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Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 3
1.1. Company Vision................................................................................................................................ 4
1.2. Company Mission ............................................................................................................................. 4
1.3. Company Core Values ................................................................................................................... 5
1.4. Company’s Objective .................................................................................................................... 6
1.5. Functions of SSGC: ....................................................................................................................... 6
1.6. Organizational Chart ..................................................................................................................... 7
2. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution.......................................................................................... 8
2.1. Transmission Pipelines: ................................................................................................................. 8
2.2. Distribution Pipelines: ................................................................................................................... 9
2.3. Service Pipelines: .......................................................................................................................... 9
3. Distribution System Maintenance ................................................................................................... 10
3.1. Introduction: ................................................................................................................................ 10
3.2. Responsibilities: .......................................................................................................................... 10
3.3. Town Border Station ................................................................................................................... 11
3.4. Cathodic Protection ..................................................................................................................... 11
3.5. Pressure Regulator Station: ......................................................................................................... 12
4. Valves ................................................................................................................................................. 13
4.1. Ball Valve: ................................................................................................................................... 13
4.2. Gate Valve: .................................................................................................................................. 13
4.3. Globe Valve: ................................................................................................................................ 13
4.4. Needle Valve: .............................................................................................................................. 14
5. Odorization ......................................................................................................................................... 15
5.1. Leak Screening Techniques ......................................................................................................... 15
5.2. UFG (Unaccounted for Gas Issue) .............................................................................................. 16
6. Measurement Section .......................................................................................................................... 17
6.1. Bell Prover System: ..................................................................................................................... 17
7. Equipment Used in Distribution System Maintenance: .................................................................. 18
RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 19
CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................... 20

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All the praises are for the almighty Allah, who bestowed me with his blessings, the ability and potential to
complete my six weeks internship program.

The inspiring guidance, remarkable suggestions, constant encouragement, keen interest, and friendly
discussion throughout my internship period enabled me to complete this report efficiently.

I offer my heartiest tribute and cordial gratitude to present my thanks to Chief Engineer Mr. Muhammad
Anwar Nasar, Asst. Engr. Inam Karim (Maintenance Section), Mr. Javed (Welding Supervisor) who had
been a source of constant support and inspiring guidance throughout my internship period.

I am also thankful to Engr. Muhammad Saleem who was source of guidance and his inspiration led me to
learn and nourish my skills in Maintenance department.

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1. INTRODUCTION

SUI southern gas company (SSGC) is Pakistan's leading


integrated gas company. The company is engaged in the
business of transmission and distribution of natural gas besides
construction of high pressure transmission and low pressure
distribution systems.
SSGC-l transmission system extends from sui in Balochistan
to Karachi in Sindh comprising over 3,200 km of high pressure
pipeline ranging from 12 - 24" in diameter. The distribution
activities covering over 1200 towns in the Sindh and
Balochistan are organized through its regional offices. An
average of about 357,129 million cubic feet gas was sold in 2006-2007 to over 1.9 million industrial,
commercial and domestic consumers in these regions through a distribution network of over 29,832
km. The company also owns and operates the only gas meter manufacturing plant in the country,
having an annual production capacity of over 550,150.
The Company has an authorized capital of Rs. 10 billion of which Rs 6.7 billion is issued and fully
paid up. The Government owns the majority of the shares which is presently over 70%.
The company is managed by an autonomous board of directors for policy guidelines and overall
control. Presently, SSGC’s Board has 14 members drawn both from public and private sectors. The
Managing Director/Chief Executive is nominated by GOP and has been delegated with such powers
by the Board of Directors as are necessary to effectively conduct the business of the Company.

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1.1. Company Vision

“To be a model utility providing quality service

By maintaining a high level of ethical and professional

Standards and through optimum

Use of resources”

1.2. Company Mission

“To meet the energy requirements of customers

Through reliable, environment friendly

And sustainable supply of natural gas, while conducting

Company business professionally,

Efficiently, ethically and with

Responsibility to all our stakeholder, community and the nation”

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1.3. Company Core Values

Integrity Keep Company's Interest above self. Acts in ethical manner. Promote ethical business
environment. Take effective actions if observers unethical behavior or situation. Seen & known to be
honest. Lives within means. Intellectually honest.

Excellence Makes positive contribution towards the achievement of SSGC's Vision. Strives for
Continuous improvement. Respond effectively to customer needs. Takes timely & Quality decisions.

Teamwork Builds strong relationships within across functions. Works well with all type of peoples and
corporate with others. Solicits and share ideas/best practice with others. Supports the achievements of
Company/team goals. Contributes to team effectiveness using people's different skills and styles. Arrives
at constructive solutions while maintaining positive working relationships. Demonstrates sensitivity.

Transparency Promotes open environment. Displays openness and consistency in applying policies &
procedures. Respects dissent and resolves conflicts fairly.

Creativity Comes up with new ideas. Encourages innovation. Promotes modified approaches. Convert
ideas into actions.

Responsibility to Stakeholders Stays abreast of change in operating environment that impacts our
business (i.e. markets, competitors, technology, customers, suppliers, employees, regulatory, political and
public). Create solutions to make customer needs. Develops colleagues and team members to improve their
skills and performance. Ensure optimum utilization of resources. Balances short term and long term
priorities to maximize on results. Ensures compliance of law.

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1.4. Company’s Objective

The Company aims to supply natural gas wherever there is sufficient load to justify the cost of
infrastructure. In many places the gas network is being expanded to meet economic and social
requirements through active funding support from the Federal and Provincial governments. In
2003, the Company launched a comprehensive five-year gas network development and expansion
plan to connect hundreds of small towns and villages in remote areas of Sindh and Baluchistan,
which currently are deprived of piped natural gas.

Every year, the Company adds nearly 66,000 new customers (industrial, commercial & domestic)
to its customer base and lays hundreds of kilometers of transmission pipelines and distribution
network and installs other facilities such as metering/ billing stations in its system using its staff
of technically qualified and skilled personnel.

1.5. Functions of SSGC:


The Company is organized in to four functional division. Transmission, Distribution, Meter Plant
& the Head office. The Board of directors has the overall responsibility for the management and
control over the company. The management enjoy operational autonomy. The major portion of the
workforce of technically qualified and skilled personnel.

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1.6. Organizational Chart

D&SM

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2. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution

The most important components of the gas transmission network are the transmission pipelines,
including valve stations, the compressor stations and the pressure reduce and metering stations
located at the gas delivery points.

2.1. Transmission Pipelines:


Gas is transmitted to sites close to where gas is used along underground transmission pipelines.
The pipelines are laid at a depth of 1–2 m, and their location is marked with signposts. The gas
pressure in current transmission pipelines is approximately 200 to 1200 psi. The pipelines are steel
pipelines coated with polyethylene plastic. The protection against corrosion provided by the
coating is supplemented by a cathodic protection system. The high-pressure transmission pipeline
network is 1,300 km long.

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2.2. Distribution Pipelines:


Gas is led from the transmission network to distribution networks via pressure reduce and metering
stations. Distribution pipelines are also known as “mains” are the middle step between high
pressure transmission line and low pressure service line. They operate at an intermediate pressure.
Distribution pipelines are small to medium sized pipes (2” to 24” in diameter) that are federally
regulated and carry odorized gas at varying pressure level from 0.3 to 200 psi. The materials used
in gas pipeline construction must be mechanically strong enough and withstand the pressures and
temperatures that the pipelines may be subjected to in ordinary use. These pipes are made of steel,
copper or other material intended for use with gas.

2.3. Service Pipelines:


Service pipelines deliver the gas from the distribution main in the street to customer’s meter.
Service pipelines are narrow pipes (less than 2” in diameter) that carry odorized gas at low
pressure as 6 psi. They are generally made form steel, plastic or copper.

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3. Distribution System Maintenance

3.1. Introduction:
One of the Distribution Company’s biggest job in Maintenance primarily repairing main and
services. Distribution system maintenance department work is to identify and quantify leaks,
repairs that are cost effective to fix are then made to the leaking components. Subsequent surveys
are based on data from previous surveys, allowing operators to concentrate on the components that
are most likely to leak and are profitable to repair. They focus on maximizing the savings that can
be achieved at gate station/towns border station and surface facilities.
A direct inspection and Maintenance program can be implemented in four step:

 Conduct baseline survey.


 Record results and identify candidates for repair.
 Analyze the data and estimate savings.
 Develop a survey plan for future DI&M.

3.2. Responsibilities:

1. Making and Maintenance of TBS/PRS/DMS


2. Rehabilitation
3. Reinforcement
4. Leakage Survey
5. Valve Maintenance
6. Pressure Maintaining
7. Dust Filter Maintenance
8. Odorizer Maintenance
9. Distribution system study and Modification
10. Civil work painting of TBS, overhead pipelines and repair of valve pits.

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3.3. Town Border Station

The gas distribution system is composed of the connected features that convey natural gas from a
source such as a regulator or town border station to the customer. Principle components of the gas
system are pipes (mains and services), devices which control and regulate flow in those pipes,
fittings that join pipes, and metering equipment that measures the flow of gas within pipes.

Mains are pipes that carry gas from a source, such as a regulator or town border station, to a point
adjacent to a customer premise. Service pipes transport gas from mains to meter locations. At the
town border station (also called a city gate), gas transmission is converted to a distribution system.
These features may have associated regulators, regulating meters, overpressure devices, and
odorizers. Regulating stations define the location of one or more pressure regulators.
Gate stations and surface facilities contain equipment components such as pipes, valves, flanges,
open ended lines, meters and pneumatic controllers to monitor and control gas flow. Over time
these components can develop leaks in response to temperature fluctuations, pressure, corrosion
and wear.

Several types of devices control the flow of gas through a set of pipes as well as the pressure at
which gas is delivered. A regulator is a mechanical device used for the controlled reduction of
pressure in a gas distribution system. Monitor and backup regulators are included in this feature
type. A valve operates in a pipe to permit flow in only one direction or regulate the flow by means
of a flat, lid, plug, or other mechanism to open or block the pipe. Valves designated as ‘key’ are
critical to modeling and analysis. Flow control devices include any fitting that is not a regulator or
a valve that can control the flow of gas and is machine operated.
Steel pipes buried in corrosive soils will corrode. Coatings of epoxy, polyethylene, or other
materials are common methods for inhibiting corrosion. Cathodic protection is another method of
protecting underground metallic structures, such as steel pipes, fittings, and valves, from corrosion.

3.4. Cathodic Protection


Cathodic protection reduces corrosion in underground gas distribution systems by forcing a DC
current onto a metallic structure to counteract any corrosive current flowing from the structure to
the earth. Cathodic protection will not prevent corrosion from occurring within the system, but
instead transfers it from the protected structure to a sacrificial surface. This replaceable surface is
commonly referred to as an anodic structure, anode, or ground bed.

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3.5. Pressure Regulator Station:


Pressure regulator station is designed to reduce the gas pressure from high to lower value
determined by clients/customers.

List of TBS in Quetta


S.No Name of TBS Meter Type
1. TBS-1 Near Head Quarter Quetta T-35
2. TBS-2 Sariab Road Quetta T-35
3. TBS-3 Kirani Quetta T-35
4. TBS-3 Qambrani Quetta T-35
5. TBS-4 Goli Mar Chowk Quetta T-35
6. TBS-5 Sumagli Road Quetta T-35
7. TBS-6 WAPDA Thermal Quetta T-35
8. TBS-6 WAPDA Thermal Run-2 T-60
9. TBS-7 Sumagli Air Base T-35
10. TBS-8 Sipni Road Quetta T-35
11. TBS-9 Taj Complex Quetta T-35
12. TBS-10 Chiltan Ghee Sirki Road T-60
13. TBS-11 Mastung T-60
14. TBS-12 Sikandar Abad T-18
15. TBS-13 Serena & Cantt. Quetta T-35
16. TBS-14 Barozai Quetta T-35
17. TBS-15 Ufone Office Quetta T-35
18. TBS-16 Spezand Quetta T-35
19. TBS-17 Musa Colony T-35
20. TBS-18 Staff College T-35
21. TBS-19 Sharif Abad Quetta T-35

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4. Valves

4.1. Ball Valve:


Ball valves are quarter-turn, straight-through valves that have a round
closure element with matching rounded seats that permit uniform sealing
stress. The valve gets its name from the ball that rotates to open and close
the valve. Ball valves are used in situations where tight shut-off is
required. They are wide duty valves, able to transfer gases, liquids and
liquids with suspended solids (slurries).

4.2. Gate Valve:


Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-
line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these
valves generally are either fully open or fully closed. The disk of a Gate
valve is completely removed when the valve is fully open; the disk is fully
drawn up into the valve Bonnet. This leaves an opening for flow through
the valve at the same inside diameter as the pipe system in which the valve
is installed. A Gate valve can be used for a wide range of liquids and
provides a tight seal when closed.

4.3. Globe Valve:


The globe valve is used for throttling flow control. Shut off is accomplished
by moving the disc against the flow stream rather than across it as in the case
with a gate valve. The flow pattern through a globe valve involves changes
in direction, resulting in greater resistance to flow, causing high pressure
drop. The globe valve is an excellent valve to use for on-off service, but is
highly suited for frequent cycling and control of fluids anywhere in amount
or volume between the open and closed positions.

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4.4. Needle Valve:


A needle valve is a type of valve having a small orifice and a threaded needle
like plunger. It allows precise regulation of flow, although it is generally used
for only relatively small flow rates.

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5. Odorization

Natural gas is colorless, odorless gas. Odorization is a process in which an odorant is added to a
gas in order to identify the gas leakage. An odorizer is a device that adds an odorant to a gas. The
most common type is one that adds a Mercaptan liquid into natural gas distribution systems so
that leaks can be readily detected.
Odorization Systems are engineered to measure and inject precise amounts of liquid odorant into
each cubic foot, or meter, of gas that flows down a pipeline to ensure detectability.
Natural Gas Odorant:
 Tertiary Butyl Mercaptan TBM
 Isopropyl Mercaptan IPM
 Normal Propyl Mercaptan NPM
 Methyl Ethyl Sulfide MES

5.1. Leak Screening Techniques

Soap Bubble Screening is a fast, easy and very low-cost leak screening technique. Soap bubble
screening involves spraying a soap solution on small accessible components such as, threaded
connections. Soaping is effective for locating loose fittings and connections, which can be
tightened on the spot to fix the leak, and for quickly checking the tightness of a repair. Operators
can screen about 100 components per hour by soaping.

Electronic screening using small handheld gas detectors or “sniffing” devices provides
another fast and convenient way to detect accessible leaks.
Electronic gas detectors are equipped with catalytic oxidation and thermal conductivity sensors
design to detect the presence of specific gas. Electronic gas detectors can be used on larger
openings that cannot be screened by soaping.

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5.2. UFG (Unaccounted for Gas Issue)


Unaccounted-for gas is the difference between the amount of gas purchased and the quantity of
gas sold, whether it is more or less. The term, “unaccounted-for gas,” does not always indicate a
leak. Leakage is only one of a number of factors contributing to unaccounted-for gas.
The causes for unaccounted-for gas can be grouped into two categories. One is leaks and the other
gas measurement. Leaks are defined as gas escaping to the atmosphere at a given rate at an
unknown location. The rate of gas loss is dependent on the pressure and the size of the hole.
Normally, gas leakage will be at a fairly constant rate and will increase gradually with time if not
located and repaired. Gas lost through measurement or the lack of measurement is very deceptive
and at times very difficult to detect. Gas measurement is defined as the accounting of all gas bought
and sold.
UFG is normally expressed in terms. MMCF per mile 3 inch equivalent pipe.
Causes of UFG:
Leakage is only one of factors contributing to UFG. The major factors are:
1. Metering discrepancy is caused by the difference between the base temperature and
pressure of the gas measured at TBS/SMS. The base temperature and pressure is
measured at customer end.
2. Variation in billing time/periods.
3. Defective meters.
4. Theft of gas.
5. Un-metered use of gas in company operations.

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6. Measurement Section

6.1. Bell Prover System:


A gas meter prover is a device which verifies the accuracy of a gas meter. Provers are typically
used in gas meter repair facilities, municipal gas meter shops, and public works shops. Provers
work by comparing a known volume of air across a meter with the gas meter's index.
The bell prover standard is a reference standard for air volumes. It is used as a volume reference
standard for validating the pre-determined volumes of air needed to perform the calibration of
verification of residential and commercial diaphragm gas meters. The test bench generates the
requested flow rates and compares the measured volume of the gas meter under test with the
applied standard reference system.

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7. Equipment Used in Distribution System Maintenance:

Plunger:
A plunger is a device that is used to release stoppages in plumbing. The tool consists of a rubber
cup with an attached stick "shaft", usually made of wood or plastic. A different bellows-like design
also exists, usually constructed of plastic. For the common plunger, the cup is pushed down against
the drain opening, and either pressed hard into the drain to force air in, or is pushed down until the
rubber cup is flattened, then pulled out, causing a vacuum that attracts material

Odoro Meter:
Odoro meter is used to measure the odors of a substance in varying concentration in Gas. This is
effectively used in natural gas companies.

Gas Leak Detector:


A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of a safety
system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak and interface with a control system so
a process can be automatically shut down. Common sensors include infrared point sensors,
ultrasonic sensors, electrochemical gas sensors, and semiconductor sensors

Metal Detector:
A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal
detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried
underground. They often consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over
the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing
tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an indicator. Usually the device gives some indication
of distance; the closer the metal is, the higher the tone in the earphone or the higher the needle
goes.

Grease Gun:
A grease gun is a common workshop and garage tool used for lubrication. The purpose of the
grease gun is to apply lubricant through an aperture to a specific point, usually on a grease fitting
or 'nipple'.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of my analysis I would like to share some of my suggestion, which if looked upon
seriously can improve the functioning, operations and promote sense of belongingness for the
company employees.
1. Internees at SSGC are not hired on the basis of their merit rather on their strong references
or some political background, so this type of culture must be changed.
2. Internees at SSGC should be given orientation of all departments in a systematic way,
which will help an internee to understand the company more accurately.
3. Workers were not observing safety precautions and not wearing safety dress code during
their field work. So a proper weekly base inspection must be made by Health & safety
department.
4. I suggest that workshop must be made for maintenance department workers as there was
no proper shelter in pipe yard and workers were working beneath the heated sun.
5. Job description should match to employee field of work.
6. Informative seminars and training programs must be arranged in order to keep the staff up
to date.
7. UFG should be controlled, and should be taken as 1 Priority for SSGC to resolve.
8. Corporate culture should be implemented in SSGC.
9. Daily wages employee should be permanent on merit basis.
10. Attendance of employees and workers must be electronic based.

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CONCLUSION

“I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.”


Industrial training is important for making an engineering student work ready. As it plays an
important role in preparing the student for a professional career.
After spending my days in Maintenance department I learned a lot of things. It was a valuable time
for me as it give me an opportunity to put into practice what I have learned in university. During
my stay in maintenance department all the staff members really helped me a lot.
Therefore, I warmly thankful to Sui Southern Gas Company Limited for providing me such an
opportunity to make my experience in the company.

Sui Southern Gas Company Limited