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For other uses, see Kamikaze (disambiguation). damage which would disable a conventional attacker and
The Kamikaze (神⾵, [kamikaꜜze];“Divine”or "spirit still achieve its objective. The goal of crippling or de-
stroying large numbers of Allied ships, particularly air-
craft carriers, was considered to be a just reason for sac-
rificing pilots and aircraft.
These attacks, which began in October 1944, followed
several critical military defeats for the Japanese. They
had long since lost aerial dominance due to outdated air-
craft and the loss of experienced pilots. On a macroe-
conomic scale, Japan suffered from a diminishing ca-
pacity for war, and a rapidly declining industrial capac-
ity relative to the United States. Despite these problems,
the Japanese government expressed its reluctance to sur-
render. In combination, these factors led to the use of
kamikaze tactics as Allied forces advanced towards the
Japanese home islands.

Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker
Hill during a kamikaze mission on 11 May 1945

wind”), officially Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (特別攻撃隊 USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi
“Special Attack Unit”), abbreviated as Tokkō Tai (特攻 Ogawa (photo above) and Lieutenant Junior Grade Seizō Ya-
隊), and used as a verb as Tokkō (特攻“special attack”), sunori on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing
were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire from a crew of 2,600.* [2]
of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages
of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to de-
stroy warships more effectively than was possible with
conventional attacks. During World War II, about 3,860 While the term "kamikaze" usually refers to the aerial
kamikaze pilots were killed, and about 19% of kamikaze strikes, it has also been applied to various other suicide at-
attacks managed to hit a ship.* [1] tacks. The Japanese military also used or made plans for
Kamikaze aircraft were essentially pilot-guided explosive non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those
missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional involving submarines, human torpedoes, speedboats and
aircraft. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into divers.
enemy ships in what was called a“Body Attack”(体当た The tradition of death instead of defeat, capture, and per-
り; 体当り, taiatari) in planes laden with some combina- ceived shame was deeply entrenched in Japanese mili-
tion of explosives, bombs, torpedoes and full fuel tanks; tary culture. It was one of the primary traditions in the
accuracy was much better than a conventional attack, the samurai life and the Bushido code: loyalty and honour
payload and explosion larger. A kamikaze could sustain until death.


1 Definition and etymology 2 History

Further information: Battle of Bun'ei and Battle of Kōan 2.1 Background

The Japanese word Kamikaze is usually translated as“di-

Lt Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei)

“Judy”in a suicide dive against USS Essex (25 November 1944).
The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing
tank trails fuel vapor and/or smoke.

The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, ink and water on paper,

by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847

vine wind”(kami is the word for “god”, “spirit”, or

“divinity”, and kaze for“wind”). The word originated A Japanese kamikaze aircraft explodes after crashing into Essex
as the name of major typhoons in 1274 and 1281, which 's flight deck amidships 25 November 1944
dispersed Mongolian invasion fleets under Kublai Khan.
In Japanese, the formal term used for units carrying out
suicide attacks during 1944–1945 is tokubetsu kōgeki tai
(特 別 攻 撃 隊), which literally means “special attack
unit”. This is usually abbreviated to tokkōtai (特 攻
隊). More specifically, air suicide attack units from
the Imperial Japanese Navy were officially called shinpū
tokubetsu kōgeki tai (神⾵特別攻撃隊, “divine wind
special attack units”). Shinpū is the on-reading (on'yomi
or Chinese-derived pronunciation) of the same characters Model 52c Zeros ready to take part in a kamikaze attack (early
that form the word kamikaze in Japanese. During World 1945)
War II, the pronunciation kamikaze was used in Japan
only informally in relation to suicide attacks, but after Before the formation of kamikaze units, pilots had made
the war this usage gained acceptance worldwide and was deliberate crashes as a last resort when their planes had
re-imported into Japan. As a result, the special attack suffered severe damage and they did not want to risk be-
units are sometimes known in Japan as kamikaze toku- ing captured, or wanted to do as much damage to the en-
betsu kōgeki tai. emy as possible, since they were crashing anyway; such
2.2 Beginnings 3

situations occurred in both the Japanese and Allied air 2.2 Beginnings
forces. Axell and Kase see these suicides as “individ-
ual, impromptu decisions by men who were mentally pre- Captain Motoharu Okamura, in charge of the Tateyama
pared to die”.* [3] The case of Nikolai Gastello's taran Base in Tokyo, as well as the 341st Air Group Home,
on 26 June 1941 passed into Soviet air-warfare lore. In was, according to some sources, the first officer to offi-
most cases, little evidence exists that such hits represented cially propose kamikaze attack tactics. He arranged, with
more than accidental collisions of the kind that some- his superiors, the first investigations on the plausibility
times happen in intense sea or air battles. One example and mechanisms of intentional suicide attacks on 15 June
of this occurred on 7 December 1941 during the attack 1944.* [9]
on Pearl Harbor. First Lieutenant Fusata Iida's plane had In August 1944, it was announced by the Domei news
taken a hit and had started leaking fuel when he appar- agency that a flight instructor named Takeo Tagata was
ently used it to make a suicide attack on Kaneohe Naval training pilots in Taiwan for suicide missions.* [10]
Air Station. Before taking off, he had told his men that if
his plane were to become badly damaged he would crash One source claims that the first kamikaze mission oc-
it into a “worthy enemy target”.* [4] curred on 13 September 1944. A group of pilots from the
army's 31st Fighter Squadron on Negros Island decided to
The carrier battles in 1942, particularly Midway, inflicted launch a suicide attack the following morning.* [11] First
irreparable damage on the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Lieutenant Takeshi Kosai and a sergeant were selected.
Service (IJNAS), such that they could no longer put to- Two 100 kg (220 lb) bombs were attached to two fight-
gether a large number of fleet carriers with well-trained ers, and the pilots took off before dawn, planning to crash
aircrews.* [5] Japanese planners had assumed a quick into carriers. They never returned, but there is no record
war and lacked comprehensive programmes to replace of an enemy plane hitting an Allied ship that day.
the losses of ships, pilots, and sailors; at Midway in
June 1942 the Japanese lost as many aircrewmen in a According to some sources, on 14 October 1944,
single day as their pre-war training program had pro- USS Reno was hit by a deliberately crashed Japanese
duced in a year.* [6] The following Solomon Islands cam- plane. [12]
paign (1942-1945) and the New Guinea campaign (1942-
1945), notably the Battles of Eastern Solomons (August
1942) and Santa Cruz (October 1942), further decimated
the IJNAS veteran aircrews, and replacing their combat
experience proved impossible.* [7]
During 1943–1944, U.S. forces steadily advanced toward
Japan. Newer U.S.-made planes, especially the F6F Hell-
cat and F4U Corsair, began to outnumber and outclass
Japan's fighter planes. Tropical diseases, as well as short-
ages of spare parts and fuel, made operations more and
more difficult for the IJNAS. By the Battle of the Philip-
pine Sea (June 1944) the Japanese had to make do with
obsolete aircraft and inexperienced aviators in the fight
against better-trained and more experienced US Navy air-
men who flew radar-directed combat air patrols. The
Japanese lost over 400 carrier-based planes and pilots in
the Battle of the Philippine Sea, effectively putting an end
to their carriers' potency. Allied aviators called the action
the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot".
On June 19, 1944 planes from the carrier Chiyoda ap-
proached a US task group. According to some accounts,
two made suicide attacks, one of which hit USS Indi-
ana.* [8]
The important Japanese base of Saipan fell to the Allied Masafumi Arima
forces on 15 July 1944. Its capture provided adequate for-
ward bases which enabled U.S. air forces using the B-29 Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima, the commander of the
Superfortress to strike at the Japanese home islands. Af- 26th Air Flotilla (part of the 11th Air Fleet), is some-
ter the fall of Saipan, the Japanese High Command pre- times credited with inventing the kamikaze tactic. Arima
dicted that the Allies would try to capture the Philippines, personally led an attack by about 100 Yokosuka D4Y Su-
strategically important to Tokyo because of their location isei (“Judy”) dive bombers against a large Essex-class
between the oilfields of Southeast Asia and Japan. aircraft carrier, USS Franklin, near Leyte Gulf, on (or
about, accounts vary) 15 October 1944. Arima was killed

and part of a plane hit Franklin. The Japanese high com- mazakura [mountain cherry blossom] that are
mand and propagandists seized on Arima's example: He fragrant in the Asahi [rising sun].
was promoted posthumously to Admiral and was given
official credit for making the first kamikaze attack. How- A less literal translation* [16] is:
ever, it is not clear that this was a planned suicide attack,
and official Japanese accounts of Arima's attack bore lit-
Asked about the soul of Japan,
tle resemblance to the actual events.
I would say
On 17 October 1944, Allied forces assaulted Suluan
That it is
Island, beginning the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Im-
perial Japanese Navy's 1st Air Fleet, based at Manila, Like wild cherry blossoms
was assigned the task of assisting the Japanese ships Glowing in the morning sun.
which would attempt to destroy Allied forces in Leyte
Gulf. However, the 1st Air Fleet at that time only had Ōnishi, addressing this unit, told them that their nobil-
40 aircraft: 34 A6M Zero carrier-based fighters, three ity of spirit would keep the homeland from ruin even in
Nakajima B6N Tenzan (“Jill”) torpedo bombers, one defeat.* [17]
Mitsubishi G4M “Betty”
( ) and two Yokosuka P1Y Ginga
(“Frances”) land-based bombers, and one additional
reconnaissance plane. The task facing the Japanese air 2.4 Leyte Gulf: the first attacks
forces seemed impossible. The 1st Air Fleet comman-
dant, Vice Admiral Takijirō Ōnishi, decided to form a
suicide offensive force, the Special Attack Unit. In a
meeting at Mabalacat Airfield (known to the U.S. military
as Clark Air Base) near Manila, on 19 October, Onishi
told officers of the 201st Flying Group headquarters: “I
don't think there would be any other certain way to carry
out the operation [to hold the Philippines], than to put a
250 kg bomb on a Zero and let it crash into a U.S. carrier,
in order to disable her for a week.”

2.3 First unit

Commander Asaiki Tamai asked a group of 23 talented

student pilots, all of whom he had trained, to volunteer
for the special attack force. All of the pilots raised both St Lo attacked by kamikazes, 25 October 1944
of their hands, volunteering to join the operation. Later,
Tamai asked Lieutenant Yukio Seki to command the spe-
cial attack force. Seki is said to have closed his eyes, low-
ered his head and thought for 10 seconds, before saying:
“Please do appoint me to the post.”Seki became the 24th
kamikaze pilot to be chosen. However, Seki later said:
“Japan's future is bleak if it is forced to kill one of its
best pilots.”and “I am not going on this mission for the
Emperor or for the Empire... I am going because I was
ordered to.”* [13]
The names of four sub-units within the Kamikaze Spe-
cial Attack Force were Unit Shikishima, Unit Yamato,
Unit Asahi, and Unit Yamazakura.* [14] These names
were taken from a patriotic death poem (called jisei
no ku in waka poetry), Shikishima no Yamato-gokoro
wo hito towaba, asahi ni niou yamazakura bana by the
Japanese classical scholar, Motoori Norinaga.* [15] The
poem reads: Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a “Judy”on the
deck of USS Kitkun Bay. The “Judy”made a run on the ship
approaching from dead astern; it was met by effective fire and the
If someone asks about the Yamato spirit plane passed over the island and exploded. Parts of the plane and
[Spirit of Old/True Japan] of Shikishima [a po- the pilot were scattered over the flight deck and the forecastle.
etic name for Japan]̶it is the flowers of ya-
2.5 Main wave of attacks 5

bridge of USS Kitkun Bay but instead exploded on the

port catwalk and cartwheeled into the sea. Two others
dived at USS Fanshaw Bay but were destroyed by anti-
aircraft fire. The last two ran at USS White Plains. One,
under heavy fire and trailing smoke, aborted the attempt
on White Plains and instead banked toward USS St. Lo,
plowing into the flight deck. Its bomb caused fires that re-
sulted in the bomb magazine exploding, sinking the car-
rier.* [20] By day's end on 26 October, fifty five kamikazes
from the special attack force had also damaged the large
escort carriers USS Sangamon, Suwannee which had also
been struck by a kamikaze at 08:04 forward of its aft ele-
vator on 25 October, Santee, and the smaller escorts USS
White Plains, Kalinin Bay, and Kitkun Bay. In total, seven
carriers had been hit, as well as 40 other ships (five sunk,
23 heavily damaged, and 12 moderately damaged).

2.5 Main wave of attacks

Early successes – such as the sinking of St. Lo – were

followed by an immediate expansion of the program, and
over the next few months over 2,000 planes made such
The bridge and forward turrets of the County-class heavy cruiser
When Japan began to be subject to intense strategic
HMAS Australia, in September 1944. The officer facing right is
bombing by B-29s, the Japanese military attempted to
Captain Emile Dechaineux who was killed on 21 October 1944
in what is reported as the first kamikaze attack. use suicide attacks against this threat. During the north-
ern hemisphere winter of 1944–45, the IJAAF formed
the 47th Air Regiment, also known as the Shinten Spe-
cial Unit (Shinten Seiku Ta) at Narimasu Airfield, Nerima,
Several suicide attacks, carried out during the invasion
Tokyo, to defend the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The unit
of Leyte, by Japanese pilots from units other than the
was equipped with Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki “ ( Tojo”) fight-
Special Attack Force, have been described as the first
ers, with which they were to ram United States Army
kamikaze attack. Early on 21 October, a Japanese air-
Air Forces (USAAF) B-29s in their attacks on Japan.
craft, possibly an Aichi D3A dive-bomber* [18] or a
However, this proved much less successful and practical
Mitsubishi Ki-51 (of the 6th Flying Brigade, Imperial
since an airplane is a much faster, more maneuverable,
Japanese Army Air Force* [19]) deliberately crashed into
and smaller target than a warship. The B-29 also had
the foremast of the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia.* [18]
formidable defensive weaponry, so suicide attacks against
The attack killed 30 personnel, including the cruiser's
the plane demanded considerable piloting skill to be suc-
Captain, Emile Dechaineux, and wounded 64, includ-
cessful. That worked against the very purpose of using
ing the Australian force commander Commodore John
expendable pilots and even encouraging capable pilots to
Collins.* [18] The Australian official history of the war
bail out before impact was ineffective because vital per-
claimed that this was the first kamikaze attack on an Al-
sonnel were often lost when they mistimed their exits and
lied ship, although other sources disagree because it was
were killed as a result.
not a planned attack by a member of the Special Attack
Force, but was most likely to have been undertaken on the
pilot's own initiative.* [18]
The sinking of the ocean tug USS Sonoma on 24 October
is listed in some sources as the first ship lost to a kamikaze
strike, but the attack occurred before 25 October, and the
aircraft used, a Mitsubishi G4M, was not flown by the
original four Special Attack Squadrons.
On 25 October 1944, during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the
Kamikaze Special Attack Force carried out its first mis-
sion. Five Zeros, led by Seki, and escorted to the target
by leading Japanese ace Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, attacked USS Columbia is attacked by a kamikaze off Lingayen
several escort carriers. One Zero attempted to hit the Gulf, 6 January 1945

not enough Navy pilots available to counter the kamikaze

threat. A final element included intensive fighter sweeps
over Japanese airfields, and bombing of Japanese run-
ways, using delayed action bombs to make repairs more
difficult.* [22]

The kamikaze hits Columbia at 17:29. The plane and its

bomb penetrated two decks before exploding, killing 13
and wounding 44.

On 11 March, the U.S. carrier USS Randolph was hit

and moderately damaged at Ulithi Atoll, in the Caroline
Islands, by a kamikaze that had flown almost 4,000 km
(2,500 mi) from Japan, in a mission called Operation Tan
No. 2. On 20 March, the submarine USS Devilfish sur-
vived a hit from an aircraft, just off Japan.
Purpose-built kamikaze planes, as opposed to converted
fighters and dive-bombers, were also being constructed. An A6M Zero (A6M2 Model 21) towards the end of its run at
Ensign Mitsuo Ohta had suggested that piloted glider the escort carrier USS White Plains on 25 October 1944. The
bombs, carried within range of targets by a mother aircraft exploded in mid-air, moments after the picture was taken,
plane, should be developed. The First Naval Air Techni- scattering debris across the deck.
cal Bureau (Kugisho), in Yokosuka, refined Ohta's idea.
Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka rocket planes, launched from
bombers, were first deployed in kamikaze attacks from
March 1945. U.S. personnel gave them the derisive nick- Late in 1944 the British Pacific Fleet (BPF) used the good
name "Baka Bombs”(baka is Japanese for “idiot”or high-altitude performance of their Supermarine Seafires
“stupid”). The Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi was a sim- (naval version of the Spitfire) on combat air patrol duties.
ple, easily built propeller aircraft with a wooden air- Seafires were heavily involved in countering the kamikaze
frame which used engines from existing stocks. Its non- attacks during the Iwo Jima landings and beyond. The
retractable landing gear was jettisoned shortly after take- Seafires' best day was 15 August 1945, shooting down
off for a suicide mission, and re-used. During 1945, the eight attacking aircraft for a single loss.
Japanese military began stockpiling hundreds of Tsurugi, Allied pilots were experienced and better-trained, and
other aircraft, Ohkas, and suicide boats, for use against flew superior aircraft, making the poorly trained kamikaze
Allied forces expected to invade Japan. The invasion pilots easy targets. The U.S. Fast Carrier Task Force
never happened, and few were ever used.* [21] alone could bring over 1,000 fighter aircraft into play. Al-
lied pilots became adept at destroying enemy aircraft be-
fore they struck ships.
2.6 Allied defensive tactics
Allied gunners had begun to develop techniques to negate
In early 1945 U.S. Navy aviator Commander John Thach, kamikaze attacks. Light rapid fire anti-aircraft weapons
already famous for developing effective aerial tactics such as the 40 mm Bofors and 20 mm Oerlikon au-
against the Japanese such as the Thach Weave, devel- tocannons were highly effective,* [23] but heavy anti-
oped a defensive strategy against kamikazes called the aircraft guns such as the 5"/38 caliber gun (127 mm)
"big blue blanket" to establish Allied air supremacy well had the punch to blow kamikazes out of the air, which
away from the carrier force. This recommended combat was preferable since even a heavily damaged kamikaze
air patrols (CAP) which were larger and operated further could complete its mission.* [24] The Ohkas with their
from the carriers than before, a line of picket destroyers high speed presented a very difficult problem for anti-
and destroyer escorts at least 80 km (50 mi) from the main aircraft fire, since their velocity made a fire control solu-
body of the fleet to provide earlier radar interception, tion extremely difficult. By 1945, large numbers of anti-
and improved coordination between fighter direction of- aircraft shells with radio frequency proximity fuzes, on
ficers on carriers. This plan also called for round-the- average seven times more effective than regular shells,
clock fighter patrols over Allied fleets, though the U.S. became available, and the USN recommended their use
Navy had cut back training of fighter pilots so there were against kamikaze attacks.
2.7 Final phase 7

Fleet. US carriers also suffered considerably heavier ca-

sualties from kamikaze strikes; for instance, 389 men
were killed in one attack on USS Bunker Hill, greater
than the combined number of fatalities suffered on all six
Royal Navy armoured carriers from all forms of attack
during the entire war. Eight kamikaze hits on five British
carriers resulted in only 20 deaths while a combined total
of 15 bomb hits, most of 500 kg weight or greater, and
one torpedo hit on four carriers caused 193 fatal casual-
ties earlier in the war – striking proof of the protective
value of the armoured flight deck.* [29]* [30]

USS Louisville is struck by a kamikaze Yokosuka D4Y at the

Battle of Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945

Aircraft carrier HMS Formidable (67) after being struck by a

kamikaze off Sakishima Islands. The kamikaze made a mas-
sive dent about 3m long, 0.6m wide and deep in the armored
flight deck. Eight crew members were killed, forty-seven were
wounded, and eleven aircraft were destroyed.
USS Missouri (BB-63) shortly before being hit by a Mitsubishi
A6M Zero, April 11, 1945 The resilience of well-armoured vessels was shown on 4
May, just after 11:30, when there was a wave of suicide
attacks against the BPF. One Japanese plane made a steep
2.7 Final phase dive from“a great height”at the carrier HMS Formidable
and was engaged by AA guns.* [31] Although it was hit by
The peak in kamikaze attacks came during the period gunfire, the kamikaze crashed into the flight deck, making
of April–June 1945, at the Battle of Okinawa. On 6 a crater 3 m (9.8 ft) long, 0.6 m (2 ft) wide and 0.6 m (2
April 1945, waves of planes made hundreds of attacks in ft) deep. A long steel splinter speared down, through the
Operation Kikusui (“floating chrysanthemums”).* [25] hangar deck and the main boiler room (where it ruptured
At Okinawa, kamikaze attacks focused at first on Allied a steam line), before coming to rest in a fuel tank near the
destroyers on picket duty, and then on the carriers in the aircraft park, where it started a major fire. Eight person-
middle of the fleet. Suicide attacks by planes or boats at nel were killed and 47 were wounded. One Corsair and 10
Okinawa sank or put out of action at least 30 U.S. war- Avengers were destroyed. However, the fires were gradu-
ships,* [26] and at least three U.S. merchant ships,* [27] ally brought under control, and the crater in the deck was
along with some from other Allied forces. The attacks repaired with concrete and steel plate. By 17:00, Cor-
expended 1,465 planes. Many warships of all classes sairs were able to land. On 9 May, Formidable was again
were damaged, some severely, but no aircraft carriers, damaged by a kamikaze, as were the carrier HMS Vic-
battleships or cruisers were sunk by kamikaze at Okinawa. torious and the battleship HMS Howe. The British were
Most of the ships lost were destroyers or smaller vessels, able to clear the flight deck and resume flight operations
especially those on picket duty.* [26] The destroyer USS in just hours, while their American counterparts took a
Laffey earned the nickname “The Ship That Would Not few days or even months, as observed by a USN liaison
Die”after surviving six kamikaze attacks and four bomb officer on HMS Indefatigable who commented: “When
hits during this battle.* [28] a kamikaze hits a U.S. carrier it means 6 months of repair
U.S. carriers, with their wooden flight decks, appeared at Pearl [Harbor]. When a kamikaze hits a Limey carrier
to suffer more damage from kamikaze hits than the re- itʼs just a case of “Sweepers, man your brooms."”
inforced steel-decked carriers from the British Pacific Sometimes twin-engined aircraft were used in planned

kamikaze attacks. For example, Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryū ( til the RIM-8 Talos guided missile became operational in
“Peggy”) medium bombers, based on Formosa, under- 1959.* [32]
took kamikaze attacks on Allied forces off Okinawa. In the immediate aftermath of kamikaze strikes, British
Rear Admiral Matome Ugaki, the second in command carriers with their armoured flight decks appeared to re-
of the Combined Pacific Fleet, directed the last official cover more quickly compared to their US counterparts.
kamikaze attack, sending “Judys”from the 701st Air However, post-war analysis showed that some British car-
Group against the Allied fleet at Okinawa on 15 August riers such as HMS Formidable did suffer structural dam-
1945. age that led them to be written off and scrapped, as be-
yond economic repair, but Britain's dire post war finances
and the constantly declining size of the Royal Navy un-
3 Effects doubtedly played a role in deciding not to repair damaged
carriers. By contrast, even the most seriously damaged
American carriers such USS Bunker Hill were success-
fully repaired to operational condition, although they saw
no service after World War II as they were considered
The number of ships sunk is a matter of debate. Accord-
ing to a wartime Japanese propaganda announcement, the
missions sank 81 ships and damaged 195, and according
to a Japanese tally, kamikaze attacks accounted for up to
80% of the U.S. losses in the final phase of the war in
the Pacific. In a 2004 book, World War II, the historians
Wilmott, Cross and Messenger stated that more than 70
U.S. vessels were “sunk or damaged beyond repair”by
According to a U.S Air Force webpage:

Approximately 2,800 Kamikaze attackers sunk

34 Navy ships, damaged 368 others, killed
4,900 sailors, and wounded over 4,800. De-
spite radar detection and cuing, airborne in-
terception, attrition, and massive anti-aircraft
barrages, 14 percent of Kamikazes survived to
score a hit on a ship; nearly 8.5 percent of all
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship New Jersey ships hit by Kamikazes sank.* [33]
watches a kamikaze plane descend upon Intrepid 25 November
1944 Australian journalists Denis and Peggy Warner, in a 1982
book with Japanese naval historian Sadao Seno (The Sa-
As the end of the war approached, the Allies did not suf- cred Warriors: Japanʼs Suicide Legions), arrived at a total
fer significantly more serious losses, despite having far of 57 ships sunk by kamikazes. However, Bill Gordon,
more ships and facing a greater intensity of kamikaze an American Japanologist who specialises in kamikazes,
attacks. Although causing some of the heaviest casual- lists in a 2007 article 47 ships known to have been sunk
ties on US carriers in 1945, the IJN had sacrificed 2,525 by kamikaze aircraft. Gordon says that the Warners and
kamikaze pilots and the IJAAF 1,387̶far more than they Seno included ten ships that did not sink. He lists:
had lost in 1942 when they sank or crippled three carriers
(albeit without inflicting significant casualties). In 1942
• three escort carriers: USS St. Lo, USS Ommaney
when US Navy vessels were scarce, the temporary ab-
Bay, and USS Bismarck Sea
sence of key warships from the combat zone would tie up
operational initiatives. However, by 1945, the US Navy • 14 destroyers, including the last ship to be sunk, USS
was large enough that damaged ships could be detached Callaghan (DD-792) on 29 July 1945, off Okinawa
back home for repair without significantly hampering
the fleet's operational capability. The only surface losses • three high-speed transport ships
were destroyers and smaller ships that lacked the capa-
bility to sustain heavy damage. Overall, the kamikazes • five Landing Ship, Tank
were unable to turn the tide of the war and stop the Al- • four Landing Ship Medium
lied invasion. The destructive potential of the kamikaze
sustained postwar funding of Operation Bumblebee un- • three Landing Ship Medium (Rocket)

• one auxiliary tanker of the kamikaze pilots believed their death would pay the
debt they owed and show the love they had for their fam-
• three Canadian Victory ships ilies, friends, and emperor. “So eager were many min-
imally trained pilots to take part in suicide missions that
• three Liberty ships
when their sorties were delayed or aborted, the pilots be-
• two high-speed minesweepers came deeply despondent. Many of those who were se-
lected for a bodycrashing mission were described as be-
• one Auk class minesweeper ing extraordinarily blissful immediately before their final
sortie.”* [36]
• one submarine chaser
As time wore on, however, modern critics questioning
• two PT boats the nationalist portrayal of kamikaze pilots as noble sol-
diers willing to sacrifice their lives for the country have
• two Landing Craft Support emerged. In 2006, Tsuneo Watanabe, Editor-in-Chief
of the Yomiuri Shimbun, criticized Japanese nationalists'
glorification of kamikaze attacks:* [37]* [38]* [39]
4 Recruitment
It's all a lie that they left filled with brave-
ness and joy, crying, 'Long live the emperor!'
They were sheep at a slaughterhouse. Every-
body was looking down and tottering. Some
were unable to stand up and were carried and
pushed into the plane by maintenance soldiers.

Japanese Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (“cherry blossom”), a spe- 5 Training

cially built rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft used towards the
end of the war. The U.S. called them Baka Bombs (“idiot
bombs”). When you eliminate all thoughts about life
and death, you will be able to totally disregard
your earthly life. This will also enable you
It was claimed by the Japanese forces at the time that
to concentrate your attention on eradicating
there were many volunteers for the suicidal forces. Cap-
the enemy with unwavering determination,
tain Motoharu Okamura commented that“there were so
meanwhile reinforcing your excellence in
many volunteers for suicide missions that he referred to
flight skills.
them as a swarm of bees,”explaining: “Bees die af-
̶excerpt from a kamikaze pilots' manual
ter they have stung.”* [34] Okamura is credited with be-
ing the first to propose the kamikaze attacks. He had ex-
pressed his desire to lead a volunteer group of suicide at-
tacks some four months before Admiral Takijiro Ohnishi, Tokkōtai pilot training, as described by Kasuga
commander of the Japanese naval air forces in the Philip- Takeo,* [40] generally “consisted of incredibly strenu-
pines, presented the idea to his staff. While Vice Admiral ous training, coupled with cruel and torturous corporal
Shigeru Fukudome, commander of the second air fleet, punishment as a daily routine.”Irokawa Daikichi, who
was inspecting the 341st Air Group, Captain Okamura trained at Tsuchiura Naval Air Base, recalled that he
took the chance to express his ideas on crash-dive tactics. “was struck on the face so hard and frequently that [his]
“In our present situation I firmly believe that the only way face was no longer recognizable.”He also wrote: “I was
to swing the war in our favor is to resort to crash-dive at- hit so hard that I could no longer see and fell on the floor.
tacks with our planes. There is no other way. There will The minute I got up, I was hit again by a club so that I
be more than enough volunteers for this chance to save would confess.”This brutal “training”was justified
our country, and I would like to command such an oper- by the idea that it would instill a “soldier's fighting
ation. Provide me with 300 planes and I will turn the tide spirit.”However, daily beatings and corporal punishment
of war.”* [35] eliminated patriotism among many pilots.* [41]
When the volunteers arrived for duty in the corps there Pilots were given a manual which detailed how they were
were twice as many persons as aircraft available. “Af- supposed to think, prepare and attack. From this man-
ter the war, some commanders would express regret for ual, pilots were told to “attain a high level of spiritual
allowing superfluous crews to accompany sorties, some- training,”and to “keep [their] health in the very best
times squeezing themselves aboard bombers and fighters condition.”These things, among others, were meant to
so as to encourage the suicide pilots and, it seems, join put the pilot into the mindset in which he would be men-
in the exultation of sinking a large enemy vessel.”Many tally ready to die.

The tokkōtai pilot's manual also explained how a pilot may

turn back if the pilot could not locate a target and that "[a
pilot] should not waste [his] life lightly.”However, one
pilot who continually came back to base was shot after
his ninth return.* [41]
We tried to live with 120 percent intensity, rather than
waiting for death. We read and read, trying to understand
why we had to die in our early twenties. We felt the clock
ticking away towards our death, every sound of the clock
shortening our lives.
Irokawa Daikichi, Kamikaze Diaries: Reflections of
Japanese Student Soldiers

The manual was very detailed in how a pilot should at-

tack. A pilot would dive towards his target and “aim for
a point between the bridge tower and the smoke stacks”
. Entering a smoke stack was also said to be “effective”
. Pilots were told not to aim at a ship's bridge tower or
gun turret but instead to look for elevators or the flight
deck to crash into. For horizontal attacks, the pilot was
to “aim at the middle of the vessel, slightly higher than
the waterline”or to “aim at the entrance to the aircraft 26 May 1945. Corporal Yukio Araki, holding a puppy, with four
hangar, or the bottom of the stack”if the former was too other pilots of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron at Bansei, Kagoshima.
difficult. Araki died the following day, at the age of 17, in a suicide attack
on ships near Okinawa.
The tokkōtai pilot's manual told pilots never to close their
eyes. This was because if a pilot closed his eyes he would
lower the chances of hitting his target. In the final mo-
ments before the crash, the pilot was to yell "Hissatsu" and support. In October 1944, the Nippon Times quoted
(必殺) at the top of his lungs which translates to “Cer- Lieutenant Sekio Nishina: “The spirit of the Special At-
tain Kill”. tack Corps is the great spirit that runs in the blood of every
Japanese…. The crashing action which simultaneously
kills the enemy and oneself without fail is called the Spe-
6 Cultural background cial Attack…. Every Japanese is capable of becoming a
member of the Special Attack Corps”.* [42] Publishers
In 1944–45, American propaganda invented the term also played up the idea that the kamikaze were enshrined
at Yasukuni and ran exaggerated stories of kamikaze brav-
"State Shinto" to characterize Japanese beliefs. As time
went on, Americans claimed, Shinto was used increas- ery – there were even fairy tales for little children that
promoted the kamikaze. A Foreign Office official named
ingly in the promotion of nationalist sentiment. In 1890,
the Imperial Rescript on Education was passed, under Toshikazu Kase said: “It was customary for GHQ [in
Tokyo] to make false announcements of victory in utter
which students were required to ritually recite its oath to
offer themselves “courageously to the State”as well as disregard of facts, and*for the elated and complacent pub-
lic to believe them”. [43]
protect the Imperial family. The ultimate offering was to
give up oneʼs life. It was an honour to die for Japan and While many stories were falsified, some were true, such
the Emperor. Axell and Kase pointed out: “The fact as the story of Kiyu Ishikawa who saved a Japanese ship
is that innumerable soldiers, sailors and pilots were de- when he crashed his plane into a torpedo that an Amer-
termined to die, to become eirei, that is ʻguardian spir- ican submarine had launched. The sergeant major was
itsʼof the country. [...] Many Japanese felt that to be posthumously promoted to second lieutenant by the em-
enshrined at Yasukuni was a special honour because the peror and was enshrined at Yasukuni.* [44] Stories like
Emperor visited the shrine to pay homage twice a year. these, which showed the kind of praise and honour death
Yasukuni is the only shrine deifying common men which produced, encouraged young Japanese to volunteer for
the Emperor would visit to pay his respects”.* [34] Young the Special Attack Corps and instilled a desire in the
Japanese people were indoctrinated from an earliest age youth to die as a kamikaze.
with these ideals. Ceremonies were carried out before kamikaze pilots de-
Following the commencement of the kamikaze tactic, parted on their final mission. The Kamikaze shared
newspapers and books ran advertisements, articles, and ceremonial cups of sake or water known as “mizu no
stories regarding the suicide bombers, to aid in recruiting sakazuki”. Many Army officer Kamikaze took their

swords with them, while the Navy pilots (as a general mountain.
rule) didn't carry swords in their planes. The kamikaze, Residents on Kikaishima Island, east of Amami Ōshima,
like all Japanese aviators flying over unfriendly territory, say that pilots from suicide mission units dropped flowers
were issued (or purchased if they were officers) a Nambu from the air as they departed on their final missions. It is
pistol with which to end their lives if they risked be- said that the hills above Kikaishima airport have beds of
ing captured. Like all Army and Navy servicemen, the cornflower that bloom in early May.* [49]
Kamikaze would wear their senninbari, a“belt of a thou-
sand stitches”given to them by their mothers.* [45] They Kamikaze pilots who were unable to complete their mis-
also composed and read a death poem, a tradition stem- sion (due to mechanical failure, interception, etc.) were
ming from the samurai, who did it before committing stigmatized in the years following the war. This stigma
seppuku. Pilots carried prayers from their families and began to diminish some 50 years after the war as schol-
were given military decorations. The Kamikaze were es- ars and publishers have distributed the survivors' sto-
corted by other pilots whose function was to protect the ries.* [50]
Kamikaze to their destination and report on the results. Some Japanese military personnel were critical of the
Some of these escort pilots, such as Zero pilot Toshim- policy. Some officers, Genda Minoru, Minobe Tadashi
itsu Imaizumi, were themselves later sent out on their own and Shiga Yoshio, refused to obey the policy. They said
Kamikaze missions. * [46] that the commander of a kamikaze attack should engage
in the task first.* [51]* [52] Some persons who obeyed the
policy, Okajima Kiyokuma, Shindo Saburo, and Fujita
Iyozo, were also critical of the policy.* [53]* [54] Sakai
Saburo said 'We never dared to question orders, to doubt
authority, to do anything but immediately carry out all the
commands of our superiors. We were automatons who
obeyed without thinking'.* [55]Tetsuzo Iwamoto refused
to engage in a kamikaze attack because he think the task
of fighter pilots is to shoot down aircraft. * [56]

7 Quotations
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom
I cannot predict the outcome of the air bat-
branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Ki-43-IIIa Hayabusa
tles, but you will be making a mistake if you
While it is commonly perceived that volunteers signed up should regard Special Attack operations as nor-
in droves for kamikaze missions, it has also been con- mal methods. The right way is to attack the
tended that there was extensive coercion and peer pres- enemy with skill and return to the base with
sure involved in recruiting soldiers for the sacrifice. Their good results. A plane should be utilized over
motivations in“volunteering”were complex and not sim- and over again. Thatʼs the way to fight a war.
ply about patriotism or bringing honour to their families. The current thinking is skewed. Otherwise,
Firsthand interviews with surviving Kamikaze pilots and you cannot expect to improve air power. There
escort pilots has revealed that they were motivated by a will be no progress if flyers continue to die.
desire to protect their families from perceived atrocities ̶Lieutenant Commander Iwatani, Taiyo
and possible extinction at the hands of the Allies. They (Ocean) magazine, March 1945.* [44]
viewed themselves as the last defense.* [47]
At least one of these pilots was a conscripted Korean with Zwei Seelen wohnen auch in mein[em]
a Japanese name, adopted under the pre-war Soshi-kaimei Herz[en]!! (Ah, two souls [tamashiʼ i] reside in
ordinance that compelled Koreans to take Japanese per- my heart [kokoro]!!) After all I am just a hu-
sonal names.* [48] 11 of the 1,036 IJA kamikaze pilots man being. Sometimes, my chest pounds with
who died in sorties from Chiran and other Japanese air excitement when I think of the day I will fly
bases during the Battle of Okinawa were Koreans. into the sky. I trained my mind and body as
It is said that young pilots on kamikaze missions often hard as I could and am anxious for the day I
flew southwest from Japan over the 922 m (3,025 ft) can use them to their full capacity in fighting. I
Mount Kaimon. The mountain is also called "Satsuma think my life and death belong to the mission.
Fuji" (meaning a mountain like Mount Fuji but located Yet, at other times, I envy those science majors
in the Satsuma Province region). Suicide mission pilots who remain at home [exempt from the draft].
looked over their shoulders to see this, the most south- …One of my souls looks to heaven, while the
ern mountain on the Japanese mainland, while they were other is attracted to the earth. I wish to enter
in the air, said farewell to their country, and saluted the the Navy as soon as possible so that I can de-

vote myself to the task. I hope that the days 9 See also
when I am tormented by stupid thoughts will
pass quickly. • Aerial ramming
̶Sasaki Hachiro* [57]
• Chiran Special Attack Peace Museum

• Giretsu
It is easy to talk about death in the abstract,
as the ancient philosophers discussed. But it is • Leonidas Squadron
real death I fear, and I donʼt know if I can
overcome the fear. Even for a short life, there • Living torpedoes
are many memories. For someone who had a
• Rammkommando “ELBE”
good life, it is very difficult to part with it. But
I reached a point of no return. I must plunge • Shiggy Konno
into an enemy vessel.
• Suicide weapon
To be honest, I cannot say that the wish to
• "Umi Yukaba"
die for the emperor is genuine, coming from
my heart. However, it is decided for me that I • Vehicle explosion
die for the emperor.
̶Hayashi Ichizo* [58] • List of Imperial Japanese Navy air-to-surface spe-
cial attack units

• List of Imperial Japanese Army air-to-surface spe-

I am pleased to have the honour of having
cial attack units
been chosen as a member of a Special Attack
Force that is on its way into battle, but I cannot
help crying when I think of you, Mum. When I
reflect on the hopes you had for my future ... I 10 References
feel so sad that I am going to die without doing
anything to bring you joy. 10.1 Notes
̶Ichizo Hayashi, last letter home a few
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[2] Bunker Hill I, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting

Ships, Naval Historical Center, 22 November 2005.
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• Saigo no Tokkōtai [60] (最後の特攻隊, The Last
[4] Axell, p.44. A monument at the site of Iidaʼs
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by Toei, directed by Junya Sato and starring Koji PILOT-LIEUTENANT IIDA, COMMANDER, THIRD
Tsuruta, Ken Takakura and Shinichi Chiba. AIR CONTROL GROUP, 7 Dec 1941.ʼ

• Toei also produced a biographical film about [5] U.S. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall and Tully,
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[7] Peattie, Sunburst, pp.176–186; Eric Bergerud, Fire in the
• Masami Takahashi, Last Kamikaze Testimoni- Sky, p.668.
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• Risa Morimoto, Wings of Defeat (Harriman, NY: [9] http://www.animeigo.com/liner/other/father-kamikaze

New Day Films, 2007).
[10] Axell, pp.40–41
• Ore wa, kimi no tameni koso (2007, For Those We
[11] Toland, p.568
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[12] ww2pacific.com, 2004, “World War II in the Pacific:
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Japanese Suicide Attacks at Sea”. Access date: 1 Au-
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のためにこそ死ににいく" “Ore wa, Kimi no
Tame ni Koso Shini ni Iku” [13] Axell, p.16
10.1 Notes 13

[14] Ivan Morris, The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the [34] Axell, p.35
History of Japan, p289 Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975
[35] Inoguchi, Rikihei, The Divine Wind, Maryland: Naval In-
[15] Ivan Morris, The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the stitute Press, 1958, page 139.
History of Japan, p289–90 Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
[36] Axell, p.40
[37] New York Times, THE SATURDAY PROFILE; Shadow
[16] “Motoori Norinaga: A scholar-physician who loved
Shogun Steps Into Light, to Change Japan. Published: 11
cherry blossoms”, THE EAST, Vol. XXVI No, 1
February 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2007
[17] Ivan Morris, The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the [38] International Herald Tribune, Publisher dismayed by
History of Japan, p284 Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975 Japanese nationalism. Published: 10 February 2006. Re-
[18] Nichols, Robert (2004). “The first kamikaze attack?". trieved 11 March 2007
Wartime (Australian War Memorial) (28). Retrieved 15 [39] Kamikaze Survivors: They've Outlived the Stigma, by
August 2010. Bruce Wallace (Los Angeles Times; 25 September 2004)
[19] Richard L. Dunn, 2002–2005, “First Kamikaze? Attack [40] Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko (2006). Kamikaze Diaries: Re-
on HMAS Australia̶21 October 1944”(j-aircraft.com). flections of Japanese Student Soldiers. University of
Access date: 20 June 2007. If the pilot was from the 6th Chicago Press. p. 175. Extract at University of Chicago
Flying Brigade, it was probably either Lieutenant Morita Press website
or Sergeant Itano, flying out of San Jose, Mindoro.
[41] Ohnuki-Tierney
[20] Toland, p.567
[42] Axell, p.36
[21] Japanese Ki-9 biplane
[43] Axell, pp.38, 41, 43
[22] Bill Coombes, 1995, “Divine Wind The Japanese secret
weapon – kamikaze suicide attacks” [44] Axell, p.41
[45] King Template:Chapter 4 Imaizumi
[23] USN, Antiaircraft Action Summary Suicide Attacks, April
1945 [46] King Template:Chapter 4 Imaizumi
[24] DiGiulian, Tony (September 2006). “United States [47] King Template:The Last Zero Fighter Chapter 4
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[48] The Hindu : International : A“Japanese hero”goes home
[25] Kennedy, Maxwell Taylor: Danger's Hour, The Story of
[49] Jiro Kosaka, 1995, Kyō ware Ikiteari
the USS Bunker Hill and the Kamikaze Pilot who Crippled
Her, Simon and Schuster, New York, 2008 ISBN 978-0- [50] Los Angeles Times, They've Outlived the Stigma Pub-
7432-6080-0 lished: 25 September 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2011
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[27] American Merchant Marine at War (website), 2006,
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ing 1945” Access date: 1 December 2007. Kojinsha,pp.197-199
[54] MaruSaikyo Sentoki Shidenkai(Japanese), Kojin-
[28]“USS Laffey”. Patriots Point Naval & Maritime Museum.
Retrieved 22 June 2011.
[55] Allan R. Millett, Williamson Murray,Military Effective-
[29] DiGiulian, Kamikaze Damage to US and British Carriers
ness Volume3,Cambridge University Press, pp.34
[30] Polmar, Aircraft Carriers.
[56] Iwamoto Tetsuzo, Zero-sen Gekitsui-Oh Kyo-no-wadai-
[31] Sydney David Waters, 1956, The Royal New Zealand sha. ISBN 4-87565-121-X.
Navy, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington. p.383– [57] Ohnuki-Tierney, pp.65–66
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[58] Ohnuki-Tierney, p.163
[32] “A Brief History of White Sands Proving Ground 1941–
1965”. New Mexico State University. Retrieved 19 Au- [59] David Powers Japan: No Surrender in World War Two
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[33] Dr Richard P. Hallion, 1999,“Precision Weapons, Power [60] Saigo no Tokkōtai on IMDB
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(USAF Historical Studies Office). Accessed from 2009
archive of webpage on 21 December 2015. [62] For Those We Love on IMDB

10.2 Bibliography • Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko (2002). Kamikaze, Cherry

Blossoms, and Nationalisms: The Militarization
• Axell, Albert; Hideaki, Kase (2002). Kamikaze: of Aesthetics in Japanese History. University of
Japan's suicide gods. New York: Longman. ISBN Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-62091-6.
• Rielly, Robin L. (2010). Kamikaze Attacks of World
• Brown, David (1990). Fighting Elites: Kamikaze. War II: A Complete History of Japanese Suicide
New York: Gallery Books. ISBN 978-0-8317- Strikes on American Ships, by Aircraft and Other
2671-3. Means. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-4654-4.
• Brown, David (1990). Warship Losses of World War • Stern, Robert (2010). Fire from the Sky: Surviving
Two. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 0-85368- the Kamikaze Threat. Naval Institute Press. ISBN
802-8. 978-1-59114-267-6.

• Hobbes, Nicholas (2003). Essential militaria. Lon-

don: Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-84354-229-2.
12 External links
• KING, Dan (2012). The Last Zero Fighter Firsthand
Accounts from WWII Japanese Naval Pilots. Califor- • Kamikaze Images
nia: Pacific Press. ISBN 978-1-468178807.
• Personal website of Mr Nobu
• Hoyt, Edwin P. (1993). The Last Kamikaze.
Praeger. ISBN 0-275-94067-5. • Dayofthekamikaze.com

• Inoguchi, Rikihei; Nakajima, Tadashi; Pineau, • An ex-kamikaze pilot creates a new world
Roger (1959). The Divine Wind. London: Hutchin- • “Gyokusai”
son & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.
• “Who became Kamikaze Pilots...”
• Mahon, John K. (May 1959). The Pacific Historical
Review. Vol. 28, No. 2. • Excerpt from Kamikaze Diaries

• Millot, Bernard (1971). Divine Thunder: The life • The End of Kamikaze (Japanese)
and death of the Kamikazes. Macdonald. ISBN 0-
• Day of the Kamikaze, Smithsonian Networks
356-03856-4. OCLC 8142990.
• “Ascent of the Fireflies”, TIME about Tome Tori-
• Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. (2006). Kamikaze Diaries:
hama called “Kamikaze Mom”
Reflections of Japanese Student Soldiers. Chicago
and London: The University of Chicago Press. • WW2DB: Kamikaze Doctrine
ISBN 978-0-226-61950-7
• What motivated the Kamikazes? on
• Sheftall, Mordecai G. (2005). Blossoms in the Wind: WW2History.com
Human Legacies of the Kamikaze. NAL Caliber.
ISBN 0-451-21487-0. • Kamikaze Pilot Strikes USS Essex - 25 November
1944 Torpedo Bomber pilot recalls the experience
• Toland, John (1970). The Rising Sun: The Decline of a Kamikaze striking the USS Essex, 25 Novem-
and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936–1945. New ber 1944
York: Random House. OCLC 105915.

• Willmott, H. P.; Cross, Robin; Messenger, Charles

(2004). World War II. London: Dorling Kindersley.
ISBN 978-1-4053-0587-7.

• Zaloga, Steven (2011). Kamikaze: Japanese Special

Attack Weapons 1944-45. Osprey. ISBN 1-84908-

11 Further reading
• Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko (2006). Kamikaze Diaries:
Reflections of Japanese Student Soldiers. University
of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-61951-4.

13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

13.1 Text
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13.2 Images
• File:72nd_Shinbu_1945_Kamikaze.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/72nd_Shinbu_1945_
Kamikaze.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: uncredited
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• File:Arima_Masafumi.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Arima_Masafumi.jpg License: Public
domain Contributors: Chiran Kamikaze Peace Museum (http://www.town.chiran.kagoshima.jp//cgi-bin/hpViewContents.cgi?pID=
20041215093148 Original artist: ?
• File:CV09_Essex_USG-80-G-273032-.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/CV09_Essex_
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• File:Chiran_high_school_girls_wave_kamikaze_pilot.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Chiran_
high_school_girls_wave_kamikaze_pilot.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.k3.dion.ne.jp/~{}j-gunto/gunto_036.htm,
originally:「毎⽇グラフ」1965 年 11 ⽉ 25 ⽇臨時増刊号〜続⽇本の戦歴⽶軍が押収した戦場写真集/ 8 ⽉ 5 ⽇の連合艦隊
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• File:Ensign_Kiyoshi_Ogawa_hit_Bunker_Hill_(new).png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Ensign_
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• Ensign_Kiyoshi_Ogawa_hit_Bunker_Hill.gif Original artist: Ensign_Kiyoshi_Ogawa_hit_Bunker_Hill.gif: Original uploader was Felix c
at en.wikipedia
• File:HMAS_Australia_bridge.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/HMAS_Australia_bridge.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the Collection Database of the Australian War Memorial under the ID
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This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.
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• File:Kamikaze-ManchesterMSI_crop.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Kamikaze-ManchesterMSI_
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13 April 2009 (UTC)
• File:Kamikaze_zero.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Kamikaze_zero.jpg License: Public domain
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tors: Dschingis Khan und seine Erben (exhibition catalogue), München 2005, p. 331 Original artist: Kikuchi Yoosai / (of the reproduction)
Tokyo National Museum
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13.3 Content license 17

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• File:USS_White_Plains_attack_by_Tokkotai_unit_25.10.1945_kk1a.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
1/11/USS_White_Plains_attack_by_Tokkotai_unit_25.10.1945_kk1a.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.bosamar.
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