report, the following
paragraph is to be seen as an example of note-taking and point for discussion by the LSP
practitioners during informal meetings in between teaching duties.

After outlining important vocabulary and content, the syllabus should repeat these
concepts whenever possible. This is especially true for certain vocabulary or sentences that
are challenging. According to empirical research, more exposure must be provided for
language forms that are more abstract and redundant (Gadalla, 1981, p. 60). In order for
students to understand and use the structures, higher frequency of input is needed to help
students acquire these structures (Gadalla, 1981, p. 63). Harder and more complex structures
can be acquired because the students are all adults. Empirically, it is shown that the older
students' cognitive level are higher so it provides ideal intellectual threshold for learning longer
and more complex speech (Gadalla, 1981, p. 63). While it is important for learners to have
plenty of opportunities to speak, the teacher should speak English whenever possible because
listening expedites language learning. According to acquisition research, L1 and L2 speakers
both listen before they learn to speak (Gadalla, 1981, p. 64). Students are always more
advanced in their ability to comprehend speech rather than being able to produce speech. In
this context, the ability to produce speech is crucial so listening must take an important role in
the course. The role of grammar in the course should also be based on empirical studies.
From research, older children and adults are more cognitively oriented (Gadalla, 1981, p. 65).
They have the ability to imitate and judge sentence structures, but this may not be used in
their communicative inventory. In this context, teaching grammar is important, but it is unlikely
that students will retain so many grammatical rules in such a short period of time. It is also
important that grammar is not judged to reflect the communicative ability of the learners.
Instead, the course must teach a range of communicative situations which the student must
function and assess their ability accordingly.

5.2. Content, sequencing and format

The syllabus for EOP at Sea is meant to be looked at as pilot model attempt at putting
together a situational/functional syllabus that would “provide contexts of discourse in which
form and meaning coincide. Students are not asked to learn disembodied forms with multiple
potential meanings or uses, but to hear and use the forms in contexts that illustrate and
reinforce the form/meaning relationship. In this way, situations can break the sentence level
barrier and demonstrate to learners, to some degree, how language operates in larger units
of discourse” (Krahnke, 1987, p. 45). It is being referred to as functional as well for it has been
noted by Long (2015) that situational syllabi could reasonably be expected to refer to
organization around where language is used – at the restaurant, at the airport, at the

supermarket, and so on. In practice, however, many so-called situational syllabi are really
structural-situational, with situations mere backgrounds for the broad contextualization of
grammatical constructions, sequenced “within situations” in the usual manner for structural
syllabi. (p. 212).

Making sensible, well-justified decisions about content is one of the most important
parts of curriculum design. If poor content is chosen, then excellent teaching and learning
result in a poor return for learning effort” (Nation and Macalister, 2010, p.71). The designers
of the course have followed the framework provided by Nation and Macalister (2010) for the
goals, content and sequencing of EOP at Sea. Its content is based on work-related situational
themes which will define the relevance and choice of useful language items. “Even if the
selection of content for a course is based on topics, themes or situations, it is useful to check
to see that the language items that are covered are the most useful ones” (Nation and
Macalister, 2010, p.71) The Vocabulary items described on the syllabus, as an example, serve
as a basic list onto which the teachers will add on the specific, high-frequency words related
to the different departments from which learners come from. However, “a list may be used as
a way of checking or determining the content of a course, but this does not mean that the
lessons have to consist of item by item teaching. A conversation course for example could be
carefully planned to cover the important high frequency vocabulary and structures, and still
consist of a series of very free task-based conversation activities” (cited in Nation and
Macalister, 2010, p.25). The lessons must be based on carefully chosen language items based
on criterion closely related to its pertinence to the target setting. Yet, the team envisages that
when possible and with an intent to make the sessions dynamic and enjoyable, skills, ideas
and text could also play a role as second points of focus for lesson planning, provided it will
not cause the course design to move away from its core principles. The LSP team will avoid
vocabulary not present in the most frequent 2000 words in line with Nation’s (2001)
recommendation and emphasize the need for target setting-related vocabulary (e.g. shorex,
muster, purser, galley, gangway). The frequency level will be the determiner for vocabulary
sequencing. Grammar is excluded as a unit of progression. Instead, progression will follow
the need for building competence through getting things done in the workplace as language
functions prior to other functions such as socialising, for example.

Starting point Type Units of progression Determinants of progression

Situations and roles Field Situations/Roles Order of complexity

Figure 1. Eop at Sea units of progression according to Nation and Macalister (2010)

A modular arrangement is thought to be considered the best option for the course
content sequencing considering the likelihood of learners skipping classes due to overtime
working schedules, tiredness, sickness, etc. Any learner is welcome to attend any of the three
daily runs of the course. If they happen to start a unit without having completed the previous
one, the instructors will request for the learner to revisit the missed unit once the current one
is completed. Once all 7 units of the course have been delivered, it starts again the following
week from unit 1. Each unit comprises of 3 weeks’ worth of attendance and therefore the total
run of the course is 21 weeks. The classes take places on Mondays, Wednesdays and
Fridays. The Mondays and Wednesdays sessions last 45 minutes. Fridays are allocated for
Task-based activities and/or pronunciation workshops. These Fridays sessions last longer:
two blocks of 30 minutes with a 10-minute break. It is during the Friday sessions that learners
will have the opportunity to perform their weekly role-play task with willing passengers and
senior members of staff participating as actors. For the teaching team this is their chance to
step back and focus on observed assessment of the language produced by the learners,
taking notes and planning feedback. According to Cruisecritic.co.uk, upon successful
completion of their training, new crew members are offered a contract that typically ranges
from two to nine months. Most learners will be able to finish their course before taking their
holidays or leaving the company in case of an unwillingness to renew contract and return.

6. Teaching Methodology

First of all, the class is very large, so it will rely on mostly pair and group work as well
as large lecture-style teaching. L1 as a tool in the classroom will be encouraged but as a ‘tool’
only. The LSP practitioners are aware of the implications, good or bad, that large
homogeneous groups are exposed to when it comes to use L1 in the classroom and so, the
use of Spanish in the classroom is set to be supervised. This course will utilize task-based
language teaching as an approach on Fridays for the role-play workshops, but it is at thei
teachers’ discretion to apply a combination of methodologies and approaches during the
Mondays and Wednesday lectures according to the groups’ needs. Because this is an LSP
syllabus, it must fulfil the learners' needs which are to be based on communicative tasks.
Whichever methodology the teacher is employing on any given moment of a lesson, they must
remain aware of the need to provide the learners with tasks which best activates language
learning processes. The LSP practitioners believe that learners in a EOP context such as the
one imagined for the purpose of this report would benefit from language instruction that
emphasizes the use of real-world tasks. Such tasks are primarily focused on meaning (Long,
2015, p. 17). The classes on Fridays are split into two slots with a short break in between. A

teacher can always make plans for the second session to focus on task-based teaching and
learning only.

If the teachers have decided to carry out a pronunciation workshop on a Friday instead
of role play performance and assessment, they can also employ the methodology that best
suits the group attending that session. “It is important not to base any approach too narrowly
on one theory. As with language descriptions, it is wise to take an eclectic approach, taking
what is useful from each theory and trusting also in the evidence of your own experience as a
teacher. It is probable that there are cognitive, affective and behaviourist aspects to learning,
and each can be a resource to the ESP practitioner. For example, you may choose a
behaviourist approach to the teaching of pronunciation, a cognitive approach to the teaching
of grammar and use affective criteria in selecting your texts” (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987,
p. 51). The time constraints in the course mean limiting content and prioritizing certain
information. The class size means that not all individualized needs and concerns will be
addressed, but this is partly ameliorated through the design of the course, which seeks to have
individualized assessment in the end of each week.

8. Sample Lesson and Task

9. Assessment

The purpose of the monitoring and assessment part of curriculum design is to make sure
that the learners will get the most benefit from the course. This involves carefully observing the
learners and the course, and suggesting changes to the course and the way it is run (Nation and
Macalister, 2010, p.105) There is a placement test which is part of the recruitment process.
Through classroom observation and technique analysis all activities will be monitored, and
should an issue arise, the information gathered should be discussed by the LSP team. Short-
term achievement assessment will take place every Friday when learners perform the role
play task based on the contents of the previous two sessions (Monday and Wednesdays).
Instructors will set out scenarios for the participants to play out and judge accordingly the
achievements of the students. A chart of skills improvement will be used by the teachers
observing the performance and learners receive immediate feedback where points for follow
up improvement are recommended (see figure 2). For the purposes of examining the
effectiveness of the course as well as testing the students, an summative online English
Language Test for Cruise Ship Staff will be applied and a certificate awarded to those who
pass it. “The Marlins English Language Test for Cruise Ship Staff is tailored specifically for the
Cruise Industry. The test is applicable to all marine hospitality positions on board cruise ships
and can be taken by any nationality in any location worldwide. Test questions have particular

emphasis on staff / guest interactions and customer service within a multicultural environment”
(Marlinstests.com, 2018).

Teachers involved in ESP curriculum developments must set external and internal goals
for language teaching. The external goals in this context refer to the ability for learners to
achieve communicative purposes in their jobs in the cruise ship (Basturkmen, 2010, p. 7). An
example might be being able to address a customer's concerns about where the restaurant is
from their room. External goals are assessed through the cooperation of the company to judge
employees in these situations. Internal goals refer to the aims in the classroom such as
achieving the skills in the tasks set in the classroom (Basturkmen, 2010, p. 8). The assessment
should reflect accordingly to these principles.

Moreover, assessment should be based on achieving the objectives of the course

which includes linguistic system, social rules and the use of language. A narrow angle course
will have objectives that are mainly the linguistic system while a wide-angle course will have
ones that are concerned with the procedural knowledge of language (Bruce, 2005, p. 240).
The course has mixed needs due to the diversity of the group, and therefore, the assessment
should categorize what kind of objectives were achieved to glean a good picture of the
achievements of the class.

Situation/function Not Achieved Partly Achieved Achieved Achieved Well

Asking for and 0 1 2 3

giving personal


Asking for help 0 1 2 3

Describing services 0 1 2 3

and products

available on board

Describing activities 0 1 2 3

on board in action

Expressing opinion 0 1 2 3

and making

suggestions in a

workplace context

Explaining 0 1 2 3


complaints to


Discussing 0 1 2 3




Figure 2. Example of what an assessment chart of skills could look like for Eop at Sea.

10. Evaluation

“A formative evaluation has the purpose of forming or shaping the course to improve
it. A summative evaluation has the purpose of making a summary or judgement on the quality
or adequacy of the course so that it can be compared with other courses, compared with
previous summative evaluations, or judged as being up to a certain criterion or not” (Nation
and Macalister, 2010, pp. 125-126). At the end of each run of the course the LSP team will
carry out a course review. They understand it is “both good practice and a management
requirement that the curriculum is evaluated” (Wilson, 2009, p.495) and have agreed to make
use of the focus and tools for evaluation of teaching and learning proposed by Nation and
Macalister (2010, p. 129) as a guideline when making decisions to whether the course is
successful and where it needs to be improved.

11. Conclusion

This report showed an imagined context to demonstrate how English for Specific
Purposes (ESP) can be used for students with specific occupational needs. There is always
the limitation of content-knowledge for course developers. While devising and applying the
course, the instructors must keep on broadening their knowledge about what language is
required in a cruise ship work environment and how to best effectively deliver the
teaching/learning experience that will fulfil the needs of the learners. It should be
acknowledged that despite detailed planning, the course developers and instructors ought to
analyse the needs of the speakers prior and during the course to see if there are any gaps to
be filled and for purposes of assessment and evaluation.


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List of Appendix

1. Appendix 1 - Syllabus for the EOP at Sea course - p. 16

2. Appendix 2 - Final Needs Analysis following Dudley-Evans and St John’ s “current

concept of needs analysis” (1998) – p. 21

3. Appendix 3 - Initial Learning needs analysis following a framework suggested by

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) – p. 25

4. Appendix 4 - Initial Target situation analysis framework following a framework

suggested by Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) – p. 27

5. Appendix 5 - Examples of concrete activities that would take place during the Friday

Workshops – p. 28

6. Appendix 6 - Examples of job profiles which would be eligible for EOP at Sea – p. 31

7. Appendix 7 – Lesson Plan example for EOP at Sea – p. 33

8. Appendix 8 – Handout for a lesson example – p. 36

Appendix 1. Syllabus for the EOP at Sea course

EOP at Sea: Proposing a syllabus for an English for Cruise Ship Employees ESP course *
Lectures: Mondays (45 min) & Wednesdays (45 mins)
Workshops: Fridays (2x 30 min sessions with a 10 min break in between)

* Adapted from:

Esol.britishcouncil.org. (2017). Catering | ESOL Nexus. [online] Available at: https://esol.britishcouncil.org/content/learners/english-for-

work/catering [Accessed 8 Dec. 2017].

Nisbet, A., Kutz, A. and Logie, C. (1997). Marlins English for seafarers. Edinburgh: Marlins.

Oxenden, C., Latham-Koenig, C. and Seligson, P. (2010). New English file. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

All on
1 Board!
 Asking for and giving personal
Countries; adjectives of
Recognizing key

Staff Handbook
 Identifying nationalities nationality and personality; questions; listening  Guest files
 Describing personality numbers 1-100, on board jobs to the life goals and
 Greeting and receiving guests Grammar: life plan of another
Present Simple Tense (to be / to person
have); common verbs; Speaking: Friday Workshops
possessive adjectives; using the Practising use of Study Skills: Ways of recording new
modal construction would like to Wh- questions; vocabulary
indicate a wish personal Role play: Checking in a new passenger;
Phonology: information taking an order from a passenger
Question Intonation; Identifying exchange; spelling Pronunciation Workshop
syllables and producing stress of out names  Consonants
multi-syllabic words; producing Writing: The sounds of English
the schwa sound: Outlining personal / h /, / aʊ /, and / ɒ /
/ ə /. goals and dreams / ɪ /, / aɪ /
/ e /, / iː /, / ʃ /
My Job
2 

Practising ordinal numbers
Telling the time
Basic verbs of routine; numbers 100 –
 Job adverts and profiles
(skim / for detail reading)
1000; months, dates and time; colours
 Talking about daily routines and common adjectives words/ phrases  Reception and Restaurant logs
 Asking for help Grammar: Speaking:  To-do checklists and briefs
Present Simple questions using ‘when’ Talking about daily
 Describing crew positions and and ‘what time’; third person form;
work experience routines; listing Friday Workshops
negative form, modal verbs would and
could; singular and plural forms; one’s ideal jobs; Study Skills: Planning your learning
possessive adjectives; possessive s; can listing one’s goals Role play: Teamwork challenge
and can’t for permission and possibility for the future Pronunciation Workshop
Writing:  The vowels
Emphasizing focus words; practising The sounds of English
pronunciation of plural nouns and Journal entry: 24
/ z /, / s /
possessive s; practising clear speech; hours on a ship,
praising words into thought groups and
/ ð /, / ʌ /, and / ə /
writing and replying / æ /, / eɪ /, / ɑː /, and / ɔɪ /
pausing between the phrases.
to a job adverts

Our Ship
3 

Identifying places on board
Describing locations
Places on board and around
For gist and detail:
 Brochure about
the ship
 Describing services and products town; common objects on the understanding  Travel guides
available on board ship directions and  Vessel plan
 Asking for and giving directions Grammar: identifying places  Product labels
 Finding your way around the There is/There are; adverbs of on board.
vessel and in town frequency prepositions of place; Speaking:
 Expressing agreement and articles; possessive s Information
understanding Phonology: exchange about
Emphasizing focus words; places on board; Friday Workshops
sentence stress; phrasing words using simple Study Skills: How to improve
into thought groups and pausing expressions for your writing
between the phrases; practising offering Role play: Recommending onshore
a polite intonation; linking suggestions and locations for customers
sounds; pronouncing third giving advice. Pronunciation Workshop
person s Writing:  Stress
Detailed directions The sounds of English
based on map / uː /, / w /, / v /
interpretations / tʃ /, / dʒ /, / g /

4 Passenger:  Identifying main costumer
service responsibilities
Adjectives that describe physical and
For gist and detail:

Staff handbook
job application form
our Identifying a person from
character traits; nouns for available
 Identifying features and benefits events on board; clothing, food and
a description of  feedback forms (recommend a
customers of one’s job appearance (looks, member of staff
drinks, verbs that describe work uniform, character)
 Identifying on board retail sales actions Speaking: for star of the month award)
responsibilities Grammar: Talking about excellent
 Describing activities on board in Adverbs of manner and degree; customer service from
Present continuous; present different jobs’
action perspectives; talking
 Distinguishing between routine continuous v. present simple; look Friday Workshops
about events on board –
like v. to be like, must for obligation; Study Skills: Assessing my peer’s
activities and current actions word order in questions
when and where.
Writing: written work
 Describing people Phonology: Giving written feedback Role play: Dealing with a complaint
 Comparing physical Emphasizing focus words; sentence to colleagues about (problem-solving)
appearances stress; phrasing words into thought something they did well. Pronunciation Workshop
groups and pausing between the Filling out an application  Rhythm
phrases; contracted sounds form. Writing the
questions for a job
The sounds of English
interview / eə /, / ɒ /, / aʊ /, and / j /

5 

Identifying emergency situations
Recognizing and carrying out
Emergency-related words and
Responding to

Health and safety reports
emergency procedures commands, words related to commands;  Signage
 Producing accurate commands health and safety in one’s Identifying
 Analysing safety and risks at the department, words related to appropriate ways to
workplace in all departments health and safety signage on approach and
 Expressing opinion and making board. inform passengers
suggestions in a workplace Grammar: Speaking:
context Past simple; regular and irregular Describing steps in
 Discussing workplace verbs; demonstrative adjectives; an emergency;
communication equipment imperatives; must/ must not for talking about ways
 Dealing with customers’ safety in prohibition; How much? How of preventing risks
an emergency Many? - Quantifiers; Should for at the workplace;
advice; Will for immediate discussing hazards Friday Workshops
decisions in different Study Skills: Revision of writing
Phonology: departments on processes
Emphasizing focus words; board Role play: A fire drill
sentence stress; phrasing words Writing: Pronunciation Workshop
into thought groups and pausing Filling in an  Connected speech
between the phrases accident report The sounds of English
/ ɜː /

6 permitting  Identifying and describing current
and future weather conditions
Months and seasons; weather-related
For gist and detail:
 Register reconcile logs and reports
 News articles about weather
words and idioms; adjectives that Weather forecast,
 Describing cause and effect describe weather conditions; identifying money sums (intensive reading, identifying paragraph
 Explaining customer complaints Compass/gps/ localization technology- when listening to cash topics)
related vocabulary; British money-related transaction dialogues
to supervisors words and expressions Speaking:
 Making suggestions for outdoor Grammar: Talking about the Friday Workshops
entertainment to customers Past perfect; Be going to for predictions; weather, talking about Study Skills: Hints for good
object pronouns; revision of past simple; money presentation skills
 Identifying British notes and Be going to for plans Writing: Role play: Cash transaction
coins Phonology: Interpreting weather Pronunciation Workshop
Emphasizing focus words; sentence symbols to write about
 Intonation
stress; phrasing words into thought current and future
groups and pausing between the phrases weather
The sounds of English
/ eə / and / ɪə

7 time

Choosing food and drinks
Expressing preferences
Food and beverage; hobbies;
Listening:  Internal communication texts
(emails, circulars, memos)
 Giving details of quantities and quantity-related words Understanding  Menus
weights Grammar: attitude through  Diary entry
 Calculating prices Countable/uncountable nouns; intonation;
verbs to express preference; like comprehension of
+ (verb +ing); some and any dialogues
Ways of asking for things
Phonology: Speaking:
Emphasizing focus words; Describing
sentence stress; phrasing words quantities and
into thought groups and pausing weight
between the phrases Friday Workshop
Study Skills: Self-assessment strategies
Writing: Role play: Organising a staff party
Writing a memo to Pronunciation Workshop
the head chef  connected speech
requesting food the sounds:
and beverage for a / ʊ /, / uː /, and / ŋ /
staff party

Appendix 2. Final Needs Analysis following Dudley-Evans and St John’ s “current
concept of needs analysis” (1998, p.125)

Needs Analysis

The following will discuss the communicative needs of the class, the target situation and
how they can be realized following Dudley-Evans and St John’ s “current concept of needs
analysis” framework (1998, p. 125).

a. Professional information about the learners

The greatest need is for basic conversational skills in the communication between staff
and the customers. All staff members are needed to greet the British tourists whenever they
meet to provide a level of comfort and build rapport. Apart from greeting, staff members are
also required to address potential concerns from British tourists such as directions of places
on the cruise, potential travel problems, handle complaints and provide adequate information
about the destinations or cruise events. Some English skills for appropriate and successful
social interaction are required to heighten politeness.

The staff members working in the restaurants, bars, and casinos are required to
understand subject-specific language use and vocabulary related to food, drinks, and
gambling. Staff members need to be able to make speech acts such as explaining, defining,
or clarifying the menu items, casino games, and machines on top of attaining the underlying
knowledge in English. Staff members in these areas must have the ability to read English at
an elementary to intermediate level which will be in the menu or slot machine rules, for
example. They are also required to develop strategic competence in their use of English so
as to encourage tourists to buy certain menu items, try promotions, or play certain casino

b. Personal information about the learners

All learners have a positive attitude towards English. Many learners attach a prestige to
learning English. They see it as a way to enhance their job. They are required by the company
to complete training, so the course is not voluntary. However, they expect to get the most out
of it. All have previous secondary school experience, so they understand how to learn in a
large class size. Culturally, the majority of the staff are from Spanish-speaking countries, but
there are other ethnic minorities. A foreseeable problem might be the unwillingness to
participate in pair or group work because of this.

c. Present Situation analysis

Currently, all staff lack literacy in reading and writing English at the level expected by the
company. All staff can ask basic English questions such as "how are you?" or communicate
other personal information. Their basic vocabulary range is 100 to 120 words. They can
understand simple sentences.

d. What learners lack

All learners currently lack lexicons related to their field of work. All learners lack
communicative competence such as key pragmatic functions to express and understand
conversation in English. Staff requiring a higher level of English demonstrate a lack of lexicon
in food and gambling, communication strategies, discourse transitions, eliciting feedback
responses, and speech acts. They lack grammar and reading comprehension.

e. Learning needs

All staff members need to learn through communication because their job is centred
around this. The learning needs to be interactive and involve a large group size, so the learning
must be able to transmit to a large group of people. As there will be a noticeable time gap
between each lesson, the materials need to be designed to be memorable. The staff members
also need to learn in a relatively constrained time frame, so each lesson needs to be designed

f. Profession communication information

f.i. Linguistic Analysis

The course designers hope that learners will acquire from 500-1000 vocabulary items
related to a combination of specifically work-related key speech acts spread along the syllabus
through teaching scenarios that will also allow for general English skills to be developed. Such
speech acts come under the column in the syllabus entitled Key Function Focus. Greeting and
receiving guests, asking for help, explaining customers’ complaints to supervisors, to name a
few, are some of the key function focus items that will be taught along with other, more general
situation-related language such as talking about daily routine and expressing preferences.
The LSP practitioners have agreed to accommodate the suggestions by the learners that the
course should not solely include work-related language as to make it more appealing and fun.
Although the syllabus for the course is meant to follow a situational/functional structure; where
possible and, in order to deliver a learner-centred experience, language shall be described in
whichever way it best suits each group. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that “there is

no single source from which a language course can, or should, derive its linguistic input. The
various developments (of language description theory) are not separate entities. Each stage
has reacted to, and drawn inspiration from, those preceding it. A functional description does
not imply that a structural description is wrong, simply that it is not sufficient as an explanation
of what language is like. The ESP teacher needs to recognise that the various approaches
are different ways of looking at the same thing. All communication has a structural level, a
functional level and a discoursal level. They are not mutually exclusive, but complementary,
and each may have its place in the ESP course” (p. 37).

The teachers also believe that this will encourage them to carry on using English out of
working hours which in turn would improve their fluency and confidence. The lack of fluency
and accuracy can affect not only the learner’s performance at work but are vital during an
emergency where communicating instructions and/or receiving commands are critical. A
health and safety culture on board is a paramount aspect of the working life on the vessel and
the stakeholders have requested for the LSP practitioners to make sure it is consistently
addressed in the classroom. Learners should be able to understand simple sentence S-V-O
patterns in English and understand simple questions.

f.ii. Discourse Analysis

The course emphasizes on communicative competence. Discourse analysis is

understanding language through social interaction. “It examines how the use of language is
influenced by relationships between participants as well as the effects the use of language
has upon social identities and relations” (Paltridge, 2006, p. 2). The course will teach learners
how to turn take, ask questions, and understand the questions. There will be an emphasis on
how language should be used and decoded in different situations.

f.iii. Genre Analysis

The course needs to teach learners the genre of their social contexts which are
underpinned by the hospitality roles they play at work and the various situations that particular
setting will bring about. The course will teach learners what sorts of expectations there are in
the workplace in regard to language. Politeness is emphasized here. It is a principle that
derives from Penycooks’s (2010) definition of genre as “getting things done through language”
9 p. 122). Miller’s (1984) notion of “genre as social action” remind the LSP practitioners of the
importance of taking into account the implications that “different texts, roles, and contexts,
further lead to different ways of doing things with language, different ways of joining in on
disciplinary and professional conversations” (Paltridge 2013, p.354).

g. Demand from the course

The course should replicate situations that the staff will encounter with customers. The
course needs to teach staff vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure, and communicative
competency. The course also needs to make sure that every learner has a basic level of
understanding in English while those who work in areas where there is demand for more
elaborate production of language should aim at attaining a higher level of competency in
complex situations such as dealing with guests at gambling tables or dealing with complaints
from dissatisfied customers.

h. Means Analysis

The course will run 3 times a day. There will be morning, afternoon and evening classes.
Work start times change regularly due to a roster system and so, depending on what time of
the day a learner’s shift starts, he or she can attend one of the 3 daily sessions. They will be
the same in content. The Monday and Wednesday sessions are 45 minutes long whilst the
workshops on Fridays will last longer: 60 minutes. In order to advance through to the following
week’s contents, one needs to complete the whole 150 mins for the previous week. Each unit
in the syllabus is delivered in three weeks totalling 7.5 hours. It is during the Friday workshops
that the role-play tasks will take place as a means to practise what has been learned during
the Monday and Wednesday lectures. During Fridays, members of senior staff and willing
guests will visit the classes to assist as actors. Unless the teacher has decided to work with
pronunciation instead of assessed performance of role plays, they are to stay in the classroom.
Otherwise the role play practice can happen anywhere on board.

Adapted from: Dudley-Evans, T. and St John, M. (2007). Developments in English for specific
purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Appendix 3. Initial Learning needs analysis following a framework suggested by
Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987).
Why are the learners taking the course?
 Compulsory or optional: Compulsory.
 Apparent need or not: Apparent.
 Are status, money, promotion involved? Yes – Language skills are part of promotion
 What do learners think they will achieve? Ls are constantly and consistently informed of
their learning goals.
 What is their attitude towards the ESP course? Do they want to improve their English, or
do they resent the time they have to spend on it? There are strategies in place to keep Ls
motivated e.g. Star of the month award, bursaries for external proficiency tests in different
levels, etc.
How do the learners learn?
 What is their learning background? The majority of the Ls taking the course come from
Spanish speaking/ South American countries.
 What is their concept of teaching and learning? Most learners will have had some sort of
experience as a learner in a language course, mainly English.
 What methodology will appeal to them? The course is designed to incorporate a
combination of methods/approaches with a focus on task-based teaching and learning.
The language instructor takes into account the individual needs/preferences of Ls, and
where possible, will try and tailor make activities and adapt teaching approaches/methods.
 What sort of techniques are likely to bore/alienate them? That will vary from learner to
learner, but the teacher should be able to identify when that happens and modify the
techniques used in the classroom accordingly in order to avoid a decline on Ls motivation.
What resources are available?
 Number and professional competence of teachers. The company will make sure the
language instructor has sufficient experience in EOP. This experience is stated on the job
profile and part of the criteria used on the recruitment process. At least 2 language
instructors will be on board at all times.
 Attitude of teachers to ESP: The attitude from a professional committed to the principles
that underpin their field of expertise.
 Teachers' knowledge of and attitude to the subject content: Previous EOP experience is
required and a willingness to try out innovative approaches to teaching is welcome.

 Materials: Existing and/or developed for the purposes of the course. A plethora of different
materials can be obtained to support and assist the application of decisions made before
and during the course.
 Aids: From traditional to cutting-edge technology e.g. tablets, computers, a language lab,
 Opportunities for out-of-class activities: Learners can, for example, practise or be
assessed during work hours and in many locations on board.
Who are the learners?
 Age/sex/nationality: Age range varies from 18-50. No gender restriction. Anyone is
welcome to apply for a position, but the company will give preference to Spanish speakers
with a beginners/elementary level of English.
 What do they know already about English? Beginners level is pre-requisite to the
recruitment process.
 What subject knowledge do they have? The Ls will have at least some experience in
customer service/ catering/ cleaning, etc.
 What are their interests? Various.
 What is their socio-cultural background? Mainly migrants from South America with
minimum qualification (Secondary school) and willing to stay in Spain for the near future.
 What teaching styles are they used to? Those typically found in secondary schools in
South America e.g. Teacher-centred. Language learning at the level of pure forms and
with the purposes of passing written tests.
 What is their attitude to English or to the cultures of the English-speaking world? As
migrants, these Ls will regard English-speaking countries as privileged societies – lands
of opportunity, and will probably develop a positive culture of admiration and respect to
their cultures.
Where will the ESP course take place?
 Are the surroundings pleasant, dull, noisy, cold etc? On board of a luxurious cruise liner
vessel where all sorts of spaces suitable for learning can be found such as classrooms,
function rooms, public spaces (provided they are not open to the public or if observation
of performance is taking place, no restrictions to the presence of passengers).
When will the ESP course take place?
 Time of day: To suit the learner’s working schedule.
 Every day/once a week: The course runs 3 times a week; 2 x 40 mins lecture sessions
with a 10 min break in-between (e.g. Mondays and Wednesdays) plus a Workshop session
on Friday. Again, 2 x 40 mins sessions with a 10-min break between them.
 Full-time/part-time: Part-time.

 Concurrent with need or pre-need: Concurrent.
Adapted from: Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes. a Learning
Centred Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Appendix 4. Initial Target situation analysis framework following a framework

suggested by Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987)

Why is the language needed? For a combination of work, training and possibly promotion.

How will the language be used?

 Medium: Speaking, writing, reading etc.

 Channel: Mainly face-to-face. Some internal type of technology such as radio, intranet and
internet maybe be used too.
 Types of text or discourse: Formal and informal spoken English, customer-staff interaction,
staff-staff interaction, work-related texts; e.g. logs, reports, manuals, checklists, etc.

What will the content areas be? English for Occupational purposes with a focus on
customer service skills within a maritime context.

 level: Minimum level required to take a position in the company: beginner.

Who will the learner use the language with? Native and non-native speakers.

 Level of knowledge of receiver: Native or near native speaker level (customers and senior
members of staff as well as managers and supervisors).
 Relationship: Different types of relationship: customers, colleagues, superiors,
subordinates and language instructors.

Where will the language be used?

 Physical setting: In all areas within the workplace (on board and on land).
 Human context: Alone, in pairs, in groups, through communication technologies.
 Linguistic context: Abroad.

When will the language be used? On a daily basis concurrently and subsequently with/to
the ESP course. In both small amounts or large chunks.

Adapted from: Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes. a Learning
Centred Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Appendix 5. Examples of concrete activities that would take place during the Friday
1. Example 1

Employees are asked to interact with actors replicating situations they are likely to experience
in their work routine onboard (e.g. check-in, taking an order at the restaurant, dealing with
a complaint, solving a problem for a guest, etc.). The teacher would observe and then
provide personalized feedback to the learners.

1.1 Rationale:

Role-plays mirror real life. The language they use is prompted entirely by the outcome they
are trying to achieve. This outcome involves real language use.

1.2 Issues:

It imposes a heavy load on learners as they 'juggle' with trying to solve a problem while acting
out as they go along. Learners with language processing problems will find it too hard. Social
context: the role requires them to act within certain social and professional conventions (e.g.
What form of address to use? What degree of formality? Social chit-chat or essentials of the
business? A possible solution would be controlled preparation. Learners discuss the problem
before acting it out.

2. Example 2

Employees are asked to watch two videos depicting the same onboard staff x guest
interaction. One video shows a successful interaction (Positive outcome, competent handling
of spontaneous spoken discourse, guest is happy at the end) while the other is about the
opposite scenario (Negative outcome, employee use of the expected spoken discourse is
unnatural and guest is frustrated at the end).

2.2. Rationale:

The importance of bringing samples of language that reflects the real world into the classroom
is key to successfully linking/preparing the learners to the world they will be immersed into.
One way of bringing spontaneous spoken language into the classroom is by analysing
recordings of experienced speakers of the language carrying out tasks of the same kind as
the learners will be dealing with. By discussing the contrast between the two situations
learners will have the opportunity to ask people to clarify their opinion, to challenge that opinion

and to present their own point of view. Learners will be using English as listeners, as speakers
and as questioners.

2.3. Issues:

Learners might get side-tracked and move away from the main aims of the task which are
noticing and developing awareness of specific features of spoken discourse while practicing
conversational skills within the context of working on a ship if they get engaged in irrelevant
arguments. What can really prepare ESL learners to real life spoken discourse with all its
features such as colloquial forms, vague language remarks, etc? A possible solution is for
the teacher to intervene and work as a moderator. As for practising the improvement of
responding to spontaneous spoken discourse while at work, the teacher could follow up the
task with a sub task as learners are asked to identify 'difficult to follow'' features of discourse
and how to respond to that.

3. Example 3

Employees are divided into groups and each group is given a short paragraph describing
a work-related 'event'. That could be a mishap during a procedure, a funny little story
involving an employee and a guest, a stressful situation at the bar, etc. The paragraphs are
not finished, and it is up to each group to conclude the 'story'. The groups would then tell their
stories to the rest of the class.

3.1. Rationale:

This task aims at promoting the practice of using everyday language at three different levels:

Level of Meaning: Learners produce meanings which will be useful in the real world.

Level of Discourse: Learners realize discourse acts which reflect the real world (e.g.
guessing at meanings, making inferences and agreeing or disagreeing, etc.)

Level of Activity: Learners engage in a communicative activity which reflects very directly
the way language is used outside the classroom.

This could be for example, explaining how to do something and getting involved in an
argument. A lot of conversations involves storytelling. All of us have a repertoire of stories
and opinions in our first language. We produce these stories on appropriate occasions and
stand ready to offer our opinions when the occasion arises. We have these routines in our
first language and it is important to build up routines in a foreign language. The prediction

character of the task will provoke learners to bring about their own prior knowledge of the
world and L1 routines on which build up L2 skills.

3.2 Issues:

It is important that the teacher intervenes if a learner is producing language that doesn't reflect
the appropriateness required within the target setting. A possible solution would be for the
teacher to help the learners shape their L2 production more effectively. Learners' attempts
to achieve the same discourse functions in English must be highlighted and the opposite,
pointed out. It could be helpful to make a comparison between learners' L1 and English. Ask
questions such 'How do you interrupt someone politely'? How do you change subject? How
do you refuse on offer without being rude?

Adapted from: Willis, D. and Willis, J. (2012). Doing task-based teaching. Oxford: Oxford Univ.

Appendix 6. Examples of concrete activities that would take place during the Friday

Examples of job profiles which would be eligible for EOP at Sea.

Room Service Attendant

Room Service Attendants provide food and beverage services to guests in their staterooms,
as well as in cafes, restaurants, and other onboard food and beverage venues. Aside from
ensuring efficient and seamless delivery of all meals to staterooms, Room Service Attendants
also interact with guests or fellow shipboard employees, observing brand standards when
greeting guests, and following guest security and privacy procedures. Candidates must have
experience as a waiter in an upscale restaurant and completed basic education equivalency.

Bar Server

The Bar Server ensures guest satisfaction by promoting and providing beverage services
throughout the ship in a courteous and professional manner. He/she prepares and mixes
drinks; cleans assigned workstations; and analyzes recipes and manuals as necessary. Bar
Servers interact with guests or fellow shipboard employees, provide beverage information,
promote drink specials, and/or upsell to premium brands. He/she also suggests alternative
drinks if the guest’s drink request is not available in current inventory. Candidates must have
excellent customer service skills; working knowledge of liquor, liquor set-ups, and cocktails;
experience in a similar role; and completion of basic education or its equivalent.


Waiters set up tables, explain menus, take orders, serve food and beverages, and clean tables
in their assigned areas. He/she must know menu items and ingredients to be able to promote
the items being served and answer guests’ questions. Waiters are fully responsible for
ensuring the satisfaction of guests in their stations. He/she also coordinates service with
his/her Assistant Waiter according to service procedures. Candidates must have experience
in a related position in an upscale hotel, resort, or cruise ship, as well as Food & Beverage
training certificates.

Assistant Waiter

You will work with other Waiters to serve meals and take care of our diners. You will set up
tables, take orders, serve food and drinks, and clean tables. You must also become familiar
with menu descriptions and wine lists, and work in various food and beverage areas. If you
have great customer service skills, experience in a similar role, we’d like you to sail with us!

Junior Guest Services Officer

This team is responsible for providing consistent personalized service to our guests with the
ultimate goal of achieving total guest satisfaction. To be a successful member of this team, a
candidate should have a passion for service, a pleasant and energetic demeanor, and
previous experience in a customer contact position. Great written and oral communication
skills in English are required. Proficiency in additional languages (such as Italian, German,
French, Portuguese, Spanish, and/ or Mandarin/Cantonese) is highly preferred.

Source: Royalcareersatsea.com. (2017). Royal Caribbean Shipboard Careers. [online]
Available at: http://www.royalcareersatsea.com/ [Accessed 10 Dec. 2017].

Appendix 7. Example of a lesson plan for Eop at Sea

EOP at SEA Lesson Plan Example: Unit 1 – Session 1

Teacher: Name Unit: 1 / Session 1 Room: King Phillip Function Room Date: xx/xx/xxxx Group: Morning

Class profile / Pre-class preparation notes

This class comprises of 12 employees at the Spanish Royal Gem cruise liner. It is their first day on the course and an ice-breaker activity might
be helpful. The existing students are mainly from South America and Spanish is their L1. There is a learner from Brazil who can understand
Spanish and has very basic knowledge of English. There is also a girl from Poland whose husband is Spanish. She has very basic knowledge of
both Spanish and English. 10 of the learners come from the food and beverage department. Ronaldo and Agnieszka work in the housekeeping
department. It is necessary to include content in this session that will be or relevance for them too. I am yet to find out about details of their
aspirations for the course and career development, but I have had a chat with Agnieszka yesterday and she expressed the desire to be transferred
to the restaurant once an opportunity arises

The almost homogeneous nature of the group will impact on the course, for example of the 10 South American learners, 7 have been working
together at the main restaurant and it is possible that they will make use of L1 during group or pair work. Be vigilant! All students except for
Ronaldo have had some experience working on a ship. Depending on the ‘on the spot’ situation I might actually need for one of the group of friends
from the restaurant to use Spanish in order to explain something to Ronaldo about the vessel or the work itself in case I don’t know, or he can’t
understand it in English. The class is well-motivated and has responded well to the pre-course orientation. From this week, we will be using a
coursebook that we have been adapting alongside my own worksheets which tie in with the course outline. I find this works best in order to meet
the needs of all of the students.

Role play for this week: Greetings

Preparatory notes:

1. Role-Play: Greetings

1.1 Objectives: Students will learn various expressions for greetings, introductions, and farewells.

1.2 Procedure: Give students handouts of the following expressions/dialogues. Read the expressions and have the students repeat them
individually to check their pronunciation.

Formal Expressions

 Good morning (sir/ma'am)

 Good afternoon (sir/ma'am). Welcome to (name of bar / restaurant, etc)
 Good evening (sir/ma'am)
 How are you this morning (afternoon, evening, today)?

Less Formal Expressions

 Hello
 Hi
 What's up?
 How's it going?

Of course, after the greeting, the dialogue must be continued, and what is said then depends on the situation. When interacting with passengers
that continued interaction usually involves determining what the passenger wants or needs. A couple of standards that can be used in hospitality

 How can I help you today ma’am (sir)?

 Can I be of assistance?
 How may I assist you?
 May I assist you with anything?
 What can I do for you today?
Anticipated problems:

 Certain Ss may dominate the discussion

 Ss working at a different pace
 Some students may feel singled out for belonging to another department from which the majority comes from.
Solutions: 33

 Nominate students to participate in discussion

 Monitor and give slower students ideas to gain pace
 Monitor and group Ronaldo and Agnieszka with stronger learners for peer scaffolding/interaction
1.3. preparation: Students should work together in pairs and read the following dialogue, one student reading the roles of the
guest and the other student reading the role of the staff. Example:

Staff: Good morning Ma’am. Welcome to the (...Spa)

Guest: Thank you.

Staff: How can I help you today?

Guest: I’m here for a (…massage).

1.4 Paired Practice: Practice using the above expressions by having similar dialogues with a partner, one partner taking the
role of the guest and the other the role of the staff. For additional practice, switch roles. Practice the dialogue several times,
trying to use all of the expressions noted.


In normal social situations, to continue an interaction after a greeting, it is customary for people to introduce each other by giving
their names (assuming of course they are meeting for the first time). But remember, that not all employees would normally
exchange names with a passenger. For example, a bell boy would not usually tell a guest his name, but a waitress in a restaurant
may, as part of the standard restaurant greeting (such as "Welcome to the ….. My name is Rebecca and I'll be your waitress
tonight"). Guest service representatives who interact with VIP passengers may be more inclined to make a formal introduction
as part of the extended service provided to VIP's.

Point to remember

Many beginning learners use the expression “Nice to meet you” even when they interact with a person they have already been

introduced to. This expression (Nice to meet you) is only used at a first meeting, not after that. Instead, if greeting a person for

the second time, use “Nice to see you again”


1) To provide an opportunity for learners to introduce themselves

2) To practise asking for and giving personal information
3) To start preparing for Friday’s Role Play work shop

Secondary Aims:

1) To provide an opportunity for learners to practise their listening skills in the context of meeting and greeting new
2) To improve students’ vocabulary related to nationalities and personal information

Connection to other lessons in week/course:

First day of the course. Watch out this space.
Materials in use/ References:
T-prepared materials

Assessment(s) used:

In-class tasks

T/peer correction/feedback
Lesson Procedure Objectives Materials Needed Interaction Time
Stage Alloted
Management 2 min

(attendance, etc.)

Lead-in T. explains how the game works Ice breaker Pen and paper T<>Ss 10 mins

Two truths and a lie (an ice-breaker Ls to get to know each Ss<>group
activity) other

Task 1 T. sets out instructions for task 1. In pairs Activate schemata Handout T<>Ss 6 mins
Ss describe pictures on handout. Exercise
#1 Elicit language related to Ss<>Ss
speaking personal information
Set the context
Learners match the pictures with
sentences on handout #2

Group feedback (answer checking,

opportunity for Ss to ask questions, speak
and listen)

Task 2 T. sets out instructions for task 2 Recognizing key Handout T<>Ss 5 mins
Exercises # 3 and #4 Audio recording Ss
First, Individually, Ss listen to the
sentences used in #1.
Ss listen again this time writing down the
sentences in the correct order Ss

Task 3 T. sets out instructions for task 2 Practise use of Wh- Handout T<>Ss 10 mins
questions and personal
Exercises #5, #6 and #7 information exchange Audio recording Ss
Pair work
followed by For # 4 In Ss ask and answer questions Ss<>Ss
group work from #4 in pairs
Ss listen to audio again in #6
In turns Ss introduce their partners - #7

Task 4 T. sets out instructions for task 2 Practise writing in the Handout T<>Ss 6 min
context of giving
Exercises #8 #9 and #10 personal information White board Ss
In #8 Ss complete a chart about T<>Ss
In #9 Ss follow T’s presentation of Verb to
be: full and short forms. Ss then complete T<>Ss
chart using contraction. i.e. He is – He’s

Task 5 T. sets out instructions for task 5 Practise authentic Handout T<>Ss 6 min
language in the context
On handout #11 of their workplace notes
Role Play
T. explains this week’s role play task. Ss Ss<>Ss
are to be paired/grouped and plan a
Check-in scenario to be played out on

Appendix 8 – Handout for a lesson example

Unit 1 / Session 1 - All on Board!

1. Look at the pictures. In pairs describe what you see.

2. Match the pictures and the sentences:
a. Good Morning! Welcome on board!
b. Do you have your seaman’s book and passport?
c. What’s your family name?
d. Do you have children?
e. What’s your seaman’s book number?
f. What’s your date of birth?
3. Listen to the recording. The chief engineer meets the Captain. Listen for the
phrases in exercise 1.
4. Listen to the recording again. This time write down the questions below in the
correct sequence order.

a. …………………………………………
b. …………………………………………
c. …………………………………………
d. …………………………………………
e. …………………………………………
f. .………………………………………...

5. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 4. Take notes of your
partner’s answers.

6. Listen to the recording one more time. Repeat the questions.

7. In turns, using the notes you wrote in exercise 5, introduce your partner to rest of
the class.

8. Complete the chart about yourself:

9. With a partner, look at the full form of the verb to be and then complete the short forms in the
chart that follows:

10. write 4 questions about your classmates. The first one is provided as an example.

a. Is she a waitress?
b. ……………………………………………..
c. ……………………………………………
d. ……………………………………………
e. …………………………………………….
f. …………………………………………….

12. Role Play

First impressions last a life time, or at least until the guests check out, so
it is important to make a good first impression. There are numerous
expressions that can be used when first greeting people. Some are very
formal and appropriate for greeting guests and some are more informal
and should only be used with friends or co-workers. Obviously, employees
of the hospitality industry should use the more formal expressions;
however, the less formal expressions will also be presented to give
learners a well-balanced repertoire to choose from.


In pairs or groups of 3, you are to plan, prepare/rehearse a role-play presentation. Practice

using the greetings expressions learned today by having dialogues with partner/s, one partner
taking the role of the guest and the other/s the role of the staff. For additional practice, switch
roles. Practice the dialogue several times, trying to use the appropriate level of formality and
making sure there is continued interaction throughout the dialogue. You could for example,
recommend excursions to the shore for next port stop (shorex). Explain the vessel’s facilities
or offer to book a table at the restaurant for tonight’s stand up comedy gig. Remember the
role-play is assessed on Friday. There will be visitors to our class on Wednesday that will act
as actors and they will start rehearsing with you in preparation for Friday.