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Gas ! It’s Everywhere, it’s dissolved in our blood and in our foods.

It’s
in our room. And it’s even on the outside too!
You can feel the gas by doing this kind of motion.Like this! * does
weird gestures* you may not look that great but still proves the point.
Gas is there ! now atoms and molecules moves in permanent motion.
So, the air molecules that surrounds us are in motion BUT are not
traveling at the same time even though the air is at a single
temperature. Some of the air will be moving extremely fast, others will
be moderate and some will move like a snail. Which begs the
question, “what is the distribution of speeds in a gas at a certain
temperature? ”not this *what is the speed of an air molecule in a gas*
since it could have one of a huge number of possible speeds which
are A LOT.
And so here comes the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, here’s a short
definition of the MBD. “The Maxwell-Boltzmann, which forms the basis
of the kinetic theory of gases, defines the distribution of speeds for a
gas at a certain temperature”
This is often represented by a graph like this* shows graph*
The y-axis of the Maxwell-Boltzmann graph can be thought of as
giving the number of molecules per unit speed. So, if the graph is
higher in a given region, it means that there are more gas molecules
moving with those speeds. Note that not all particles will have the
exact same amount of energy. The same way that when you have
water at 50C, then that numeral value is technically the average
temperature of all the water affected. Individual water molecules may
have more or less energy and therefore be at different
temperatures.Same goes for the gas molecules.
So in container A contains 10 molecules of Nitrogen same goes for
the other. Now the temperature for the container A is let’s say 400
kelvins and 300 kelvins for container B. It’s now expected that the
average kinetic energy for container A is higher compared to B. So if
we put in on a graph, it would look like this.
But why is this peak higher even though it has lower kinetic energy
compared to container A? Well, remember that they have the same
number of molecules. So if we have the same number of molecules,
that means the areas under these curves should be the same. so if
this one is narrower since it has lesser speeds, it’s expected that it
would be taller, maintainin g the total surface area under the curve.
So, If we heat the gas to a higher temperature, the peak of the graph
will shift to the right (since the average molecular speed will increase).
As the graph shifts to the right, the height of the graph has to
decrease in order to maintain the same total area under the curve.
Similarly, as a gas cools to a lower temperature, the peak of the graph
shifts to the left. As the graph shifts to the left, the height of the graph
has to increase in order to maintain the same area under the curve.
This can be seen in the curves which represent a sample of gas (with
a constant amount of molecules) at different temperatures.

As the gas gets colder, the graph becomes taller and more narrow.
Similarly, as the gas gets hotter the graph becomes shorter and wider.
This is required for the area under the curve (i.e. total number of
molecules) to stay constant.
If molecules enter the sample, the total area under the curve would
increase. Similarly, if molecules were to leave the sample, the total
area under the curve would decrease.
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