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CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

In this chapter, the writer presents the biography of the autrors, character
and characterization, also the theory of Poverty and Comparative Study.
A. Biography of the Authors
1. The Biography of Andrea Hirata
Andrea Hirata is one of the most famous novelist in Indonesia. He is
the fourth child of the couple Seman Said Harunayah and NA Masturah who
was born on October 24, 1967 in Gantung, Belitung Timur, Bangka
Belitung. He was born in a poor village, including the village and is situated
on the island farthest enough Belitong. Lived in a village with all the
limitations are quite affecting personal Andrea childhood.
Andrea’s birth name is Aqil Barraq Badruddin Seman Said Harun.
But when he was a teenager, he changed her name as Andrea Hirata, with
the full name Andrea Hirata Seman Said Harun. Andrea is taken from the
name of a woman who is determined to kill himself if his favorite singer,
Elvis Presley does not reply to the letter. While Hirata itself is taken from
the name of the village and not the name of the Japanese as previously
supposed. As a teenager then, man's original starting Belitong bears the
name of Andrea Hirata. Andrea grew as well as other village children. With
all the limitations, Andrea remains a jolly boy who occasionally turns into
thinkers while studying at school. In addition, he also often have dreams and
dreams in the future. (http://infobiografi.com/ downloaded at January 5th
2018)
In 1997, Andrea officially became an employee of PT. Telkom. His
intention to write his inspiration paper culminated as he volunteered during
the Aceh tsunami. Then in 2005, Andrea managed to release his first novel
Laskar Pelangi which he wrote in just 3 weeks.
At first, Andrea did not intend to publish the novel but still get to the
publisher's hand. His name is increasingly skyrocketed by the novel Laskar

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Pelangi, until he received various awards such as the Equator Literaly
Award (KLA) in 2007, Aisyiyah Award, Paramadina Award, Netpac Critics
Award, and so forth.
For the past eight years, Andrea has been honored for his
contributions to international literature, Andrea Hirata's first novel, Laskar
Pelangi, has been translated into 34 foreign languages and published in over
130 countries by leading publishers. Besides that, He also has written many
other popular novels, such as Sang Pemimpi (2006), Edensor (2007), and
Sebelas Patriot (2011).

2. The Biography of Deborah Ellis


The following biography is derived from Deborah Ellis’ website that
was downloaded at January 5th 2018.
Deborah Ellis is a Canadian author, peace activist and humanitarian
who has achieved international acclaim for her courageous books that give
readers in the West a glimpse of the lives of children growing up in
developing countries. She works as a mental health residential counsellor in
Toronto. Her willingness to address such raw and difficult topics such as
homelessness, AIDS, women's rights, racism, terrorism, and illegal drugs
makes her one of the most courageous and relevant authors of our time.
Deborah was born in Cochrane, Ontario and grew up in Paris,
Ontario. She was a loner who spent much time reading and using her
imagination. By the time she was seventeen, she was a political activist and,
after graduating from high school, moved to Toronto to work in the Peace
Movement and the Women's Movement.
Deborah Ellis has traveled to many exotic locations, including
Afghanistan, where she spent time helping in refugee camps in 1997. She is
a philanthropist as well as author, and donates almost all of her book
royalties to charitable organizations, such as Street Kids International and to
Women to Women, an organization that supports health and education
projects in Afghanistan, and to UNICEF.

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Ellis was named to the Order of Ontario in 2006. Other awards
include the Govenor General's Award, the Jane Addams Children's Book
Award, The Children's Africana Book Award for Older Readers, and an
ALA Notable.

B. Literary Relevant
1. Character and Characterization
Character in literary works is an extensive verbal representation of
human being, specially about thought, behavior, speech, and action.
Literature depict some of the interaction of the character and its
surroundings.
According to Subhan (2003: 8), character in the novel can be
devided into two groups: (1) major or main character, and (2) minor
character. The reader usually will pay more attention to the major characters
because they play an important role in the story or the novel.
According to Subhan (2003: 8), thw major character can further be
analyzed into three groups:
1. The protagonist, the very central character, or the hero (the heroine).
2. The antagonist or the enemy (the challenger) of the protagonist.
3. The companion or the supporter of the protagonist.
The protagonist character is the very central character or the leading
actor or actrees. They usually play an important role in the story. The
protagonist character is usually a good man with good characteristics, for
example: he is handsome, she is beautiful, has good mentality and morality,
a leader who struggles for his or her country, nation or the oppressed people.
The struggle of the protagonist does not always end with success. In
some cases, the hero or the heroine is failed or even dies in the middle of the
story.
The antagonist in the novel usually refers to the enemy or the
challenger of the protagonist. In a didatic novel or in the novel which the is

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an element of moral teaching, the antagonist is usually immoral or evil,
while the protagonist is otherwise.
The protagonist in a novel usually has a companion or a partnes in
pursuing his duty, career, struggle, or aspiration. When the protagonist is
oppressed, he is usually helped by a closefriend or by a reputable person.
The companion may function as the lover of the protagonist. In the other
wordes, the companion of the protagonist also plays an important role in the
story so that sometimes it is difficult for reader to judge who the protagonist
is.
Based on the characterization, character in the novel can be be
devided into two groups, namely (1)flat character and (2) round character.
Subhan (2003: 15)
A character in the novel is said to be flat when he or she has
unchanging characteristic from the beginning to the end of the story. A flat
character is distinguished by its lack of a realistic personality. Though the
description of a flat character may be detailed and rich in defining
characteristics, it falls short of the complexity associated with a round
character. Supporting character are generally flat, as most minor roles do not
require a great deal of complexity. In addition, experimental literature and
postmodern fiction intentionally make use of flat characters, even as
protagonists.
Conversely, a round character is one which undergoes changes in the
characterization in the course of the story. A character, for example, is
described to be morally good in the beginning of the story but she becomes
bad in the middle or in the end of the story. This character which is called
round character. The reason is that the character undergoes changes in the
characterization in the course of the story. In the same way, a character is
said to be round when he or she is bad in the beginning and becomes good
in the middle or in the end of the story.
A round character can also be identified through the ambiguity of the
characterization. The character possesses two different characteristics or

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double personalitis; in some cases the character is good but in the other
cases the character is bad.
From the prior definitions, character and characterization are
important element of building drama or novel. Then if we want to know
character, we have to use characterization, because there is a relationship
between them.

2. Theory of Poverty
Condition where people's basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter
are not being met. Poverty is generally of two types: (1) Absolute poverty is
synonymous with destitution and occurs when people cannot obtain
adequate resources (measured in terms of calories or nutrition) to support a
minimum level of physical health. Absolute poverty means about the same
everywhere, and can be eradicated as demonstrated by some countries. (2)
Relative poverty occurs when people do not enjoy a certain minimum level
of living standards as determined by a government (and enjoyed by the bulk
of the population) that vary from country to country, sometimes within the
same country. (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/poverty.html
downloaded at January 10th 2018)
The World Bank Organization describes that poverty is hunger.
Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a
doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read.
Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time.
Poverty has many faces, changing from place to place and across time, and
has been described in many ways. Most often, poverty is a situation people
want to escape. So poverty is a call to action -- for the poor and the wealthy
alike -- a call to change the world so that many more may have enough to
eat, adequate shelter, access to education and health, protection from
violence, and a voice in what happens in their communities.
In addition to a lack of money, poverty is about not being able to
participate in recreational activities; not being able to send children on a day

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trip with their schoolmates or to a birthday party; not being able to pay for
medications for an illness. These are all costs of being poor. Those people
who are barely able to pay for food and shelter simply can’t consider these
other expenses. When people are excluded within a society, when they are
not well educated and when they have a higher incidence of illness, there
are negative consequences for society. We all pay the price for poverty.
The increased cost on the health system, the justice system and other
systems that provide supports to those living in poverty has an impact on
our economy. (http://www2.gnb.ca downloaded at Jnauary 10th 2018)

3. Theory of Comparative Study


Guillen (1993; 3-4) said that comparative literature is usually
understood to consist of certain tendency or branch of literary investigation
that involves the systematic study of supranational assemblages. According
to Guillen (1993; 63), Paul van Tiegehen says that comparative literature
consists of an examination of literatures from an international point view,
since its identity deos not depend solely on the attitude or posture of the
observer. What fundamental is the obvious contribution to the history or the
concept of literature of several classes and categories that can not be
regarded as merely national in nature. Think of multi secular genre such as
comedy, an unmistakable method such as rhyme, a vast movement such as
romanticism, not just European but worlwide in scope. Supranational rather
than international to emphasize that the point of departure is not found in
national literature, nor in the interrelationship between them.
Those definition are wide, loose, and like many others, to simple and
may even represent an abuse of confidence. More than anything else it
invites continued reflection on some basic dimensions of literary history.
For this reason we are faced not only by branch—without any doubt—
recognized as such and established today in numerous nations and
universities, but also with a trend of literary studies, or rather a form of

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intellectualexplanation, a task spurred on by uneasy feeling and specific
questions.
Wellek and Warren (1978: 46-50) say that the term ‘comparative’
literature has covered and still covers rather distinct field of study and
groups of problem. It may mean, first, the study of oral literature, especially
of folk-tale themes and their migration; of how and when they have entered
‘higher’, ‘artistic’ literature.
The other definition by Guillen (1993: 63) is that comparative
loterature consists of seven situatuations; they are specific circumtances and
the world, the present and the absent, the experience and its sense, the I and
whatever is alien to it, the perceived and longed on, what is and what should
be, and what exist today and what is eternal. The writer focuses on seven
situation that is appeared in the works and it will be used to analyze the
similarities and the differences between the poverty of the main character in
Andrea Hirata’s Sang Pemimpi and Deborah Ellis’ Parvana.

C. The Goals of the Research


The researcher has some goals in doing this research, they are:
1. Describing the main character characterization of of Sang Pemimpi by
Andrea Hirata and Parvana by Deborah Ellis. Each of the novels has its
own main character with its character. Through this research, the research
will describe it clearly.
2. Describing the similarity of the main characters’ dreams of Sang Pemimpi
by Andrea Hirata and Parvana by Deborah Ellis. Although they are
different charachter, but exactly they have similar dreams to be reached. So
that the researcher wil define it.
3. Describing the main characters’ struggle of Sang Pemimpi by Andrea Hirata
and Parvana by Deborah Ellis in reaching their dreams. In reaching dreams,
the have their style of struggle, and the researcher will describe it.
4. Describe the moral values of Sang Pemimpi by Andrea Hirata and Parvana
by Deborah Ellis, where as we know that every story has values, so does

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these both novels. The researcher will explain it to make it clear to be
learned and used in real life.

D. The Benefits of the Research


It would be useless if a research made without any benefits. So do the
researcher of this study had planned to give any benefits on this research result.
The benefits of this research such as bellows:
1. For the society
This researh can make society, especially the are common people
who are not familiar with literature, they can read the result of this research
as the alternate when they are confused to read the novels directly. So that
they can remain learn from this literary work easily.
2. For the students
Surely students need many source to do any research or any literary
works. By this research, they can use it as the source in their reseach. It
would be helpful because they should not buy far from campus. They should
find this research in library only.
3. For literature lovers
Many literature lovers those fully excited in discussing any literary
works. But it would be difficult when they have no refference. So that they
can use this research to help them in the discussion.

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