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DOI 10.1007/s00466-017-1505-1

ORIGINAL PAPER

speed craft using a single-phase level set method

Riccardo Broglia1 · Danilo Durante1

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Abstract This paper focuses on the analysis of a challeng- bers (from 0.6 up to 1.2). In the present work, the planing hull

ing free surface flow problem involving a surface vessel is treated as a two-degree-of-freedom rigid object. Flow field

moving at high speeds, or planing. The investigation is is characterized by the presence of thin water sheets, several

performed using a general purpose high Reynolds free sur- energetic breaking waves and plungings. The computational

face solver developed at CNR-INSEAN. The methodology results include convergence of the trim angle, sinkage and

is based on a second order finite volume discretization of resistance under grid refinement; high-quality experimental

the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations data are used for the purposes of validation, allowing to com-

(Di Mascio et al. in A second order Godunov—type scheme pare the hydrodynamic forces and the attitudes assumed at

for naval hydrodynamics, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Pub- different velocities. A very good agreement between numer-

lishers, Dordrecht, pp 253–261, 2001; Proceedings of 16th ical and experimental results demonstrates the reliability of

international offshore and polar engineering conference, San the single-phase level set approach for the predictions of high

Francisco, CA, USA, 2006; J Mar Sci Technol 14:19–29, Froude numbers flows.

2009); air/water interface dynamics is accurately modeled by

a non standard level set approach (Di Mascio et al. in Com- Keywords Planing hull · Ship hydrodynamics · Fluid/rigid

put Fluids 36(5):868–886, 2007a), known as the single-phase body interaction · Free surface · Level set

level set method. In this algorithm the governing equations

are solved only in the water phase, whereas the numerical

domain in the air phase is used for a suitable extension of the 1 Introduction

fluid dynamic variables. The level set function is used to track

the free surface evolution; dynamic boundary conditions are The study of semi-displacement and planing vessels is an

enforced directly on the interface. This approach allows to actual topic since the wide applications range, spanning from

accurately predict the evolution of the free surface even in the sport competitions to patrol boats. From a physical point of

presence of violent breaking waves phenomena, maintaining view, the high speeds reached by these vessels imply a com-

the interface sharp, without any need to smear out the fluid plex interaction between the structure and the free surface

properties across the two phases. This paper is aimed at the of the fluid with a complicate wave pattern which develops

prediction of the complex free-surface flow field generated around and downstream the ship itself. The impact of the

by a deep-V planing boat at medium and high Froude num- vessel on the water surface during its motion gives rise to

the formation of water jets with significant air entrapment

B Riccardo Broglia and bubbles production. Actually the side jet is substantially

riccardo.broglia@cnr.it definable in terms of a spray sheet, the dynamics of which

Danilo Durante is highly difficult to study both in experimental and numer-

danilo.durante@cnr.it ical approaches. In addition, in luxury yachts like the one

1 under analysis in the current work, the ship hull is charac-

CNR-INSEAN, Marine Technology Research Institute,

National Research Council, Via di Vaellerano 139, terized by the presence of chines on the side walls, which

00128 Rome, Italy makes the dynamics of these water jets even more compli-

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Comput Mech

cated due to both high non linear effects (such as strong is still rather limited. Fu et al. [29] exploited an immersed

breaking wave phenomena) and topological complications boundary approach together with a VOF method [the numer-

(e.g. plungings and ricochets). Indeed, these chines, other to ical flow analysis (NFA) code] for the study of the forces

aesthetic aspects, are intended to throw sprays away from and moments on a deep-V planing craft. The impact of a

the sides of the hull, preventing the rise of the water up the wedge on the free surface was numerically simulated and

hull sides. Their role relies also in creating a smooth ride experimentally validated as test case.

in seaway and, for those with a wide flat area (called chine Planing hull validation studies were performed in [42]

flats) to significantly contribute in providing an additional lift using an unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes

allowing the vessel to acquire a planing regime. (uRaNSe) based solver, using the historical benchmark

Planing vessel have been widely investigated by means of experiments of Fridsma. Simulation included deep and shal-

both experimental and theoretical studies; early experimen- low water tests, in both fixed and free sinkage and trim

tal studies date back to 1970s with the study of [27,50] on conditions, as well as regular and irregular head waves in

prismatic hulls. More recently, Judge and Ikeda [35] tested deep water. Detailed verification and validation were reported

a four foot berglass planing hull model in calm water, regu- with satisfactory results. Recently, Akkerman et al. [2] made

lar and irregular waves. For each test run, the model motion a numerical investigation at different Froude numbers on

and the water spray were recorded using high-speed video, the Fridsma planing hull through a Arbitrary Lagrangian

the impact pressures were recorded using pressure sensors Eulerian Variational Multiscale (ALE-VMS) approach. A

arrayed on the model bottom, the model accelerations were comparison with the experimental data showed a very good

recorded at the bow. The examination of the wave impacts of agreement for low Froude numbers, while larger discrepan-

the model was carried out as a sequence of individual impact cies (of the order of 10–12%) are found on high speed cases.

events. Begovic et al. [5] appraised the effect of deadrise In [30] results from a collaborative research effort involving

angle variation along the hull length on seakeeping character- the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes CFDShip-

istics in regular waves for one monohedral and three warped Iowa and NFA were presented and discussed to examine

models. The deadrise angle was considered linearly vary- the hydrodynamic forces, moments, hull pressures, accel-

ing along the hull length with the aim to get an insight on erations, motions, and the multiphase free surface flow field

motion and acceleration properties connected with warped generated by a planing craft at high-speed (Froude number

hull forms and to provide a benchmark for CFD of plan- Fr = 1.8−2.1) in calm water and waves. The steady forward

ing hulls. In [28] calm water experiments were performed speed test were performed for two kind of hulls: a prismatic

on a Deep-V planing craft model, with the main aim to and a double-stepped planing hulls. The sinkage and resis-

support development of computational fluid dynamics codes tance were in good agreement for the two codes for the last

for high-speed, small-craft applications. The measurements configuration. The irregular wave simulations were carried

included resistance, sinkage and trim, hull pressure, longitu- out with CFDShip-Iowa and compared with experiments,

dinal wave-cuts, and bow-wave and stern-wake topologies. showing a well modelled overall behaviour. Moreover, in [7]

Tests were conducted over a Froude number range of 0.31– an extensive study using an up to date RANSE VOF solver

2.5. Some numerical simulation was also performed utilizing with free surface tracking capability was performed, testing

the numerical flow analysis (NFA) code and compared to the the method on a wedge shaped prismatic planing hull, with

model test results. a constant deadrise angle of 20◦ , systematically varying the

Most of the theoretical/numerical studies were based on running trim angle and wetted length. Results obtained, in

the slender body assumption or on simplified (potential) the- terms of drag and lift forces as well as longitudinal trim-

ory [26,49,60,68], with only few attempts made to face the ming moment, were compared with available experimental

full three-dimensional problem [36,37]. By using simplified and semi-empirical theories. Very recently, some interest-

2D + t theory, the free surface bow flow around a fast and ing studies concerned the fluid structure interaction (FSI)

fine ship in calm water was also studied by Landrini et al. problems: full scale validation for one-way FSI of composite-

[38] with an emphasis on generation and evolution of the panel slamming of a fast planing craft was shown in [63]

breaking and splashing bow wave. and extended to two-way FSI in [64]. FSI approach included

In this context the use of computational fluid dynamics tightly coupled (at inner iteration level) partitioned CFD and

(CFD) tools for a deeper investigation of the hydrodynamic of computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. CFD was

high speed planing hull could be extremely helpful. Indeed, solved by URANS, whereas CSD was solved by finite ele-

even if highly demanding in terms of CPU time requirements, ments and modal expansion. Simulations were conducted at

they have been demonstrated to be mature enough for the significant deterministic conditions for head and following

analysis of the performances of displacement ships (see for waves, and compared to stochastic full-scale trials.

example [39,40,48,55,58]). Nevertheless, the application of The objectives of the present paper are to investigate the

CFD based approach to the study of high speed planing craft flow field around a high speed planning hull and to demon-

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Comput Mech

strate the capability of the in-house numerical tool (χ navis) in it is shown that the code is able to correctly reproduce the

dealing with challenging problems where energetic unsteady very complex phenomenon of the formation of the jet, the

wave breaking phenomena characterize the wave pattern. The consequent wave breaking dynamics and the multiple splash

numerical solver is based on a finite volume discretization of ups and ricochets. The solver is also shown to be able to

the uRaNS equations for high Reynolds number free surface accurately reproduce the high non-linear flow field around the

flows around complex geometries. The scheme is globally chines, where the spray sheet impinges and rapidly deviates

second order accurate. Several turbulence models have been far away the side of the vessel.

implemented in the code, ranging from the one equation In the following section the adopted numerical model is

Spalart and Allmaras model [56], to the two equation k−ε reported in details. After the presentation of the geometry,

model [13] as well as DES and DDES hybrid models. Com- the test cases and the numerical parameters, a section with

plex geometries and multiple bodies in relative motion are the numerical results follows. Firstly, integral quantities such

handled by a dynamical overlapping grid approach [17]. High as total resistance, trim and sinkage are analyzed, including a

performance computing is achieved by an efficient shared and rigorous assessment of the verification and validation of the

distributed memory parallelization [11]. Free surface flows numerical estimations. Secondly, the flow field is analyzed,

are handled by a single-phase level set approach [18]; in this with the emphasis on the surface pressure and the wave pat-

methodology the zero level of a level set function is used as a tern. Conclusions and some observation of future research

tracking device to locate the free surface position. The gov- activities will close the paper.

erning equations are solved in the water phase only, whilst a

suitable extrapolation of the fluid dynamics variables is per-

formed in the air phase. It has to be highlighted that, the air 2 Mathematical model

phase is non-physical, therefore, by definition, this methodol-

ogy can be only applied when any air effect can be neglected. The high-Reynolds turbulent motion of an incompressible

Free surface dynamical boundary conditions are enforced (constant density) viscous fluid can be described by the well

directly on the zero level of the function. Consequently, the known unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equa-

interface is maintained intrinsically sharp regardless the com- tions (uRaNSe). They express the conservation of the mass

plexity of the free surface shape and of its dynamics, with and momentum, therefore, considering a fixed control vol-

an accuracy comparable with Lagrangian or ALE formula- ume V bounded by the surface S(V), they can be written in

tions (see for example [3,15]), or interface capturing based integral vectorial form as

mathods accomplished with suitable discretization schemes

for the treatment of the density discontinuity [45,46]. ∂

q dV + [F c (q) − F d (q)] dS = 0 (1)

The single phase methodology has been extensively ∂t V S (V )

applied to describe several marine hydrodynamic problems,

such as free surface flows in presence of wave breaking phe- where q = ( p, u, v, w)T is the state variables vector for

nomena (see for example [18]), maneuvering [10,12,22] and incompressible flows, = diag (0, 1, 1, 1) and

sea keeping [20] studies of surface vessels, as well as subma- F c = (u l nl ; u 1 u l nl + pn 1 ; u 2 u l nl + pn 2 ; u 3 u l nl + pn 3 )T

rine [23], catamarans [9,67] and offshore structures [43]. In F d = (0; τ1l nl ; τ2l nl ; τ3l nl )T (2)

previous works [8,33], the code has been applied to similar

problems studied here; in particular, in these works the effect are the convective (inviscid and pressure) and diffusive nor-

of the impact of a symmetric and an asymmetric wedge on the mal fluxes through the surface S(V) with outward unit normal

free surface with the analysis of the wave pattern generated n. A reference length L and velocity U∞ have been cho-

and the jet dynamics have been investigated. sen to make the previous equations non-dimensional. u i is

In the present paper, the towing simulations of a semi- the ith Cartesian component of the velocity vector (in the

displacement vessel are carried out for Fr spanning from 0.6 following, they will be also denoted as u, v, and w); p is

to 1.2; sinkage and trim, and resistance curves are evaluated a new variable related to the pressure P and the acceler-

and compared with experimental results kindly provided by ation of gravity g (parallel to the vertical axis z, positive

√

Azimut–Benetti s.p.a. Results show a very good agreement upward) by p = P + (z − z FS )/Fr 2 , Fr = U∞ / gL being

with experimental values, allowing an accurate analysis of the Froude number and z FS is the (undisturbed) free sur-

the problem under consideration and proving the capabilities face quote. Finally, τi j = νt (∂ j u i + ∂i u j ) is the stress tensor,

of the single-phase level set approach in dealing with these νt = 1/Re + νT is the global kinematic viscosity, with

rather complex problem. The analysis of the surface pressure Re = U∞ L/ν the Reynolds number, ν the kinematic vis-

shows that the flow field is characterized by localized high cosity and νT the turbulent viscosity. In the present work, the

pressure values which give rise to a energetic water sheet and, turbulent viscosity has been calculated by means of the [56]

consequently, a rather complex wave pattern. Nevertheless, one-equation model.

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Comput Mech

The problem is closed by enforcing appropriate conditions and air phase) as a signed distance from the free surface,

at physical and computational boundaries. On solid walls, conventionally assumed positive in air phase and negative in

the velocity is set equal to zero and zero normal gradient the water phase. This function is enforced to be a material

is enforced on the pressure field; at the (fictitious) inflow surface for t > 0

boundary, velocity is set to the undisturbed flow value and

the pressure is extrapolated from the inside; on the contrary, ∂φ(x, y, z, t)

+ u · ∇φ(x, y, z, t) = 0

the dynamic pressure is set to zero at the outflow, whereas ∂t (6)

φ(x, y, z, 0) = d(x, y, z)

the velocity is extrapolated from inner points. At the free

surface, whose location is one of the unknowns of the prob-

Here u is the velocity of the underlying flow and d(x, y, z) is

lem, the dynamic boundary condition enforces the continuity

the signed distance from the free surface at t = 0. The zero

of stresses across the surface; if the effects of the air are

level of φ(x, y, z, t), being convected by the flow through

neglected, the dynamic boundary condition reads

Eq. (4), will always represent the free surface location. How-

κ z − z FS ever, the solution of the problem (6) does not guarantee that

p = τi j n i n j + + τi j n i t 1j = 0 the function φ(x, y, z, t) remains a distance function for

We Fr 2

t > 0; in order to ensure this property, in the so–called re-

τi j n i t 2j = 0 (3)

initialization step [54], φ(x, y, z, t) is replaced, at each time

step, by a new function with the same zero level of the for-

where We = ρ U∞ 2 l/σ is the Weber number (ρ being the

mer one and field values that correspond to the actual signed

density of the fluid and σ the surface tension coefficient) and distance from the interface. With a notation abuse, the same

κ the surface curvature; n, t1 and t2 are the surface normal symbol φ will be used for both functions. This new function

and two tangential unit vectors, respectively. The kinematic is found as the steady state solution of the so-called Eikonal

boundary condition states that the free surface is a material equation

surface; therefore, by defining its location as the zero level of

a three-dimensional function F(x, y, z, t) = 0, its unknown ∂φ

+ sign(φ)(|∇φ| − 1) = 0 (7)

configuration can be determined by the following evolution ∂t

equation

It is important to highlight that, due to the hyperbolic nature

D F(x, y, z, t) of Eq. (7), the solution evolves as a distance close to the zero

=0 (4)

Dt of the level set function first, then it propagates outward in

the whole domain [59,62]. Since in the level set approach the

Initial conditions have to be specified for the velocity field values of φ(x, y, z, t) are required only in a thin region very

and for the free surface configuration close to the interface, it is not mandatory to resolve to high-

light that, due to the hyperbolic nature of Eq. (7) throughout

u i (x, y, z, 0) = u i0 (x, y, z) F(x, y, z, 0) = F0 (x, y, z) (5) the whole computational domain: i.e. Eq. (7) is not integrated

up to achieving a steady state solution [18,53].

2.1 Single-phase level set approach In the single-phase level set method only the liquid phase

of the fluid is computed, with the zero level of φ(x, y, z, t)

The free surface is handled by means of a single-phase let used to locate the actual position of the free surface. It has

set approach; the principal features of this approach are to be highlighted that the level set function is intrinsically

described here, the interested reader will find a more exhaus- treated as a sharp interface; this allows to accurately describe

tive treatise on [18]. the free surface with a limited number of grid points, which is

In what follows, we will generally refer to air and water of paramount importance when dealing with high Reynolds

phases in order to distinguish between fluids with different number flows around complex geometries. One the contrary,

densities/viscosities; clearly, no assumption on the physical due to stability and robustness reasons, in the classical two-

or chemical properties of such fluids are made a priori. It phase approach the size of the transition region between water

is important to remark that the only assumption is that the and air has to be smeared out in about 10 grid cells [34]; this

non-resolved phase is constituted by a fluid not affecting the transition zone can result excessively thick, given the limited

dynamics of underlying flow field. However, the methodol- number of points available.

ogy is generalizable and applicable to a problem regarding As it will be shown in the following, in the single level

two different fluids respecting the assumption made. set approach, the values of the velocity and pressure in the

In the level set approach [44,54,59], a smooth function air phase are not required. Nevertheless, their estimation is

φ(x, y, z, t), whose zero level coincides with the free surface, of great importance during the iterative procedure at those

is defined in the whole physical domain (i.e. in both liquid points that change their physical state from air to water, for

123

Comput Mech

simply computed as an extension of the velocity and pressure

fields from the water region

∇φ · ∇u i = 0 i = 1, 2, 3

(8)

∇φ · ∇ p = 0

where similar relations hold for any other field variable (such

as the variables related to the turbulence model). As it has

been demonstrated in [1], velocity extrapolation in the air

region with Eq. (8), guarantees that the level set function Fig. 1 Computational domain. Purple: water cells; Yellow: air cells.

evolves as a distance function also at the interface air cells. Full symbols: interface cells (either water or air cells)

It has been found more convenient to split the level set

function as

3 Numerical model

φ(x, y, z, t) = ϕ(x, y, z, t) + (z − z FS ) (9)

The main idea underlying the method is based on the decom-

with z the vertical axis aligned with the acceleration of grav- position of the physical domain in three phases: the water,

ity, positive upward; the function ϕ(x, y, z, t) represents the the free-surface and the air. Once identified the free-surface

disturbance of the free surface from the unperturbed (flat) position as the zero level of the level-set function φ, the

configuration. Therefore, with this position, inflow bound- fluid equations are solved in the water phase only, whilst

ary condition for the function ϕ(x, y, z, t) simply reduces to in the air phase the solution is extrapolated. The kinematic

ϕ(x, y, z, t) = 0. and dynamic boundary conditions are also enforced on the

With the replacement of φ(x, y, z, t) according to the free-surface. In order to keep the level-set function φ as the

relation (9) the equation of the level set function is straight- distance function, a reinitialization step is periodically per-

forward changed as formed by solving the Eikonal equation. The time evolution

of the solution is obtained as the steady condition in the

∂ϕ pseudo-time. The algorithm is deeply described in the fol-

+ u · ∇ϕ + w = 0 lowing sub-sections.

∂t (10)

ϕ(x, y, z, 0) = d(x, y, z) − (z − z FS )

3.1 The general algorithm

whereas, the Eikonal equation becomes

The system of equations (1) is approximated by a finite vol-

∂ϕ ∇φ ume technique, with pressure and velocity co-located at the

+ sign(φ) · ∇ϕ

∂t |∇φ| cell center. The fluid domain D is partitioned into Nl struc-

1 ∂φ tured adjacent or overlapped blocks Dl , each one subdivided

+ sign(φ) −1 =0 (11) into Ni × N j × Nk disjoint hexahedrals Dijk

l . As sketched in

|∇φ| ∂z

Fig. 1, in the computational domain are congruently identi-

By defining uφ = sign(φ)∇φ/|∇φ| and b = sign(φ)(φz / fied three regions:

|∇φ| − 1) the previous relation can be rewritten as

(a) water all those cells in the liquid phase for which none

∂ϕ of the six neighbouring is in the air phase;

+ uφ · ∇ϕ + b = 0 (12)

∂t (b) air cells in the air phase and none of the six neighbouring

is in the liquid phase;

which possesses a structure clearly similar to the Eq. (10) (c) interface those cells (either air or water) for which one

and can be solved by using the same scheme. of the six neighbouring is in the other phase.

Finally, for the velocity and pressure extrapolations out-

side the water region, considering the position (9), the For water cells, the residual on each control volume is

following equations hold computed as an interface flux balance; conservation laws are

applied to the (i jk)th control volume

∂u i

∇ϕ · ∇u i + =0 i = 1, 2, 3

∂z (13) 6

∂p ∂

∇ϕ · ∇ p + = 0. Λ q dV + F cs (q) − F ds (q) dS = 0 (14)

∂z ∂t Vijk

s=1 Ss

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Comput Mech

where Ss is the sth face of the finite volume Dijk , whose mea- the level set function being the distance from the interface

sure is Vijk . Defining

the volume average of the unknowns (the subscripts A and W denote the volume in the air and

1 water phase, respectively).

q as q = q dV , the semi-discrete system of equa-

Vijk Vijk The tangential velocity is simply extrapolated along the

tions can be rewritten as normal to the free surface, as in the Eq. (8). The remaining

dynamic boundary conditions for the tangential stresses in (3)

∂q 1 are explicitly enforced when computing the viscous fluxes at

Λ + Rijk = 0 (15)

∂t ijk Vijk the sth interface.

being Rijk the flux balance on the current control volume Vijk . 3.2 Level set function and extrapolation

The surface integrals are evaluated by means of the (second

order) trapezoidal rule. In the viscous fluxes, the computation The evolution equation for the level set function and the

of the velocity gradients, required for the computation of the velocity/pressure extrapolation are discretized by using an

stress tensor at the cell interface, are computed by means of ENO technique similar to the one used for the bulk flow;

a standard second order centered finite volume approxima- the Eq. (10) is applied to both water and air cells, extrapola-

tion [32]. tion equations are considered only for the air cells, being the

For the inviscid part, the fluxes are computed as the solu- conservation variables in the control volumes of water phase

tion of a Riemann problem F cs = F c (q s ) = F c (q l , q r ); governed by the equations (15). Equation (10) is rewritten in

right and left states can be estimated by several schemes terms of curvilinear coordinates

implemented in the solver, ranging from the first order total

variation diminishing (TVD) scheme, the second order essen- ∂ϕ l ∂ϕ

+ U + wijk = 0 (19)

tially non oscillatory (ENO) scheme [31], the third-order ∂t ijk ∂ξl ijk

upwind-based scheme [61] and the classical fourth-order

centered scheme (see [19]). Moreover, a second order accu-

being U l |ijk = (u i ∂i ξl )ijk the contra-variant components of

rate solution of the Riemann problem [16] is used in place of

the velocity vector at the (i jk)th cell center. The derivatives of

the exact one, which should be computed iteratively, given

the function ϕ(x, y, z, t) at cell center ∂ϕ/∂ξl |ijk is approx-

the non-linearity of the problem.

imated by an upwind based scheme. The Eikonal and the

Special attention must be paid for the water interface

extrapolation equations are discretized in a similar way; in

cells, for which, convective and viscous fluxes at the inter-

particular, the Eikonal equation reads

face between the control volumes in the water phase and in

the air phase (as for example for the interface s in Fig. 1),

∂ϕ l ∂ϕ

must be evaluated in accordance with the first equation of + Uφ + bijk = 0 (20)

∂t ijk ∂ξl ijk

the dynamic boundary conditions (3); the normal velocity at

the cell interface is computed by solving a Riemann problem

with a constant pressure. First, the pressure at the free surface sign(φ) ∂φ ∂ξl

being Uφl |ijk = , whereas the extrapo-

is computes as |∇φ| ∂ xq ∂ xq ijk

lation equations become

κ z − z FS

pFS = τi j n i n j + + (16)

We Fr 2 ∂ϕ ∂ξl ∂ u

U lext + =0

∂ξl ijk ∂z ∂ξl ijk

(21)

l ∂ϕ ∂ξl ∂ p

with the derivatives on the right hand side computed by cen-

tered approximation. Then, the pressure at the sth interface Pext + =0

∂ξl ijk ∂z ∂ξl ijk

is extrapolated from the inner points (i.e. from values in the

water phase) as

being

1

ps = p W + ( pFS − pW ) (17) ∂ξl ∂ u ∂ξl

η U lext |ijk = ∇u|s = (22)

∂ xs ijk ∂ xs ∂ xs ijk

with pW the pressure in water interface cell and with η the

segment fraction (see Fig. 1) below the free surface and

|φW | ∂ξl ∂ p ∂ξl

η=

l

Pext |ijk = ∇ p|s = . (23)

(18) ∂ xs ijk ∂ xs ∂ xs ijk

2 |φW − φA|

1

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Comput Mech

3.3 Temporal integration step (m + 1) by equations (25). The correction of the level

set function is then evaluated by means of Eq. (26). The

Given the solution at time instants t n and t n−1 , the solution procedure is carried on in the pseudo time until either a fixed

at the new time step is computed by the time integration convergence or a maximum number of iterations are reached

of Eqs. (14) and (21) for the control volumes in water and (see the flowchart depicted in Fig. 2). Convergence toward

in air phase, respectively. The procedure is depicted with the steady state solution in the pseudo time is accelerated by

the diagram in Fig. 2. The time derivative in the system of a local time step Δτijk technique and a multi-grid method

equations (14) is approximated by a second order accurate [6,25].

three-points backward finite difference formula, yielding to After the solution at time step n + 1 has been found, a

further correction step for the level set function is performed

3q n+1 n n−1

ijk − 4q ijk + q ijk 1 in order to increase the robustness of the algorithm in par-

+ Rn+1 = 0 (24)

ticularly critical conditions (with the free surface evolving

2Δt Vijk ijk

rapidly)

The evolution equations (24) for the cells in the water

phase, together with the extrapolation equations (21) are m+1

ϕijk − ϕijk

m m+1

3ϕijk n + ϕ n−1

− 4ϕijk ijk

solved in a strongly coupled form through a pseudo-time +

approach; time advancement in the pseudo-time is performed Δτ 2Δt

with an Euler implicit integration scheme, i.e. n+1 ∂ϕ m+1

n+1

+ Ul + wijk =0 (27)

q m+1 3q m+1 n−1 ijk ∂ξl ijk

ijk − q ijk ijk − 4q ijk + q ijk

m n

In water Λ +Λ

Δτ 2Δt

1 Also for this equation, iterations in the pseudo time are pur-

+ Rm+1

ijk =0

Vijk sued until convergence to steady state or a maximum number

⎧ m+1 m ∂ϕ n+1 ∂ξ ∂ u m of iterations are reached.

⎪ uijk − um

⎪

⎪

ijk

+ U lext +

l

=0

⎨ Δτ ijk ∂ξm ijk ∂z ∂ξl ijk As already discussed, the evolution equation (7) does not

In air m ∂ϕ ensure that the level set function remains a distance function.

⎪

⎪

m+1

pijk − pijk

m n+1

∂ξl ∂ p m

⎪

⎩ l

+ Pext + =0

ijk ∂ξm ijk

Δτ ∂z ∂ξl ijk Hence, the correction step is followed by the re-initialization

procedure where, starting from the zero level of ϕ(x, y, z, t)

(25)

at time step t = t n+1 , the level set function is replaced by the

where the superscripts n and m denote the physical and signed distance function, which is computed by the integra-

dual time levels, τ being the pseudo time and Λ = tion in a fictitious time τ of the Eikonal equation (20) [52]

diag (1/β, 1, 1, 1), with β the pseudo-compressibility fac-

tor (see [14]). The previous system of equations is solved n+1

ϕijk − ϕijk

n n ∂ϕ n

+ bn = 0

+ Uφl (28)

using a [4] scheme. Δτ ijk ∂ξl ijk

ijk

The solution of the flow field equations (25) requires the

knowledge of the free surface function (i.e. the knowledge where Δτ is estimated through the CFL condition. The

of ϕ n+1 ) and vice versa. A strongly coupled approach is iterations are pursued until either the steady state solution

used; the adopted algorithm is based on a predictor–corrector in fictitious time or a maximum number of iterations are

procedure, where the prediction of the level set function is reached.

obtained by the integration of Eq. (10). Similarly to the field

equations, the integration in the physical time is carried out

by a three-points backward finite difference approximation, 4 Hull characteristics, numerical set-up and test

whereas, an implicit Euler scheme is adopted for the integra- matrix

tion in the pseudo-time

m+1 m+1 n + ϕ n−1 Simulation results are provided for the planing hull in straight

ϕijk − ϕijk

m 3ϕijk − 4ϕijk ijk

+ ahead advancement. The vessel travels in otherwise calm

Δτ 2Δt water; the speed, after an initial transit state of acceleration

n

∂ϕ m+1 from the rest, is kept constant at the target velocity until a

+ Ul + wijk

n

=0 (26)

ijk ∂ξl ijk steady state condition is achieved. Several speeds are tested;

computations are performed in a frame of references translat-

The solution is iterated until either a fixed convergence in ing with the center of gravity (CG) of the model. Propellers

L 2 norm or a maximum number of iterations are reached. are not considered, however, a towing force reduced to the

Once a prediction of the level set function is obtained, it CG is taken into account to mimic the experimental setup

is exploited to compute field values at the next pseudo time where the model is towed aligned with the propeller axis.

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Comput Mech

Fig. 2 Flowchart of the solution procedure used in χnavis. (Colour figure online)

The vessel considered in this paper is the Grande 95RPH i.e. at fixed vertical distance from the centre of gravity ( f

(Fig. 3), a recently designed luxury yacht of the Azimut– in Fig. 4, where the sketch of the towing set-up is reported).

Benetti group; hydrostatic data of the vessel are outlined in In the numerical simulations, the model is towed from the

Table 1. centre of gravity (CG); in order to mimic the experimental

The hull is considered as a rigid body with two degrees of set-up, an additional force (and moment) is applied at the

freedom; the model is left free to heave and pitch, whereas, CG. The vertical and horizontal components of the towing

it is kept fixed on surge, yaw, sway and roll motions. The force are − D tan(ε + τ ) and − D, respectively, where D is

numerical simulations resemble the classical resistance test the actual drag force and τ is the trim angle; the torque is

performed in the towing tank; the model is accelerated by − f D/ cos(ε + τ ).

a towing force up to the test speed, the unsteady numeri- Simulations are performed for speeds spanning from 18

cal simulation is carried out until the vessel reaches a stable to 34 knots; the corresponding Froude (Fr = U∞ / gL pp )

conditions in terms of pitch angle and sinkage. In the experi- and Reynolds (Re = U∞ L pp /ν) numbers vary in the range

ments [51], the model is towed along the propellers axis line, [0.621; 1.174] and [1.91 108 ; 3.60 108 ], respectively. It is

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Comput Mech

Table 1 Principal characteristic of the vessel Table 2 Numerical simulations: test matrix

U∞ (kn) U∞ (m/s) Fr Re We

Length between perpendiculars L pp 22.54 m

Displacement Δ 104t 18 9.260 0.621 1.91 × 108 2.737 × 106

Draft T 1.7 m 20 10.289 0.691 2.12 × 108 3.379 × 106

Longitudinal position of CG LCG 9.3 m 22 11.318 0.760 2.33 × 108 4.088 × 106

Vertical position of CG VCG 3.12 m 24 12.347 0.829 2.54 × 108 4.865 × 106

Propeller axis inclination ε 9.08◦ 26 13.375 0.898 2.75 × 108 5.710 × 106

Distance between CG and propeller axis f 1.634 m 28 14.404 0.967 2.97 × 108 6.622 × 106

30 15.433 1.036 3.18 × 108 7.602 × 106

worth to note that all the simulations were performed at 32 16.462 1.105 3.39 × 108 8.649 × 106

full scale without the use of any wall functions, making 34 17.491 1.174 3.60 × 108 9.765 × 106

the computations rather challenging in terms of grid reso-

lutions and, consequentially, in terms of computational cost

requirements, as well as numerical stability. The test matrix Table 3 Physical parameters (water characteristics are taken at

T = 15◦ C)

is reported in Table 2. The vessel is supposed to travel in

fresh water at 15 ◦ C; the physical parameters of the water are Parameter Symbol Value

reported in Table 3.

Density ρ 999.1026 kg/m 3

An overview of the computational mesh is shown in Fig. 5;

Kinematic viscosity ν 1.1386 × 10−6 m2 /s2

in the figure, the chimera cells have been hidden for the sake

Surface tension σ 73.50 × 10−3 N/m

of clearness. The vessel is symmetrical about its longitudinal

Acceleration of gravity g 9.8067 m/s2

vertical plane, therefore, only half of the domain has been

discretized; symmetry boundary conditions are applied on

the longitudinal symmetry plane. In order to obtain a high

and accurate refinement close to the hull and the skeg, the ble in Fig. 3, the hull is characterized by an hard chine along

domain has been discretized by 162 body-fitted patched and the vessel (useful for deflecting the sprays and providing an

overlapped blocks, for a total of about 18.5 M cells. increment of the lift force, as outlined in the Sect. 1) and an

Grid distribution is designed in such a way that the thick- aesthetic chine over it. An important effort has been spent for

ness of the first cell on the wall is always below 1 in terms of the discretization of the chines and of the skeg that looks very

wall units, and at least 30 cells are within the boundary layer thin and narrow. Moreover, the chines tends to join at the bow

thickness (y + = O(1), i.e. Δ/L pp = O(20/Re) with Δ the forming a geometric singularity which has been accurately

thickness of the near-wall cell). Size and position of the 162 modelled. In Fig. 5 a slice of the numerical domain highlight

structured blocks in the domain are listed in Table 4. As visi- the important stretch of the grid volumes near the walls and

profile. CG denotes the centre

of gravity

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Comput Mech

Fig. 5 Overview of the computational mesh: on the top, mesh on the hull surface. On the bottom: particular of the stern region

Zone No. of cells

In the following, the numerical results are investigated.

Background 1,331,200 The estimation of total resistance, sinkage and trim will be

Hull 9,294,336 reported as first; comprehensive assessment of verification

Skeg 487,424 (i.e. the analysis of the convergence and estimation of the

Free surface 7,266,304 numerical uncertainty) and validation (i.e. the comparison

Total 18,379,264 against benchmark data including the estimation of the error)

will provide reliability of the computations. An analysis (for

one representative speed) of the flow field and wave pattern

(characterized by strong non linear effects, including break-

the overlapping of sets with different topologies: also in this

ing waves, plunging jets and ricochets) will close the section.

figure, the chimera cells have been hidden for the sake of

clearness.

A multigrid technique has been exploited in order to 5.1 Resistance, sinkage and trim curves versus speed of

achieve a faster convergence to the solution in the pseudo- advancement

time; four levels of computational mesh are used. Every level

is obtained from the finer one, by removing every other point In Fig. 6 the total resistance RT (non-dimensionalized by the

along each spatial direction. The three finest grids (for which gravitational force mg, m being the displacement), and the

the refinement ratio is 2) have been used for Verification and total resistance coefficient (C T = RT /0.5ρU∞ L 2PP ) versus

Validation purposes. Computations are carried out in time Froude number are shown. Experimental results are reported

up to a clear convergence is attained; in particular, computa- with symbols. Resistance continuously increases with the

tions are stopped when the variations on the sinkage and on speed (or, similarly, the resistance coefficient decreases with

the trim are at most on the fourth significant digit. Fr). Values for the whole speed range are in agreement with

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Comput Mech

Fig. 6 Resistance and resistance coefficient versus Froude number. Symbols: experimental data; solid line: numerical estimation

Fig. 7 Sinkage and trim versus Froude number. Symbols: experimental data; solid line: numerical estimation

experimental data (grid convergence and a comprehensive 5.1.1 Verification and validation

verification and validation will be presented in the follow-

ing). The reliability of the computed results is assessed by a

Figure 7 displays sinkage (i.e. the distance of the CG rigorous estimation of the convergence properties and the

from the undisturbed free surface level) and trim estimations, accuracy of the results (i.e. numerical uncertainty estima-

along with the measurements: sinkage is positive when the tion and comparisons with respect to experimental data).

CG moves upward, whereas trim is positive when the ship Verification (the evaluation of the order of convergence and

rotates bow up. As the speed increases, the lift provided by the assessment of numerical uncertainty) and validation (the

the main hull surface increases and the hull rises (i.e. sinkage estimation of the modelling error by comparison with exper-

increases); it is worth to note that, an additional contribution imental data) have been carried out for the total resistance

to the vertical force is provided by the hard chines which coefficient, the trim and the sinkage. Experiments are made

interact with the free surface. The change of the distribution available by [51]. In order to provide a complete analysis,

of the vertical force is such that to lead to a decrease of the verification and validation have been assessed for the whole

trim angle with the speed (as shown in Fig. 7. The vessel speed range.

at higher velocities acquires a more pronounced neutral atti- Results are summarized in Table 5. In the table, S3 , S2 and

tude, i.e. low trim angles. The decreasing of the trim angle, S1 refer to the values computed on the coarse, the medium

clearly indicates a larger increase of the pressure on the stern and the fine grid, respectively; pRE is the measured order of

region with respect to the fore part of the ship; as a conse- accuracy

quence, increasing the speed, the stern rises more then the

bow, finally leading to a low trim angle attitude. The com- ln (ε32 /ε21 )

parison with experiments are rather satisfactory for the sink pRE = (29)

ln (r )

at all Froude numbers, as well as for the trim at the lower-

medium speed. At higher speeds, computational estimations

where ε21 = S2 − S1 , ε32 = S3 − S2 and r is the grid refine-

provide a continuously decreasing of the trim, whereas EFD

ment ratio (r = 2 has been used in the current analysis). From

measurements show a kind of plateau. However, the differ-

the solution on the medium and the finest grid,the Richard-

ence, as it will be deeper analysed in the following section,

son’s Extrapolated error δRE can be computed

is rather low, being less then half of a degree.

ε21

δRE = (30)

r RE − 1

p

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Comput Mech

Fr S3 S2 S1 ε21 /ε32 pRE δRE SRE D USN (%SRE ) E(%D)

0.623 1.352 1.375 1.413 1.73 Div. – – 1.352 – 4.50

0.692 1.391 1.474 1.483 0.11 3.21 − 1.09 × 10−3 1.484 1.431 0.85% 3.70

0.761 1.447 1.539 1.567 0.30 1.74 − 1.17 × 10−2 1.578 1.497 1.27% 5.45

0.830 1.470 1.581 1.600 0.17 2.56 − 3.86 × 10−3 1.604 1.546 1.49% 3.75

0.900 1.479 1.599 1.627 0.23 2.10 − 8.59 × 10−3 1.636 1.587 1.26% 3.10

0.969 1.515 1.618 1.663 0.44 1.19 − 3.53 × 10−2 1.699 1.623 4.04% 4.67

1.038 1.539 1.640 1.668 0.27 1.88 − 1.03 × 10−2 1.678 1.627 1.01% 3.13

1.107 1.605 1.671 1.700 0.43 1.21 − 2.19 × 10−2 1.721 1.668 2.46% 3.20

1.176 1.632 1.716 1.781 0.76 0.40 − 2.03 × 10−1 1.984 1.722 23.39% 15.22

Overall 4.47% 5.19%

(b) Trim τ (values are expressed in degrees)

0.623 3.295 3.204 3.079 1.36 Div. – – 2.953 – 4.28

0.692 3.451 3.317 3.054 1.96 Div. – – 2.964 – 3.05

0.761 3.409 3.204 2.951 1.24 Div. – – 2.865 – 3.02

0.830 3.332 3.054 2.751 1.08 Div. – – 2.744 – 0.27

0.900 3.324 2.869 2.630 0.53 0.93 2.65 × 10−1 2.365 2.668 23.01% 11.34

0.969 3.279 2.767 2.601 0.32 1.62 7.99 × 10−2 2.521 2.671 5.58% 5.63

1.038 3.212 2.622 2.446 0.30 1.75 7.48 × 10−2 2.371 2.684 5.39% 11.65

1.107 3.102 2.518 2.416 0.18 2.50 2.20 × 10−2 2.394 2.705 5.27% 11.51

1.176 2.946 2.348 2.345 0.01 7.78 1.24 × 10−5 2.345 2.719 0.03% 13.74

Overall 7.85% 7.16%

Fr S3 (×105 ) S2 (×105 ) S1 (×105 ) ε21 /ε32 pRE δRE (×105 ) SRE (×105 ) D (×105 ) USN (%SRE ) E(%D)

0.623 1.36 1.24 1.09 1.17 Div. – – 1.05 – 4.02

0.692 1.37 1.22 1.14 0.54 0.90 9.05 1.05 1.11 17.78% 5.36

0.761 1.44 1.27 1.19 0.44 1.17 6.25 1.13 1.17 10.81% 3.14

0.830 1.50 1.32 1.23 0.46 1.13 7.21 1.16 1.23 12.26% 5.67

0.900 1.60 1.36 1.29 0.31 1.70 3.23 1.26 1.30 4.44% 3.50

0.969 1.68 1.42 1.38 0.18 2.44 1.07 1.36 1.38 4.10% 1.16

1.038 1.77 1.51 1.42 0.38 1.39 5.96 1.36 1.45 8.16% 6.72

1.107 1.84 1.58 1.50 0.28 1.83 2.97 1.47 1.53 3.39% 3.54

1.176 1.96 1.78 1.55 1.28 Div. – – 1.59 – 2.67

Overall 8.71% 3.98%

The generalized Richardson extrapolated solution SRE can asymptotic range is given by the ratio between the computed

be then estimated as order of accuracy and the theoretical one, i.e. P = pRE / pth ;

when the solutions are in the asymptotic range P 1, the

SRE = S1 − δRE (31) actual order of convergence is equal to the theoretical value.

This method has been proved to be superior to the correction

factor method [57,65] since it overcomes the unreasonable

When monotonic convergence is attained (i.e. when 0 <

small uncertainty estimation when the measured order of

ε21 /ε32 < 1) both the order of convergence and the error can

convergence is less than the theoretical value; moreover, it

be computed. Several methods [24,47,57,65] can be used for

provides an overall confidence level of 95% for the estimated

the estimation of the numerical uncertainty; in the present

uncertainty to bound the true error. According to the factor

work the factor of safety method proposed by [66] has been

of safety method, the grid uncertainty can be computed as

adopted. In this method, a measure for the distance from the

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Comput Mech

(2.45 − 0.85P) |δRE | if 0 < P ≤ 1

UG = (32)

(16.4P − 14.8) |δRE | if P > 1

computation of the sinkage (σ ), trim (τ ) and the total resis-

tance (RT ) are reported; since negligible iterative uncertainty

has been observed (well below 1%), grid uncertainty can be

considered as the only contribution to the numerical uncer-

tainty (i.e. USN ≈ UG ). The absolute error E with respect

to the experiment data D (for all the computed quantities) is

reported in the last column of the Table 5

SRE − D

E = % (33)

D

when monotonic convergence is not attained), the value com-

puted on the finest grid (S1 ) has been used for the error

Fig. 8 Error respect to experimental data for the total resistance, the

estimation. sinkage and the trim against Froude number

The measured convergence properties are rather good for

the whole speed range; an order of convergence very close

to the theoretical value (2) for the computation of drag, trim respond to a difference between the computed value and the

and sinkage is observed for the medium speeds. Good con- benchmark reference less than 0.5 ◦ . Moreover, it is worth

vergence properties are also observed at lower and higher to note that, the difficulties of the numerical simulations in

speeds for the estimation of the resistance and the sinkage, the correct prevision of the trim angle is a well-known topic

whereas poor convergence (or divergence) is observed for and for fast ships may be tricky to overcome (see also [2])

the computation of the trim at medium and lower speeds. In The quality of the computed results can be summarized with

general, the worst convergence properties are seen at highest the average errors (within the speed range); values of about

and lowest speeds for the computations of all the quantities 5%D, 7%D and 4%D are reported for the sinkage, trim and

of interests. the total resistance, respectively. Clearly, the agreement can

In general, low uncertainties are estimated for all mono- be considered largely satisfactory. Finally, by the compari-

tonic convergent cases; as shown in Table 5, higher uncer- son of the relative errors and the numerical uncertainty, even

tainty level is associated to the estimation of the total without the inclusion of the experimental uncertainty, the

resistance, whereas lower uncertainty values are observed numerical results can be considered, in general, validated

for the computation of the sinkage. Average values of the when a monotonic convergence is achieved. To summarize,

numerical uncertainties are bounded 5%SRE for the sinkage on the average, the total resistance is validate at the level of

and around 8%SRE for both the trim and the total resistance. 9%D, the trim at the level of 8%D and the sinkage around

Larger numerical uncertainty levels (up to 20%SRE ) are seen 5%D.

for the total resistance at lower speeds, for the computation

of the sinkage at highest speed and for the trim estimation at 5.2 Flow field

the medium speed, i.e. in general for those cases for which

the worst convergence properties (order of convergence less An overview of the flow field is reported here; the analysis

than 1) are observed. is carried out for the simulation at the advancement speed of

By comparison with the experimental data, a very good 28 Kn i.e. at Fr = 0.967. Results at the other speeds present

agreement between numerical results and experimental mea- the similar characteristics to those highlighted in the follow-

surements can be inferred. The comparison is summarized in ing. A three dimensional view of the free surface shapes

the last column of Table 5, as well as graphically in Fig. 8: around the hull advancing at the selected speed is displayed

the error is rarely higher than 10%D. An encouraging consis- in Fig. 9.

tency with experiments is found for the sinkage and the total For the sake of clearness, the solution is mirrored around

resistance, without any clear dependence on the advancement the longitudinal plane of symmetry. Differently from what

speed. Higher discrepancies are observed for the estimation happens for displacement vessels, where a Kelvin wave sys-

of the trim, with larger values at higher speeds; however, it tem is generated, for high speed planing crafts the fluid is

has to be highlighted that errors of the order of 10%D, cor- pushed aside by the hull in the form of thin sprays. A clear

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Comput Mech

surface pattern; it is to note that the wave pattern is well

captured by the present numerical solver, regardless its topo-

logical complexities.

More in details, in Fig. 10 a purely qualitative compari-

son between the simulated surface flow pattern and a typical

sailing boat one is shown. Obviously the problems are very

different in terms of geometries and the Froude numbers.

However some typical features are clearly visible: the plunge

point of the jet emerging from the bow splash and starting of

the first breaking cycle indicated with A; the splash-up of this

jet B; and the plateau between the breaking front and the hull

denoted with C. Finally a similar secondary vortical structure

shed by the breaking bow wave can be seen in the two wave

patterns (marked with D). Differently from the sailing boat,

for the planing hull the presence of an hard chines anticipates

the bow jet plunging, transferring an higher amount of energy

near the jet root. This interaction moves the plunging point

farther away and makes the jet very thin and narrow. More-

over, in the planing hull case, the jet impinges with higher

intensity causing the formation of a ricochet downstream,

which is totally absent in the sailing boat case. This rico-

chet produces a second plunging with an intense production

of surface vorticity, responsible of important air entrapment

and foam generation (not modelled in the present approach).

It is of interest, in terms of surface vorticity, the presence of a

laminar plateau close to the vessel and bounded by two highly

vortical areas; here a strong vortex stretching occurs, which

causes the stretch of the vortical structures along the ship

axis, in a way that the flow resembles a laminar behaviour.

Fig. 9 Top and perspective views of the wave pattern around the vessel, Similar investigation has been performed in [41].

advancement speed U∞ = 28 Kn At the transom, which is completely dry, a deep wave

trough is seen. As expected, this is followed by a rather high

wave crest, forming the well-know roaster tail, which results

rise up of the water in the fore part of the hull is shown; due elongated far away the transom as typical for high-speed ves-

to the high pressure which occurs at the bow of the ship, sels. It is interesting to note the formation of wave systems

the water rises along the surface hull in form of a thin water from the edges of the stern (one on each side) and one in the

sheet. This water sheet would rise up to a level at which its centre-line of the ship. This wave systems are caused by the

kinetic energy equals the potential one, where it would detach vortical structures generated at the sharp edges (transom/side

from the hull surface, forming a jet. In the present case, the hull and the skeg) of the ship. It is worth to note that all these

jet is formed when the thin sheet impacts the hard chine of characteristics of the wave pattern, regardless their complex

the ship, which forces the water sheet to leave the surface shapes and dynamics, are accurately captured by the numer-

hull in the form of a breaking wave. The energy of the water ical solution.

sheet allows the jet to spread far away from the hull, where it In Fig. 11, the non dimensional pressure on the hull sur-

impinges the surface originating several ricochets. This jet is face is shown. Again, for the sake of clearness, the solution is

related to an important property of the hard chine: the intense mirrored about the longitudinal vertical plane of symmetry;

jet root provides an added lift to the ship, rising the sinkage. both bottom and lateral views are presented. In the pictures,

Downstream, along the stern part of the side of the hull, a the wave profile is reported with a black thick line. The pres-

water sheet attached to the hull is seen; this water sheet leave sure field on the fore part of the hull is similar to the one

the surface at the transom, which, being completely dry, gives that can be observed in case of simply planned wedge shape

rise to an hydraulic jump [41]. at high Froude numbers [29,33] and for similar hull shape

The complex wave system on the side of the hull, is char- [30,35,42]; the pressure peak at the stagnation point causes a

acterized by several water jets, breaking waves and ricochets, rise up of the water, the height of the rise depends on the flare

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Comput Mech

Fig. 10 Comparisons of free surface structures between present test (U∞ = 28 Kn) and a sailing boat

angle of the ship. A quasi V-shaped jet root is clearly visible, suddenly detaches with a less intense jet (as it can be also

with a decreasing pressure peak moving downstream. Dif- seen from the figures of the free surface).

ferently from the flat wedge [33], where the jet root is rather

narrow, the non-flat shape of the vessel causes a spread of

the pressure peak, i.e. the region of the hull interested to high

pressure values is wider. This can be of some importance for 6 Conclusions

loads and structural related problems, as well as, to slamming

occurrence once the ship is travelling in waves. When the jet In the present paper an unsteady single phase level-set tech-

root arrives at the hard chine, a step pressure rise occurs. The nique has been adopted (within a general purpose uRaNS

rise up of the water grows, with high pressure level extending solver) for the study of the free surface wave pattern gen-

well upstream. erated by a high speed vessel. The single phase level set

Moreover, from this pictures, it can be also clearly seen approach allows to track the dynamics of the air/water inter-

how the free surface detaches all along the chine, up to face maintaining its thickness within one cell, without any

the region where the lower chine is large enough. When need to smooth out the variation of the fluid variables across

it becomes too tiny, the water is able to overcame the first the two phases. In this regard this methodology is able to

geometrical edge, rising up to the aesthetic chine, where it represent the interface with an accuracy comparable to clas-

sical Lagrangian methodologies. The governing equations

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are integrated in the water phase only, whereas in the air 7. Brizzolara S, Serra F (2007) Accuracy of CFD codes in the pre-

phase the field variables are extrapolated. The Eikonal equa- diction of planing surfaces hydrodynamic characteristics. In: 2nd

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plateau, as well as the secondary vortical structures and the of turning circle by CFD: analysis of different propeller models and

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considered within the numerical/experimental uncertainty. international offshore and polar engineering conference, San Fran-

Future activities will concern fluid structure interactions cisco, CA, USA

at various speeds, as well as static and dynamic roll stability 18. Di Mascio A, Broglia R, Muscari R (2007) On the application of the

for high speed planing hull. one-phase level set method for naval hydrodynamic flows. Comput

Fluids 36(5):868–886

19. Di Mascio A, Broglia R, Roberto M (2007) Prediction of Hydro-

Acknowledgements The research has been partially supported by the

dynamic coefficients of ship hulls by Godunov-type methods. In:

Project RESMARE “Ricerca E Servizi per il MARE” funded by the

MARINE 2007, Barcelona, Spain

Lazio Region and conducted in collaboration with Azimut-Benetti

20. Di Mascio A, Broglia R, Muscari R (2008) Numerical simulations

which are acknowledged for providing vessel geometry and experi-

of viscous flow around a naval combatant in regular head waves.

mental results.

In: Proceedings 6th Osaka colloquium on seakeping and stability

of ships, Osaka, Japan

21. Di Mascio A, Broglia R, Muscari R (2009) Prediction of hydro-

dynamic coefficients of ship hulls by high-order Godunov-type

methods. J Mar Sci Technol 14:19–29

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