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Ex.No.

01 STUDY EXPERIMENT-I

Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To give a brief study on the evolution of computers and their programming languages.

STUDY PROCEDURE:-

1. Browse the following web site and find out the various evolutions of computer and their
corresponding programming languages developed.

a. www.google.com

b. www.altavista.com

c. www.wikepidea.com

d. www.w3schools3.com

2. Browse any one of the above web sites and in the search window Type “evolution of
computers and their programming languages” then click search.

3. Go through the search RESULT one by one.

4. Summarize the points about the five evolutions of computer, outcome products,
corporate undergone, processors & its configuration and various evolutions of
programming languages.

5. Take a print out of the summary points and copy down in your observation.

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

FIVE EVOLUTIONS OF COMPUTERS


First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes
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The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were
often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to
using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of
malfunctions.
First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language
understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a
time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts.
The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The
UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census
Bureau in 1951.
Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The
transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s.
The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller,
faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.
Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it
was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on
punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or
assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level
programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of
COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in
their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.
The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.
Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.
Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which
drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through
keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to
run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.
Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and
cheaper than their predecessors.

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Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated
circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room
could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the
components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output
controls—on a single chip.
In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the
Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many
areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form
networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers
also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.
Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development,
though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use
of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology is radically change the face of
computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that
respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

Evolution of Programming Languages

Selection criteria: A programming language enters the history if it has a compiler or an


interpreter or if it has inspired other programming languages. New languages with innovative
features are listed if we can produce programs in this langage.
First language
 Ada Lovelace and Babbage and its nephew were writing programs for the project of
"difference engine", and then the "analytical engine".
 In 1945, the german K. Zuse, inventor of the Z3 computer would have defined an evolved
language for this engine (with arrays and records). Few documents of the epoch about
this language exist.
Assembly
 Fsd
Assemblers exist since the beginning of computers. They associate a symbolic name to
the machine-language code, for example:
add bx, 4
cmp [adr], 3
jmp address
Assembly programming is no longer frequently practiced, even to build fast routines...
Autocode - 1952
 Alick E. Glennie
Implemented firstly on Mark 1, then on other computers, this is a symbolic code.
IPL - 1956 - Information Processing Language
 Newell, H. Simon, J.C. Shaw
Low-level list processing language. Implements the RECURSIVITY.

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Fortran - 1954-1958 - FORmula TRANslator system
 John Backus and other researchers at IBM
 Fsd
Language dedicated to mathematical calculations.
Fortran II (1958) introduced SUB-ROUTINES, FUNCTIONS, LOOPS, a primitive
FOR control structure.
Identifiers were limited to six characters.
Lisp - 1958-1960 - LISt Processing
 Mac Carthy
 Fsd
• Functional language for list processing.
• It is purely recursive, and not iterative. There is no difference between code and data.
IAL - 1958 - International Algebraic Logic
 First name for Algol 58, never implemented.
Algol - 1960 / Algol W - 1966 / Algol 68 - ALGOrithmic Language
 Defined by an international consortium of computer science specialists, coordinated by
IFIP.
 Algol Génie
This was the fist universal language to be machine independent.
Introduces the use of the BNF (Backus Naur Form) grammar to create a syntax parser.
Introduces BLOCKS of STATEMENTS, and LOCAL VARIABLES inside a block.
Recursively was implemented but with reticence as this was considered as useless!
Uses DYNAMIC ARRAYS, and this means that following language (Pascal, C) have regressed
by using static arrays, for better performance.
It has IF THEN ELSE, FOR, the := symbol for assignment (used then by Pascal), a SWITCH
with gotos, the BEGIN END markers, the WHILE loop.

Algol W by Niklaus Wirth in 1966 was using RECORDS, that are dynamic data structures,
CASE, passing parameters by value, precedence of operators.
The same year, Niklaus Wirth has created Euler, a language between Algol and Pascal.

Algol 60 was still oriented toward mathematical calculations. To try to reach the original goal of
a general purpose language, a new version has been started in 1964, Algol X, renamed further
Algol 68.
Algol 68 was using the =+ sign to merge both assignment and add. It has introduced UNION
and CAST of types. It owns IF THEN ELIF FI, CASE, GOTO, user-defined operators.
Incremental compiling was not allowed.
Cobol - 1960 - COmmon Business Oriented Langage
 Defined by a committee, the CODASYL, COnference on DAta SYsystems Languages
 Fsd
The committee under the auspices of the Department Of Defense, and manufacturers, universities
and users, worked from may 1959 to april 1960.
Grace Murray Hopper, who had designed Flow-Matic, a compiled language in the 50's, has
participated to the committee.
Cobol is a classical procedural language AIMed at enterprise management, in wich a program is
divided in 4 divisions: identification, environment, data, PROCEDURE, and they may be divided

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in sections. It was founded on data and a program must describe precisely the hardware and
input/ouput data format.
It introduced the RECORD data structure. Programs are documented by the syntax and are all but
ligthweight...
APL - 1964 - A Programming Language
 K. Iverson
 Fsd
Language using a mathematical notation, with lot of operators. A unique type, the array.
Defined from 1957 to 1960, implemented in 1964.
Basic - 1964 - Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
John Kemeny, Thomas Kurtz
Basic
Has been designed in 1963, to be easy to learn and has been implemented in 1964. The first
version was compiled, then it becomes interactive and interpreted. Each line has a number to
allow GOTOs statements to jump to the line!
Bill Gate and Paul Allen have win an international contest by designing and implementing a fast
and compact Basic, firstly for the Altair (in 4 kb memory!) and then on other micro-computers.
Micro-computers were delivered with Basic in ROM until late 80.
In 1977, the Apple II was sold with an integer Basic. Then the Applesoft Basic of Microsoft with
floating-point. Applesoft was using two-letter identifiers! Sub-programs were called by GOSUB
to line numbers.
The first PC from IBM, (in 1981) was using MS-DOS from Microsoft and its interpreted Basic
(Basica). In 82 Microsoft produced its first compiled Basic (Quick Basic).
Pascal and C have replaced Basic in the same decade. Microsoft still uses Basic. Visual Basic for
application, ASP for the web, and applications are extended with a language (macro) that is basic
also.
True Basic, by the original authors of the language is compiled and no longer uses line numbers.
Iswim - 1965 - If You See What I Mean
 P. Landin
First purely fonctional language, in the mathematical sense. The first to use LAZY
EVALUATION.
Attribute grammars - 1965
 Donald Knuth
Completing the BNF method, attribute grammars describes the semantic of languages to be made
of functions. This type of grammar helps the building of compilers.
Simula 67 - 1962-67
 Ole-Johan Dahl, Kristan Nygaard
 Fsd
The Simula project started in 1962. The goal was to build a tool to describe discrete event
system, or network, and a language to program simulating real world.
Was firstly designed as an Algol extension.
In 1964, Simula 1 has been implemented on Univac 1107. It was used to control administrations,
airports, planning, transport, or social systems.
This was a specialized tool. In 1966, it has been decided to make it an universal language.
Several projects has been launched with the help of several makers (IBM, Univac, Digital) and
this leaded to Simula 67.

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This universal language has introduced CLASSES, INHERITANCE and OBJECTS that are
instances of classes. Classes allow to link functions (methods) to objects.
Logo - 1966
 Fuerzeig, Seymour Papert, and others
AIMed to teach programming to children, near Lisp, and based on moving a "turtle" on the
screen.
Snobol 4 - 1967 - StroNg Oriented symBOlic Language
 D. J. Farber, R. E. Griswold, F. P. Polensky at Bells Labs
Snobol appeared in 1962.
Snobol 4 is the first stable distributed version of Snobol, available in 1967.
This is a processor of strings, founded on the principle of pattern-matching, concatenation and
alternation.
It was the first language to implement associative arrays, indexed by any type of keys.
It allows to run code stored inside strings.
Data types are: string, integer, real, array, table, pattern and user-defined types.
CPL - Combined Programming Language
 Cambridge and London Universities
This was a combination of Algol 60 and functional language AIMed at proof of theorems. It was
using polymorphic testing structures. Typed language with the "any" joker type. Had list and
array.
Complex, was not implemented. I quote it only because it was a step toward the design of the C
language.
BCPL - 1965? - Basic CPL
 Martin Richards
It has been intended to be a simplified version of CPL.
Was using these control structures: FOR, LOOP, IF THEN, WHILE, UNTIL, REPEAT,
REPEAT WHILE, SWITCH CASE, etc...
Owns PROCEDUREs and functions, unlike C.
Block delimiters were $( ..... $) which has inspired probably /* ... */ in C.
PL/1 - 1965? - Programming Language number One - Originally NPL (New Programming
Language)
 IBM
Ibm for links on compilers.
The language was designed to be general-purpose and modular.
Keywords are reserved only in the context where they are used as keywords.
It is more hardware independent than predecessors. These types are recognized: fixed, real,
complex, character, bit, bin, pointer, picture, file, etc.... Data have default attributes (as precision
for example), that depends upon the context.
These compound types are built-in: array, structures, unions, and combinations of them. IF
THEN and SELECT .. WHEN .. OTHERWISE are conditional structures, and variations on the
DO structure allows various conditional loops.
Storage classes are introduced: automatic, static (life of the program), controlled, based.
Exceptions are implemented.
Pascal - 1970 - Named from the french mathematician Blaise Pascal
Niklaus Wirth
 Pascal

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Language AIMed to ease the building of compilers, and to lead teaching by forcing to a
structured programming.
UCSD Pascal, written by a group of programmers leaded away by Kenneth Bowles is the first
version for micro-computers. It compiles programs in P-code, that is portable and interpreted (as
Java later). It included a complete development environment, a principle used successfully
further by Turbo Pascal.
In 1981, a role playing game written in Pascal, Wizardry, has had a big success on Apple II.
When Turbo Pascal (by Anders hejlsberg) appeared in 1983 , fast and having a complete IDE,
the language gained success and is still widely used.
Control structures are near C ones.
Forth - 1971 - Fourth reduced to Forth by the constraint of 5 letters of the IBM 1130
 Charles H. Moore
Forth.org
Defined during 60+, seems to have been implemented in 1971.
Language for astronomical instruments using a stack to replace variables.
Its goal was to be the fourth generation language.
Smalltalk - 1972
 Alan Kay and the Software Concept Group
 Fsd
This is a fully object oriented language wich runs always inside a graphical environnment, with
windows, mouse, etc...
C - 1973 - C is the successor of B, which is the successor of BCPL
 Dennis Ritchie
C Language
It was firstly destinated to program the UNIX operating system, but has become quickly
universal thanks to its portability and speed.
Allows incremental compiling. In 1965, ATT programmers were using Bcpl to work on
implementing Unix. Displeased with this language, they made it evolve to a new version named
B, then to a new language named C.
This was the evolving of the hardware that instigate to create C. Bcpl and B was using integer for
pointers, but this was not working on the new computers.
Bcpl has no type (as Php or other modern scripting languages!). The declarations int i, char b
were created in C. Other types is appear later.
The += operator comes from Algol 68 (but was written =+)
In Bcpl, a block of statements was enclosed inside the (* and *) symbols as the comment in /*
and */ and sub-expressions inside ( and ). I suppose this symbolism was intended to denote that
anything is an expression in the language, and also to reduce the parsing time. The C language
simplified the writting with the { and } symbols, that does the original idea doesn't remains.
Union and cast come from Algol 68.
++ was already in the B language.
The keyword "include" comes from PL/I.
The preprocessor was implemented in 1973, and C has been used from this date to write Unix,
but Ritchie worked on it since 1969. The language has evolved until 1980. .
Prolog - 1970+
 Colmerauer, D. Roussel
GNU Prolog

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Has been developped both in France at Aix-en-Provence and at Edimburg.
Has introduced LOGIC PROGRAMMING. A program is made of Horn clauses.
Prolog is declarative, its system of logic inference is an engine of resolution.
Sql - 1970+ - Standard Query Language
 IBM
mySQL
Language of query for relational databases. Successor of the Square language.
Awk - 1974 - First letters of authors' names
 Aho, Kerninghan, Weinberger
 Fsd
Word processing language based on regular expressions, using a pattern-action principle.
Scheme - 1975 - From "schemmer"
 Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy L. Steele at MIT
 Chez Scheme Stklos
Language derived from Lisp but simplified. The types are boolean, integer of indefinite size,
rational and complex, characters, symbols, vectors, oriented pairs, lists, associative lists, hash
tables. The S-expression generic type is used to extend the language.
It is often used as a scripting language, by the Gimp for example. Standard.
The language and development tool Hop from Inria is Scheme extended into a functional HTML
dialect to build Web 2.0 application.
Plasma - 1975
 Carl Hewitt
Language of actors. Implemented in Lisp.
Sasl - 1976 - Saint Andrews Static Language
 D. Turner
AIMed to teach the functional programming.
Comes from Iswim, unlimited data structures.
Icon - 1977
 Griswold
Procedural language, with word processing function as Snobol4, and powerful constructs.
It has structured types: list, set, table (dictionary).
A list is declared: name := [ "word", "word", number, etc...]
A list may be indexed in the form a[i] or be used as a stack.
A "set" hold elements without doubloons, and has several functions: union, intersection,
removing.
The RANGE construct is written: a to b where "to" is a keyword and "a" and "b" are
variables..
A range may used inside an expression or as argument of a function. The expression or the
function are called with each value in the range.
Ex: write(1 to 5) is display 1, 2, 3, 4 ,5.
Expression don't return a boolean value, but are either evaluated or rejected. The operation are
executed if the expression may be evaluated. This is the first language where expression
evaluating it leaded by the GOAL.
There is a statement of the C language: if ( x= expression) ... which means: assign to x the
RESULT of the expression, and if a is non zero, then..., this construct is generalized in Icon, if
the expression may be evaluated, x gets the value, else x remains unchanged and the condition is

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ignored.
The EVERY..DO construct associated to an expression works as an iterator. As the range.
The ALTERNATION is another powerful construct. It allows to use a sequence of parameters
until a RESULT is obtained. The symbol is "|".
For example the statement : if a | b | c = 0 | 1 means for.... if a or b or c is 0 or 1 then ...
ML - 1973? - Meta Language
 R. Milner
Functional language inspired by Iswim.
Its goal was to proof theorem at the Edimburg University.
Functions are replaced by pattern models.
Implemented in Lisp.
Modula 2 - 1979 - MODUlar LAnguage
 Niklaus Wirth
 Fsd
Modula 1 would be defined in 1977. Implemented on the Lilith workstation at first.
The idea is to reduce the risk of error with coercive programming rules. However, it adds to
Pascal some features of the C language. A call of function without argument is written f() as in C
rather than f as in Pascal.
A program is splitted in modules with local scope, and interfaces for other modules. Use
coroutines. Allows access to the hardware.
Was only used in Universities, because these new features has been added also to Pascal by the
makers of compilers (the units of Turbo Pascal mainly).
Ada - 1980+ - Nickname of Ada Byron de Lovelace, first woman to program
 Designed by a committee leaded by Jean Ichbiah, for the U.S. Department Of Defense.
 Fsd
Inspired by Pascal and Algol W. Is rather heavy.
Introduces GENERICITY of algorithms and a kind of primitive object orientation, but becomes
really object oriented later.
Introduces PACKAGES, that are independent modules.
C++ - 1981-1986
 Bjarne Stroustrup
C++
Object oriented version of C.
Introduces OPERATOR OVERLOADING. Methods may be inline.
Use // for one-line comment, that comes from BCPL, of which C is a successor!
Further, multiple inheritance and template (generic classes or functions) has been implemented.
Objective C, invented by Brad Cox in 1984, is another objet oriented version of C, inspired by
smalltalk. No operator overloading. Used to write NextStep, the operating system of the Next
computer.
Standard ML - 1984
 R. Milner, University of Edimburgh and Cambridge and Inria
Search for Standard ML Moscow on a search engine.
An implementation of ML.
Eiffel - 1985
 Bertrand Meyer
 Eiffel

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Procedural language fully object oriented , implementing persistency and programming per
contract (using precondition and postcondition on functions). Was designed for security of
software.
Compiled in C. May be interfaced with other langages. Has features of functional languages,
generic classes, garbage collector.
An open source version exist, Sather, (from the name of a tower at Berkeley).
GAP - 1986 - Groups, Algorithms and Programming
 Johannes Meier, Werner Nickel, Alice Niemeyer, Martin Schönert and others
Gap Software
The language has been defined to program mathematical algorithms.
It is interpreted, interactive an untyped. List and records are complex variables.
The syntax is that of Pascal with some differences. Comments for exemple are introduced by #.
An end of bloc is denoted by inverted keywords: if fi, do od.
The for loop has the forms: for in list, for in from to.
The language has PROCEDUREs and functions.
What made it apart if that variables point out values and not memory addresses, and the form of a
definition of function is as a call: x := function(arguments) body.
A function may be embedded inside another function.
Miranda - 1989 - From the name of a Shakespeare's heroin (Miranda, means for admirable in
latin)
 D.Turner
Inspired by Sasl and ML. Lazy evaluation: arguments of functions are evaluated only when they
are used. Embedded pattern-matching, modules.
Caml - 1987 - Categorical Abstract Machine Language
 Suarez, Weiss, Maury
 Inria
 Caml and Objective caml in 1996, has implemented ML.
Perl - 1987 - Practical Extracting and Report Langage
 Larry Wall
 Perl
Destinated to replace the command line language of Unix, Sh, Sed and Awk, it kept the same
ugly syntax. Used mainly for system administration, CGI scripts.
Includes lists and associatives arrays. The FOREACH control structure allows to scan lists.
Oberon - 1988
 Niklaus Wirth
 Oberon
Successor of Modula 2 (and Pascal).
Several commonly used constructs are suppressed to reduce the risk or error! A garbage collector
is added to.
Haskell - 1990 - Nickname of a logician, Haskell Curry
 Haskell
Purely functional language. Inspired by Miranda and Sasl.
Functional arrays, pattern matching.
ABC 1980-90 - ABC (equivalent to EZ in english)
 CWI - Meertens, Pemberton and Guido Van Rossum
 CWI

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Scripting language elaborated at CWI in Netherlands, and the goal of which was to become a
successor to Quick Basic or scripting languages of Unix.
Perhaps the first to use INDENTING to denote statements of a block: no markers as begin/end.
Another innovation, there is no file management, but rather persistency of the global variables:
the value is stored from a session to another!
There are five types: number, string, list, composed (structure without fieldnames), array.
Python - 1991 - From the english TV movie "Monty Python Flying Circus"
 Guido Van Rossum
 Python
Scripting language with dynamic types. This is a replacement to Perl.
Inspired by ABC, but is extensible with C libraries, and object oriented.
As ABC, used evolved types: tuple, list, dictionary.
The slicing operator [a : b] allows to extract a sub-list from a list.
There is a version that compiles in Java bytecode, jython and ports for .NET.
Pov-Ray - 1991 - Persistence Of Vision (title of a mediocre science-fiction book).
 D. & A. Collins, and contributors
 PovRay
Pov-Ray is a language for describing 3D images.
DisCo - 1992 - Distributed Co-operation
 Reino Kurki-Suonio
 Disco
Disco is a specification language for reactive systems with Pascal-like syntax. Constructs of the
language are objects, event-driven functions (named here actions), and relations. A function is
activated when a state of the system occurs and may be overwritten, this is named "refinement"
in the language. Disco focuses on collective behavior. Layers are modules of the language. It is
an system oriented language with objects and behavior (not action oriented as it is said in the
presentation).
Ruby - 1994 - As the jewel, analogy with Perl
 Yukihiro Matsumoto
 Ruby
Ruby has been designed as successor to Perl and alternative to Python, to be clearer than the first
one, and more object oriented than the second one. The syntax comes from these two languages,
it want to be without surprise and natural but may be complex.
There is no new control structure as in Scriptol, but a lot of minor innovations to make the code
smaller.
It is an interpreted language easy to extend. Statements are terminated by end of line. Blocks of
statement and loop are delimited by "end". Most Python's features are present: associative arrays,
iterators...
The originality is the dynamic object feature (adding methods to instances) and scope of
variables denoted by a prefix.
Java - 1994 - Java (coffee)
 James Gosling and other programmers at Sun
 Java
Conceived at the beginning, in 1991, as an interactive language named Oak, was unsuccessful.
But in 1994 has been rewritten for Internet and renamed Java. In 1995 navigators can run applets.
In january 1996, Javasoft distributes JDK 1.0, the Java Developpement Kit.

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Java is a classical procedural language, near C++. It compiles in bytecode, interpreted on any
computer. ..
It is simpler than C++: one class by file, automatic memory management, no pointers. No
multiple inheritance nor operator overloading, but integrated multi-tasking.
Unlike C and C++, has only dynamic arrays.
PHP - 1995 - Personal Home Pages Hypertext Processor
 Rasmus Lerdorf
 PHP
Multi-platforms scripting language, embedded inside HTML.
Near C but not typed. Variables are prefixed by the $ symbol as the shell of Unix or as Perl. The
interpreter parses a html page that embeds php code and delivers a pure html page.
An extended library of functions allows webmasters to build dynamic pages.
Microsoft uses an equivalent language under Windows, ASP, near Basic.
JavaScript - 1995 (Has been firstly named LiveScript)
 Brendan Eich at Netscape
ECMAScript
Scripting language to embedd procedural code into web pages.
May be used to other applications, XML based languages for example.
Share the syntax of C or Java, but with untyped variables. The element of the web page (window,
table, etc...) are accessed through the Document Object Model.
UML - 1996 - Unified Modeling Language
 Standard by OMG (Object Management Group) - Grady Booch, Jim Rumbaugh, and Ivar
Jacobson
Uml.org
UML is the union of three modeling languages designed by the three authors above. The
language uses a graphical notation to design software projects. A source is a diagram expressing
objects and their interactions. A model is made of views and the combination of them describes a
complete system. The model is abstract and domain-independent.
ECMAScript - 1997
 Standard by the european standardization organisation E.C.M.A.
ECMAScript
Standard to the langage invented by Netscape, to let dynamic HTML pages client-side.
Rebol - 1997 (The design is older) - Relative Expression Based Object Language
 Carl SassenRath
 Rebol
Interpreted, extensible scripting language that produces compact code. It is AIMed at
communication on Internet and distributed computing.
Has 45 types using same operators (Ex: date, money...). Use [ ] to enclose blocks of statements.
C# - 2000 - (C-sharp), want to succeed to C++
 Anders Hejlsberg / Microsoft
C#
This is the main language of the .NET environment, to program software working thought
Internet. As Java, it keeps the C syntax, a 34 years old language, with same improvments:
garbage collector, no pointer, interfaces, multi-tasking...
C# compiles to intermediate language, the MSIL (MicroSoft Intermediate Language), and uses a
multi-languages library, the CLR (Common Language Runtime). The originality of the .NET

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system is that various language may be compiled to MSIL and share their classes.
Other new features come with this language:
- structs are now special kind of object, passed by values.
- literals are objects also, with methods..
- attributes are descriptive objects attached to elements of the program and used by the runtime.
- properties: methods that may be used as variables (prop = 5 is equivalent to prop(5).
- foreach() to scan arrays (new only for Java and C++).
- delegate replaces pointer of functions of C.
There are improvements on Java also:
- event management is improved.
- operator overloading is present.
- simpler access to the the native system.
AspectJ - 2001 - Aspect for Java
 Palo Alto Research Center
AspectJ
Aspect J is a Java extension that implements aspect oriented programming. A technique that
modularizes crosscutting concerns. The unit is not the class, but a concern, that spans multiple
classes. Concern may be, for example, properties, area of interest of a system and AOP describes
their relationship, and compose them together into a program. Aspects encapsulates behavior that
concerns multiple classes.
Scriptol - 2001 - Scriptwriter Oriented Language
 Denis Sureau
Scriptol
The most recent, the most powerful among procedural languages. Scriptol is either compiled in
PHP or in C++ or native, giving it a great portability. It is both a language for applications, for
scripting and to make dynamic web pages.
Blocs of statements and control structures are not closed by "end" or "}" but, as in XML, with the
form "/if", " /for", "/while" and so ones...
The language has new control structures: "for in", "while let", "scan by", etc... The "composite
if"structure eases to implement rules.
Variables and literals are objects. Basic object (number, text, etc...) and compound ones are
created by direct assignment of a value or a list of arguments to the name.
Scriptol is destinated to evolve and to have, along classes, other high-level structures to allow
programs to be nearest human thought.
Since October 2003, Scriptol allows to use XML as internal data structure.
Scala - February 2004
 Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Scala Lang
Scala is a pure object oriented language that implements some Python features in Java syntax. It
is statically typed and both procedural and functional. It currently runs on JVM and .NET.
E4X - June 2004 - EcmaScript For XML (E four X)
 ECMA
 E4X
E4X is not a language but an addition to a language. In the same manner Scriptol uses XML as
data structure with attributes and methods, E4X allows to assign XML to ECMAScript variables,
and to access elements by indices or attributes.

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JavaFX Script - 2005-2007
JavaFX Script
This language which is built on Java, incorporates and expands its syntax. It is intended to create
rich graphical interface for the Web. It is used with NetBeans.
The langage was designed en 2005 and named F3 (Form Follows Function), but after the
company has been bought by Sun, it was renamed JavaFX Script and open sourced.

SOME OF THE FUTURE TRENDS :


Scripting languages
Several modern scripting languages offer a simple, natural syntax: NetRexx, Python,
Ruby, Scriptol. Python is the most widely used for now. Ruby is mainly used for the
Rail library.
Internet languages
These languages allows to embed code inside HTML page and thus to combine
statements and data. PHP, ASP, JavaScript are the most used ones. The .NET platform
is allow any language to be embedded into HTML.
Markup languages
A recent trend is to turn XML documents into executables.
- XML is embedded into Scriptol sources as a data structure, that is usable by any
statement in the source. This is a next step beyond object oriented programming.
- XUL is a Mozilla project that embeds JavaScript into XML to easily produce GUI (the
one of Mozilla for example). On the Web with Firefox or locally with the XULRunner
runtime.
- Microsoft uses XAML to define graphical interfaces, on the Web with the cross-
browsers plug-in Silverlight or locally on .NET.
- SVG is a format to embed graphics in webpages supported by all modern browsers. It
may replaces XUL (Mozilla only) and XAML (.NET required) to design a user
interface.
A new C++ language
C++0x, is probably C++09. This new version is include as standard a lot of external
libraries. It is have tuples and garbage collector and an extended standard library with
regular expression and threads.

Conclusion
The .NET or compatible platforms is ease to put code inside data, but XML may be an
alternative. C# is a leader language of such platform at start, but its success is due mainly to that
programmers are used with the C++ and Java syntax. The development of mobile phones with
their multiple operating systems foster HTML 5 as a development platform and related
technologies: SVG, Canvas, CSS. JavaScript becomes the dominant language for client-side web
applications. Other trends are higher level for languages, programming by aspects, or by schemas
with UML and further concepts.

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Ex.No:- 02 STUDY EXPERIMENT-II

Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To give brief study on computer Networks, Types, Topologies, and find out the
Topologies that can be incorporated in your campus and justify it.

STUDY PROCEDURE:-

1. Browse the following web site and find out the various evolutions of computer and their
corresponding programming languages developed.

e. www.google.com

f. www.altavista.com

g. www.wikepidea.com

h. www.w3schools3.com

2. Browse any one of the above web sites and in the search window Type “computer
Networks, Types, Topologies” then click search.

3. Go through the search RESULT one by one.

4. Summarize the points about the five evolutions of computer, outcome products,
corporate undergone, processors & its configuration and various evolutions of
programming languages.

5. Take a print out of the summary points and copy down in your observation.

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:
Computer network
A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware
components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of
resources and information. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of
characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used,
scale, topology, and organizational scope. The rules and data formats for exchanging information
in a computer network are defined by communications protocols. Well-known communications
protocols are Ethernet, a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area
networks, and the Internet Protocol Suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking,
i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and
application-specific data transmission formats. Computer networking is sometimes considered a
sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information
technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application
of these disciplines.
Contents
1 History
2 Properties
3 Communication media
3.1 Wired technologies
3.2 Wireless technologies
3.3 Exotic technologies
4 Communications protocol
4.1 Ethernet
4.2 Internet Protocol Suite
4.3 SONET/SDH
4.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode
5 Scale
5.1 Personal area network
5.2 Local area network
5.3 Home network
5.4 Storage area network
5.5 Campus network
5.6 Backbone network
5.7 Metropolitan area network
5.8 Wide area network

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5.9 Enterprise private network
5.10 Virtual private network
5.11 Internetwork
6 Organizational scope
6.1 Intranets and extranets
6.2 Internet
7 Network topology
7.1 Common layouts
7.2 Overlay network
8 Basic hardware components
8.1 Network interface cards
8.2 Repeaters and hubs
8.3 Bridges
8.4 Switches
8.5 Routers
8.6 Firewalls
9 Network performance
10 Network security
11 Network resilience
12 Views of networks
13 See also
14 References
15 Further reading
16 External links
History
Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications
system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by
human users by carrying instructions between them. Many of the social behaviors seen in today's
Internet were demonstrably present in the 19th century and arguably in even earlier networks
using visual signals.
• In September 1940, George Stibitz used a Teletype machine to send instructions for a
problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College to his Complex Number Calculator in
New York and received RESULTs back by the same means. Linking output systems like
teletypewriters to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called
the "Intergalactic Network", a precursor to the ARPANET.
• Early networks of communicating computers included the military radar system Semi-
Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), started in the late 1950s
• The commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment
(SABRE) which went online with two connected mainframes in 1960.[2][3]
• In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for
distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer
to route and manage telephone connections.
• Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently
conceptualized and developed network systems which used packets that could be used in a
network between computer systems.

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• 1965 Thomas Merrill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network
(WAN).
• The first widely used telephone switch that used true computer control was introduced by
Western Electric in 1965.
• In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute,
University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the
beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits.[4]
• Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in 1972, and later used as an underlying
infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the
public switched telephone network (PSTN) are computer-controlled, and telephony increasingly
runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of
communication has increased significantly in the past decade, and this boom in communications
would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Computer
networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them,
continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is
mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the
home user.
Properties
Computer networks:
Facilitate communications
Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant
messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing.
Permit sharing of files, data, and other types of information
In a network environment, authorized users may access data and information stored on
other computers on the network. The capability of providing access to data and
information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks.
Share network and computing resources
In a networked environment, each computer on a network may access and use resources
provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network
printer. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish
tasks.
May be insecure
A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy computer viruses or
computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from
normally accessing the network (denial of service).
May interfere with other technologies
Power line communication strongly disturbs certain forms of radio communication, e.g.,
amateur radio. It may also interfere with last mile access technologies such as ADSL and
VDSL.
May be difficult to set up
A complex computer network may be difficult to set up. It may also be very costly to set
up an effective computer network in a large organization or company.
Communication media
Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software
technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network, such as electrical
cable (HomePNA, power line communication, G.hn), optical fiber, and radio waves (wireless

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LAN). In the OSI model, these are located at levels 1 and 2.
A well-known family of communication media is collectively known as Ethernet. It is defined by
IEEE 802 and utilizes various standards and media that enable communication between devices.
Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. These devices use radio
waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium.
Wired technologies
• Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for telecommunication. Twisted-pair
cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist
of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer networking cabling (wired
Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized
for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce
crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits
per second to 10 billion bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms which are
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded twisted-pair (STP) which are rated in
categories which are manufactured in different increments for various scenario.
• Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems actually, office buildings, and
other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire
wrapped with insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant,
all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer. The layers of insulation help minimize
interference and distortion. Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500
million bits per second.
• ITU-T G.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power
lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network.
• Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber wrapped in protective
layers that carries data by means of pulses of light. It transmits light which can travel over
extended distances. Fiber-optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation.
Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second. The transmission speed of fiber
optics is hundreds of times faster than for coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a
twisted-pair wire. This capacity may be further increased by the use of colored light, i.e.,
light of multiple wavelengths. Instead of carrying one message in a stream of monochromatic
light impulses, this technology can carry multiple signals in a single fiber.
Wireless technologies
• Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver.
The equipment looks similar to satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz
range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Path between relay stations spaced
approx, 48 km (30 mi) apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings,
towers, hills, and mountain peaks.
• Communications satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as their
telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The
satellites are stationed in space, typically 35,400 km (22,000 mi) (for geosynchronous
satellites) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and
relaying voice, data, and TV signals.
• Cellular and PCS systems – Use several radio communications technologies. The systems
are divided to different geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio
relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.
• Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology
similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread

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spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area.
An example of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology is IEEE 802.11.
• Infrared communication can transmit signals between devices within small distances of
typically no more than 10 meters. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which
limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.
• A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary
number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile
communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the
next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs.
Exotic technologies
There have been various attempts at transporting data over more or less exotic media:
• IP over Avian Carriers was a humorous April fool's Request for Comments, issued as
RFC 1149. It was implemented in real life in 2001.[8]
• Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves.[9]
A practical limit in both cases is the round-trip delay time which constrains useful
communication.
Communications protocol
A communications protocol defines the formats and rules for exchanging information via a
network and typically comprises a complete protocol suite which describes the protocols used at
various usage levels. An interesting feature of communications protocols is that they may be –
and in fact very often are – stacked above each other, which means that one is used to carry the
other. The example for this is HTTP running over TCP over IP over IEEE 802.11, where the
second and third are members of the Internet Protocol Suite, while the last is a member of the
Ethernet protocol suite. This is the stacking which exists between the wireless router and the
home user's personal computer when surfing the World Wide Web.
Communication protocols have themselves various properties, such as whether they are
connection-oriented versus connectionless, whether they use circuit mode or packet switching, or
whether they use hierarchical or flat addressing.
There exist a multitude of communication protocols, a few of which are described below.
Ethernet
Ethernet is a family of connectionless protocols used in LANs, described by a set of standards
together called IEEE 802 published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It has
a flat addressing scheme and is mostly situated at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model. For home
users today, the most well-known member of this protocol family is IEEE 802.11, otherwise
known as Wireless LAN (WLAN). However, the complete protocol suite deals with a multitude
of networking aspects not only for home use, but especially when the technology is deployed to
support a diverse range of business needs. MAC bridging (IEEE 802.1D) deals with the routing
of Ethernet packets using a Spanning Tree Protocol, IEEE 802.1Q describes VLANs, and IEEE
802.1X defines a port-based Network Access Control protocol which forms the basis for the
authentication mechanisms used in VLANs, but also found in WLANs – it is what the home user
sees when they have to enter a "wireless access key".
Internet Protocol Suite
The Internet Protocol Suite, often also called TCP/IP, is the foundation of all modern
internetworking. It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an
inherently unreliable network traversed by datagram transmission at the Internet protocol (IP)
level. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing
specification in form of the traditional Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6, the next

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generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.
SONET/SDH
Main article: Synchronous optical networking
Synchronous Optical NETworking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are
standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber
using lasers. They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a
variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice
encoded in PCM format. However, due to its protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features,
SONET/SDH also was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
frames.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Main article: Asynchronous transfer mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a switching technique for telecommunication networks.
It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells.
This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable
sized packets or frames. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking.
This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data
traffic, and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video. ATM uses a connection-
oriented model in which a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the
actual data exchange begins.
While the role of ATM is diminishing in favor of next-generation networks, it still plays a role in
the last mile, which is the connection between an Internet service provider and the home user.
For an interesting write-up of the technologies involved, including the deep stacking of
communications protocols used, see.

SCALE
Computer network types by geographical scop
1. Body (BAN)
2. Personal (PAN)
3. Near-me (NAN)
4. Local (LAN)
5. Home (HAN)
6. Storage (SAN)
7. Campus (CAN)
8. Backbone
9. Metropolitan (MAN)
10. Wide (WAN)
11. Internet
12. Interplanetary Internet
Networks are often classified by their physical or organizational extent or their purpose. Usage,
trust level, and access rights differ between these types of networks.
Personal area network
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer
and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices
that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs,
scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The

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reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters.[11] A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB
and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication
typically form a wireless PAN.
Local area network
A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited
geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely
positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wired
LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T
G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone
lines and power lines).

Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources
All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they are
handling multiple subnets (the different colors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100
Mbit/s Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central
router, could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must
understand IP. It would be more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is
a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access
routers.
The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (Wide Area Networks), include their
higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and no need for leased telecommunication
lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s.
This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 40 and 100
Gbit/s.[13] LANs can be connected to Wide area network by using routers.
Home network
A home network is a residential LAN which is used for communication between digital devices
typically deployed in the home, usually a small number of personal computers and accessories,
such as printers and mobile computing devices. An important function is the sharing of Internet
access, often a broadband service through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) provider.
Storage area network
A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block
level data storage. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape
libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally

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attached devices to the operating system. A SAN typically has its own network of storage
devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices. The
cost and complexity of SANs dropped in the early 2000s to levels allowing wider adoption
across both enterprise and small to medium sized business environments.
Campus network
A campus network is a computer network made up of an interconnection of LANs within a
limited geographical area. The networking equipment (switches, routers) and transmission media
(optical fiber, copper plant, Cat5 cabling etc.) are almost entirely owned (by the campus tenant /
owner: an enterprise, university, government etc.).
In the case of a university campus-based campus network, the network is likely to link a variety
of campus buildings including, for example, academic colleges or departments, the university
library, and student residence halls.
Backbone network
A backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various
pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or
subnetworks. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building, in different
buildings in a campus environment, or over wide areas. Normally, the backbone's capacity is
greater than that of the networks connected to it.
A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of these
locations together, for example, if a server cluster needs to be accessed by different departments
of a company which are located at different geographical locations. The equipment which ties
these departments together constitute the network backbone. Network performance management
including network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing a
network backbone.
A specific case of a backbone network is the Internet backbone, which is the set of wide-area
network connections and core routers that interconnect all networks connected to the Internet.
Metropolitan area network
A Metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a
large campus.

Sample EPN made of Frame relay WAN connections and dialup remote access.

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Sample VPN used to interconnect 3 offices and remote users
Wide area network
A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a
city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances, using a communications channel that
combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often uses
transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN
technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical
layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.
Enterprise private network
An enterprise private network is a network built by an enterprise to interconnect various
company sites, e.g., production sites, head offices, remote offices, shops, in order to share
computer resources.
Virtual private network
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between
nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the
Internet) instead of by physical wires. The data link layer protocols of the virtual network are
said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is
secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security
features, such as authentication or content encryption. VPNs, for example, can be used to
separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong
security features.
VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA)
between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology
more complex than point-to-point.
Internetwork
An internetwork is the connection of multiple computer networks via a common routing
technology using routers. The Internet is an aggregation of many connected internetworks
spanning the Earth.
ORGANIZATIONAL SCOPE
Networks are typically managed by organizations which own them. According to the owner's
point of view, networks are seen as intranets or extranets. A special case of network is the
Internet, which has no single owner but a distinct status when seen by an organizational entity –
that of permitting virtually unlimited global connectivity for a great multitude of purposes.

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Intranets and extranets
Intranets and extranets are parts or extensions of a computer network, usually a LAN.
An intranet is a set of networks, using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web
browsers and file transfer applications, that is under the control of a single administrative entity.
That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific, authorized users. Most
commonly, an intranet is the internal network of an organization. A large intranet is typically
have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information.
An extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity and also has
limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted
organizations or entities—a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet
—while at the same time the customers may not be considered trusted from a security standpoint.
Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of
network, although an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one
connection with an external network.
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected governmental, academic, corporate, public, and
private computer networks. It is based on the networking technologies of the Internet Protocol
Suite. It is the successor of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense. The Internet is also the
communications backbone underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).
Participants in the Internet use a diverse array of methods of several hundred documented, and
often standardized, protocols compatible with the Internet Protocol Suite and an addressing
system (IP addresses) administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and address
registries. Service providers and large enterprises exchange information about the reachability of
their address spaces through the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), forming a redundant
worldwide mesh of transmission paths.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
Common layouts
A network topology is the layout of the interconnections of the nodes of a computer network.
Common layouts are:
• A bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium. This
was the layout used in the original Ethernet, called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2.
• A star network: all nodes are connected to a special central node. This is the typical
layout found in in a Wireless LAN, where each wireless client connects to the central
Wireless access point.
• A ring network: each node is connected to its left and right neighbor node, such that all
nodes are connected and that each node can reach each other node by traversing nodes left-
or rightwards. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) made use of such a topology.
• A mesh network: each node is connected to an arbitrary number of neighbors in such a
way that there is at least one traversal from any node to any other.
• A fully connected network: each node is connected to every other node in the network.
Note that the physical layout of the nodes in a network may not necessarily reflect the network
topology. As an example, with FDDI, the network topology is a ring (actually two counter-
rotating rings), but the physical topology is a star, because all neighboring connections are routed
via a central physical location.

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Overlay network
An overlay network is a virtual computer network that is built on top of another network. Nodes
in the overlay are connected by virtual or logical links, each of which corresponds to a path,
perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. The topology of the overlay
network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one.

A sample overlay network: IP over SONET over Optical


For example, many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks because they are organized as
nodes of a virtual system of links run on top of the Internet. The Internet was initially built as an
overlay on the telephone network .[14]
The most striking example of an overlay network, however, is the Internet itself: At the IP layer,
each node can reach any other by a direct connection to the desired IP address, thereby creating a
fully connected network; the underlying network, however, is composed of a mesh-like
interconnect of subnetworks of varying topologies (and, in fact, technologies). Address
resolution and routing are the means which allows the mapping of the fully connected IP overlay
network to the underlying ones.
Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems
were connected over telephone lines using modems, before any data network existed.
Another example of an overlay network is a distributed hash table, which maps keys to nodes in
the network. In this case, the underlying network is an IP network, and the overlay network is a
table (actually a map) indexed by keys.
Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through
quality of service guarantees to achieve higher-quality streaming media. Previous proposals such
as IntServ, DiffServ, and IP Multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they
require modification of all routers in the network.[citation needed] On the other hand, an overlay
network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software,
without cooperation from Internet service providers. The overlay has no control over how
packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for
example, the sequence of overlay nodes a message traverses before reaching its destination.
For example, Akamai Technologies manages an overlay network that provides reliable, efficient
content delivery (a kind of multicast). Academic research includes end system multicast and
overcast for multicast; RON (resilient overlay network) for resilient routing; and OverQoS for
quality of service guarantees, among others.

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Basic hardware components
Apart from the physical communications media themselves as described above, networks
comprise additional basic hardware building blocks interconnecting their terminals, such as
network interface cards (NICs), hubs, bridges, switches, and routers.
Network interface cards
A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer
hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. It provides a
low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.
Each Ethernet network interface has a unique MAC address which is usually stored in a small
memory device on the card, allowing any device to connect to the network without creating an
address conflict. Ethernet MAC addresses are composed of six octets. Uniqueness is maintained
by the IEEE, which manages the Ethernet address space by assigning 3-octet prefixes to
equipment manufacturers. The list of prefixes is publicly available. Each manufacturer is then
obliged to both use only their assigned prefix(es) and to uniquely set the 3-octet suffix of every
Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise,
regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so
that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet
configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. A repeater with
multiple ports is known as a hub. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model.
Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation
delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many
network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row (e.g. Ethernet's 5-4-
3 rule).
Today, repeaters and hubs have been made mostly obsolete by switches (see below).
Bridges
A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI
model. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received.
However, bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which
MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an
address, it is send traffic for that address to that port only.
Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames
that it sees on various ports. Once a frame arrives through a port, its source address is stored and
the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port. The first time that a previously
unknown destination address is seen, the bridge is forward the frame to all ports other than the
one on which the frame arrived.
Bridges come in three basic types:
• Local bridges: Directly connect LANs
• Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs.
Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have
been replaced with routers.
• Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.
Switches
A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (chunks of data
communication) between ports (connected cables) based on the MAC addresses in the packets. A
switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the

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communication rather than all ports connected. A switch breaks the collision domain but
represents itself as a broadcast domain. Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the
basis of MAC addresses. A switch normally has numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for
devices, and cascading additional switches. Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer
3 addressing or additional logical levels; these are called multi-layer switches. The term switch is
used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges, as well as devices
that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e.g., a Web URL identifier).
Routers
A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing
information found in the datagram or packet (Internet protocol information from Layer 3 of the
OSI Model). In many situations, this information is processed in conjunction with the routing
table (also known as forwarding table). Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to
forward packets (this can include the "null" also known as the "black hole" interface because data
can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data).
Firewalls
A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security. It typically rejects access
requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The vital role
firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks
for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.

NETWORK PERFORMANCE
Main article: network performance
Network performance refers to the service quality of a telecommunications product as seen by
the customer. It should not be seen merely as an attempt to get "more through" the network.
The following list gives examples of Network Performance measures for a circuit-switched
network and one type of packet-switched network, viz. ATM:
• Circuit-switched networks: In circuit switched networks, network performance is
synonymous with the grade of service. The number of rejected calls is a measure of how well
the network is performing under heavy traffic loads. Other types of performance measures
can include noise, echo and so on.
• ATM: In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network, performance can be
measured by line rate, quality of service (QoS), data throughput, connect time, stability,
technology, modulation technique and modem enhancements.
There are many different ways to measure the performance of a network, as each network is
different in nature and design. Performance can also be modelled instead of measured; one
example of this is using state transition diagrams to model queuing performance in a circuit-
switched network. These diagrams allow the network planner to analyze how the network is
perform in each state, ensuring that the network is optimally designed.

NETWORK SECURITY
Main article: network security
In the field of networking, the area of network security consists of the provisions and policies
adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse,
modification, or denial of the computer network and network-accessible resources. Network
security is the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network
administrator. Users are assigned an ID and password that allows them access to information and

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programs within their authority. Network Security covers a variety of computer networks, both
public and private that are used in everyday jobs conducting transactions and communications
among businesses, government agencies and individuals.
NETWORK RESILIENCE
Main article: resilience (network)
In computer networking: “Resilience is the ability to provide and maintain an acceptable level of
service in the face of faults and challenges to normal operation.”
VIEWS OF NETWORKS
Users and network administrators typically have different views of their networks. Users can
share printers and some servers from a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same
geographic location and are on the same LAN, whereas a Network Administrator is responsible
to keep that network up and running. A community of interest has less of a connection of being
in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of
servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies.
Network administrators can see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The
physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements
(e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways) that interconnect the physical media.
Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more physical
media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables
in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology.
Both users and administrators is aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics
of a network. Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of
interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by
authorized users (e.g. employees). Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but
generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure
communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).
Unofficially, the Internet is the set of users, enterprises, and content providers that are
interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP). From an engineering viewpoint, the Internet
is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and
exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway
Protocol. Typically, the human-readable names of servers are translated to IP addresses,
transparently to users, via the directory function of the Domain Name System (DNS).
Over the Internet, there can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) and
consumer-to-consumer (C2C) communications. Especially when money or sensitive information
is exchanged, the communications are apt to be secured by some form of communications
security mechanism. Intranets and extranets can be securely superimposed onto the Internet,
without any access by general Internet users and administrators, using secure Virtual Private
Network (VPN) technology.

CONCLUSION:

Thus I studied about the computer Networks, Types, Topologies, and I find Tree Topologies is
incorporated in our campus and because its is LAN.

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Ex.No:- 03 DIRECTORY AND FILE CREATION IN DOS

Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To write an experiment for demonstrating the Directory and File Creation using Ms-DOS
(Microsoft Disk Operating System).

PROCEDURE:-

1. Procedure to open Ms-DOS

Step1: - Click the Start Menu.

Step2:- Click the RUN.

Step3:- Type CMD and press ENTER <┘

Step4:- Now Ms-DOS is open and press ALT+ ENTER <┘ to get full screen.

2. DOS Command for Changing C- Drive to D- Drive

Step1: - Type D: and press ENTER <┘

3. DOS Command for Root Directory/Sub Directory Creation

Step1: -Type MD Root-Directory_Name and press ENTER <┘

Step2: -Type MD Sub-Directory_Name and press ENTER <┘

Step3: - You can create any no. of Sub directory under the above Root Directory.

4. DOS Command to Change Root-Directory/Sub-Directory

Step1: - Type CD Root-Directory_Name and press ENTER <┘

Step2: - Type CD Sub-Directory_Name and press ENTER <┘

5. DOS Command for File Creation

Step1: - Type COPY CON Filename.extension and press ENTER <┘

You can create any no. of Files under a directory or sub-directory. The .extension must be
given while creating a file. The examples of .extension like .doc /.exe /.dat /.sys /.txt
/.ppt /.html /.c /.cpp, etc.,

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6. DOS Command to Save/Close a file

Step1: - Press CTRL + Z and press ENTER <┘

Now you is get a message “1 file(s) copied”. If not, your file format is wrong.

7. DOS Command to Edit a File

Step1: - Type EDIT filename with .extension and press ENTER <┘

Now you is get a Edit Screen with Blue Color. Here you is getting Menu options like
File, Edit, Search, View, Options and Help. Now you can freely move the cursor up and
down and do all the formatting options.

8. DOS Command for Save as a File

Step1: - In EDIT window, press ALT + F and ALT + A and press ENTER <┘

Now Save As dialog box appears, Type the New file name with .extension and press
ENTER <┘

9. DOS Command to Rename a file/Directory

Step1: - Type RENAME old_file_name.extension new_file_name.extension and press


ENTER <┘

Step2: - Type RENAME old_directory_name new_directory_name and press ENTER <┘

10. DOS Command to Open/View a file

Step1: - Type TYPE filename.extension and press ENTER <┘

Now your file content is displayed in DOS command window.

11. DOS Command to Clear the Screen

Step1: - Type CLS and press ENTER <┘

12. DOS Command to List the Directory and Files

Step1: - Type DIR / DIR *.* and press ENTER <┘

It is list out all the directories and files with all extensions.

Step2: - Type DIR *.extension and press ENTER <┘

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It is list out only the files with the given extensions.

13. DOS Command to Delete a File/Files

Step1: - Type DEL filename.extension and press ENTER <┘

Step2: - Type DEL *.* and press ENTER <┘

Now it is ask you to make sure to delete all the files with all .extension, if yes press Y
else press N.

14. DOS Command to Delete a Sub Directory/ Root Directory

Step1: - Before deleting a Sub-Directory make sure that Sub-Directory is empty or not. If
not, delete all the files inside the Sub-Directory and then start deleting Sub-Directory

Step2:- In Root-Directory, Type RD Sub-Directory name and press ENTER <┘

Step3: - Before deleting a Root-Directory make sure that Root-Directory is empty or not.
If not, delete all the Sub-directories inside the Root-Directory and then start deleting the
Root-Directory

Step4:- In Prompt Drive, Type RD Root-Directory name and press ENTER <┘

15. DOS Command to directly come to Prompt Drive

Step1:- In prompt drive, Type CD\ and press ENTER <┘

16. DOS Command to Exit out DOS

Step1: - Type EXIT and press ENTER <┘

SAMPLE OUTPUT:-

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Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7600]
Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved
C:\Users\Raj>md rootdir
C:\Users\Raj>cd rootdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>md subdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>cd subdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>copy con file.doc
This is the document space of your file
to save a file press CTRL + Z
^Z
1 file(s) copied.
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>edit file.doc

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C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>type file.doc
This is the document space of your file
to save a file press CTRL + Z
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>dir
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is 4034-06CB
Directory of C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir
10/22/2011 12:30 AM <DIR> .
10/22/2011 12:30 AM <DIR> ..
10/22/2011 12:20 AM 72 file.doc
10/22/2011 12:30 AM 72 Newfile.doc
2 File(s) 144 bytes
2 Dir(s) 76,213,198,848 bytes free
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>dir *.doc
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is 4034-06CB
Directory of C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir
10/22/2011 12:20 AM 72 file.doc
10/22/2011 12:30 AM 72 Newfile.doc

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2 File(s) 144 bytes
0 Dir(s) 76,213,198,848 bytes free
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>del file.doc
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>del *.*
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir\*.*, Are you sure (Y/N)? y
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>cd..
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>del *.*
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\*.*, Are you sure (Y/N)? y
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>cd\
C:\>cd user
The system cannot find the path specified.
C:\>cd C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>
The syntax of the command is incorrect.
C:\>cd C:\Users\Raj\rootdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir> C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>del file.doc
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>del *.*
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir\*.*, Are you sure (Y/N)? y
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\subdir>cd..
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>del *.*
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir\*.*, Are you sure (Y/N)? y
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>cd\
C:\
C:\>cd C:\Users\Raj\rootdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>cls

C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>rd subdir
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>dir
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is 4034-06CB

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Directory of C:\Users\Raj\rootdir
10/22/2011 12:47 AM <DIR> .
10/22/2011 12:47 AM <DIR> ..
0 File(s) 0 bytes
2 Dir(s) 76,211,040,256 bytes free
C:\Users\Raj\rootdir>cd..
C:\Users\Raj>rd rootdir
C:\Users\Raj>dir
Volume in drive C has no label.
Volume Serial Number is 4034-06CB
Directory of C:\Users\Raj
10/22/2011 12:47 AM <DIR> .
10/22/2011 12:47 AM <DIR> ..
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Contacts
10/19/2011 06:25 PM <DIR> Desktop
09/30/2011 08:09 PM <DIR> Documents
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Downloads
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Favorites
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Links
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Music
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Pictures
09/16/2011 05:15 PM <DIR> Saved Games
09/20/2011 06:03 PM <DIR> Searches
10/19/2011 08:49 PM <DIR> Videos
0 File(s) 0 bytes
13 Dir(s) 76,211,040,256 bytes free

C:\Users\Raj>exit

RESULT:
Thus I wrote an experiment for demonstrating the Directory and File Creation using MS-
DOS successfully and the RESULT was verified.

Ex.No. 04 DOCUMENT WITH ALL FORMATTING EFFECTS IN MS-WORD

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Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to create a document with all formatting effects using MS-Word.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Word and Click it. Now Ms-Office Word is opened.

Step2:-Go to File Click Page Setup..,in Page Setup window set the Margins Top-1.5’,
Bottom-1.0’ ,Right-1.5, Left-1.0, Gutter-0.5’, Gutter Position-Left.

Step3:- Go to Paper option in same window  Paper Size-A4.

Step4:-Go to Layout option in same window  set the page Border.  Click ok.

Step5:-Type the document about your previous institution.

Step6:-Set the Font Style as Times New Roman  Font Size-14, Bold & Under Line and align
center for the Titles. Rest of the documents align Justify with Font Style as Times New Roman ,
Font Size-12.

Step7:-Give the Line Spacing as 1.5 which is available in the Formatting Tools

Step8:-Apply  the Bullets for the important points  Numbering for the serial of data which is
available in the Formatting Tools

Step9:-To differentiate the text by apply color using color tools.

Step10:-Go to Insert Menu  Click page no to set the page no at the bottom center of the page.

Step11:-To set the document in Print Layout view  Click View in menu bar and Click Print
Layout or which is available in bottom right side corner of the window as icons.

Step12:- To set the Page Header & Footer Click View in menu bar and Click Header & Footer.
Give title as header and insert the page no as 1 of 3 format.

Step13:- To set the water mark in the document Click Format in menu bar  Select
Background  Click Printed Watermark. Now Printed Watermark window is open. In this
window Click the option Text Watermark and type the institution name in text area.

Step14:-To Save the file Go to File Click Save & give the filename.doc Click Save.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:-

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RESULT :-
Thus i created a document with all formatting effects using MS-Word.

Ex.No. 05 DOCUMENT WITH TABLES IN MS-WORD

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FOOTER SECTION
Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to create a time table of your class using MS-Word tables.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Word and Click it. Now Ms-Office Word is opened.

Step2:-Go to File Click Page Setup..,in Page Setup window set the Margins Top-1.5’,
Bottom-1.0’ ,Right-1.5, Left-1.0, Gutter-0.5’, Gutter Position-Left.

Step3:- Go to Paper option in same window  Paper Size-A4.

Step4:-Go to Layout option in same window  set the page Border.  Click ok.

Step5:- Go to Table option  insert  Table click it  Table Size  Type Number of columns:
10  Number of rows: 6

Step6:-Type the Days and Hours with time.  to merge the column  select the merge column
right click  select merge cells.  to set text direction right click the cell  Click Text
direction and choose the preferred option.

Step7:-To fill the cell color  select the cell and right click  select Borders and Shading 
select Shading option  select the fill color  click ok. Now the cell is filled with the selected
color.

Step8:-Repeat the Step:-7 for all the cells with color preferred for the subjects.

Step9:-Prepare the color Justification table also with subject name and color code.

Step10:- Format the cell and aligned text properly. Then Save the file with .doc extension.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Days/Hours
8.00-8.55 9.10-10.05 10.05-11.00 11.00-11.55 12.55-1.50 1.50-2.45 2.45-3.40

LUNCH BREAK
TEA BREAK
MON PHY CHE ENG MAT EG CL-LAB

NSS /
TUE PHY CHE ENG MAT EG PD
NSO

WED YOGA LIB PHY CHE ENG MAT EG


8.55 – 9.10

11.55 – 12.55
THR EG PHY-LAB PHY CHE ENG MAT

FRI MAT EG CHE-LAB PHY CHE ENG

SUBJECT COLOR CODE


NAME

PHY

CHE

ENG

MAT

EG

NSS / NSO

YOGA

LIB

CL-LAB

PHY-LAB

CHE-LAB

RESULT:-
Thus i created a time table of my class using MS-Word tables successfully.

Ex.No:- 06 LABELS IN MS-WORD

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FOOTER SECTION
Date:-______________________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to create Labels for Address envelops using MS-Word Labels.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Step2:- Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Word and Click it. Now Ms-Office Word is opened.

Step2:- Go to Tools Select Letters and Mailings Select Envelops and Lables.. Click it.

Step3:-Now Envelope and Label Window is open Tick the option Use Return Address and
Type the From Address.

Step4:-Then Select Envelope option  Type To & Mr./Ms. Click the button Add to
Document. Now Envelope Label is created.

Step5:-To insert the address in the To address field Create a database by using Mail Merge and
then save the File.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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RESULT: -
Thus I created Labels for Address envelops using MS-Word Labels Successfully.

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FOOTER SECTION
Ex.No:- 07 MS OFFICE WORD MAIL MERGE

Date:-______________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to create a Mail Merge to send the First Cycle Test Marks to the
Parents of your class using MS-Word Mail Merge.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Word and Click it. Now Ms-Office Word is opened.

Step2:-Type a one page Letter Template of the First Cycle Test Marks, which is to be sent to all
60 student Parents.

Step3:-Then Click Tools option  select Letters and Mailings  select Mail Merge and click 
then Mail merge window opened with steps 1 of 6.

Step4:-In Mail Merge window Click Starting document  Click Select Recipients  by
default the option is of use an existing list change the option to Type a new list.  Now Click
the Create link which is appear in blue color.

Step4:-Now you get the New Address List  Enter the Name, address1 address2 and City fields
of the first person Click the New Entry for the second person and the enter the Name, address1
address2 and City, fields  Repeat the step4 for the all the 60 members address entry then close
the window and give Name to save the Access Database entries.

Step5:-In Mail Merge window Click Write your Letter link in the bottom of the window.

Step6:-Now you get the More Items option in blue color in the mail merge Window Place the
Cursor in the To address then Click the More Items option Now you is get the Insert Merge
Field window.

Step7:-Select the Name and Click Insert then close the Insert Merge Field window  Repeat the
Step6&7 for address1 address2 and City, fields.

Step8:-After insert the required fields then Click the Preview your Letter in Mail Merge
window.

Step9:-Now the first person Address is displayed in the To address envelope. Click the
<<Recipient 1>> to <<Recipient 2>> then <<Recipient 3>> to preview the letter.

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Step10:-Now you take the Printout one by one and send to the correspondence and now save the
file.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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RESULT:-

Thus i created a Mail Merge successfully for First Cycle Test Marks which is to be
sending the Parents of my class by using MS-Word Mail Merge.

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Ex.No:- 08 STUDENT MARK SHEET USING MS-OFFICE EXCEL

Date:-______________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to create a Student Mark sheet of your class using MS-Excel.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Excel and Click it. Now Ms-Office Excel is opened.

Step2:-Type the Contents  like Reg.No., Student Name, Address1, Address2, Pin code, DOB,
M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 Total, and Average.

Step3:-Select the cell of the above contents for 10 students Right click Select Format cells
in format window select Border option  apply the Border for all selected cell.

Step3:-Type the 2 Reg.No and drag down for rest of person Type the Student Name and Sort it
bySelect Data Click Sort  Give Sort by Field name Student Name  Select option
Ascending Click ok. Now you get the Sorted name list.

Step4:-Enter the details of  Address1, Address2, DOB, M1, M2, M3, M4 & M5 for all the 10
students.

Step5:-To calculate the total  Type “=Sum(G3:K3)” for first person and press <┘. Now drag
down the calculated total for rest of the cells.

Step6:-To calculate the Average  Type “=L3/6” and press <┘. Now drag down the
calculated average for rest of the cells.

Step7:-Now Save the file and close the window.

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:-

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RESULT:

Thus i created the Student Mark Sheet Using MS-Excel Successes fully.

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Ex.No:- 09 FORMULA EMULATION USING MS- EXCEL BUILT IN FUNCTION

Date:-______________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to apply the formula in the Student Mark sheet of your class using
MS-Excel Built in Functions and Mark Distribution Graph of your class using MS-Excel Chart.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Excel and Click it. Now Ms-Office Excel is opened.

Step2:-Go to File  Click Open Open the Previously created Excel Mark sheet Insert
another 3 Contents in the same sheet named Attendance%, Detention Status & Result.

Step3:-Enter the Attendance % all the 10 students.

Step4:-To Calculate the Detention Status the Formula is Type in First cell as
“=IF((N2>=75),"Not Detained","Detained") ” and press <┘.

Step5:-Now drag the Detention Status calculated cell to rest of the cell to get automatic
corresponding Detention Status.

Step6:- To Calculate the Result Status the Formula is Type in First cell as
“=IF((O2="Detained"),"Fail",IF(AND((G2>=50),(H2>=50),(I2>=50),(J2>=50),
(K2>=50)),"PASS","FAIL"))” and press <┘.

Step7:-Now drag the Result Status calculated cell to rest of the cell to get automatic
corresponding Result Status.

Step8:-Go to insert  Click Chart In Chart Wizard Window  Select Chart Type
ColumnClick NextSelect the Data Range of student Name and Averages Select the Series
in option as Row  Click NextGive the Chart Name, X-Axis name & Y-Axis name Click
Next Click Finish.

Step9:-Now you get the Mark distribution Graph.  Align or resize the graph.

Step10:-Save As the File in different name and close it.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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RESULT:-

Thus i created a Student Mark Sheet using MS-Excel built in functions and also created
the Student Marks Distribution Graph successfully for my class by using MS-Excel Chart.

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Ex.No:- 10 MAIL MERGE IN EXCEL USING MS-EXCEL & WORD

Date:-______________

AIM:-

To write an experiment to apply the formula in the Student Mark sheet of your class using
MS-Excel Built in Functions and Mark Distribution Graph of your class using MS-Excel Chart.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Excel and Click it. Select the Open Open the Student Mark sheet.

Step2:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Word and Click it. Now Ms-Office Word is opened.

Step3:-Type a one page Letter Template of the First Cycle Test Marks, which is to be sent to all
60 student Parents.

Step4:-Then Click Tools option  select Letters and Mailings  select Mail Merge and click 
then Mail merge window opened with steps 1 of 6.

Step5:-In Mail Merge window Click Starting document  Click Select Recipients  Keep the
default option as use an existing list change.

Step4:-Click the Write your Letter  Click on Browse  Select the Excel datasheet  Click
Open Select the Sheet1  Click ok.

Step5:-In Mail Merge window Click Write your Letter link in the bottom of the window.

Step6:-Now you get the More Items option in blue color in the mail merge Window Place the
Cursor in the To address then Click the More Items option Select Field name and Click Insert
Merge window.

Step7:-Select the Name and Click Insert then close the Insert Merge Field window  Repeat the
Step6&7 to insert all the fields in the Table. After insert the required fields then Click the
Preview your Letter in Mail Merge window.

Step9:-Now the first person Address with Marks sheet is displayed. Click the <<Recipient 1>>
to <<Recipient 2>> then <<Recipient 3>> to preview the letter.

Step10:-Now you take the Printout one by one and send to the correspondence and now save the
file.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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RESULT:

Thus i created the Student Mark Sheet in Excel and Mail Merge it using MS-Word Mail
Merge Successfully

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Ex.No:- 11 POWER POINT PRESENTATION USING MS-PPT

Date:-______________

AIM:-To create a Presentation on your own title by using MS-Power Point.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Power Point and Click it. Now Ms-Office Power Point is opened.

Step2:-Select the Slide Type Type the Title of the Slide Select the subtitle and type the sub
titles.

Step3:-Apply Different Style, Color, Size for Text Insert the Tables for Table EntriesTo
apply animation Click Animation Select Custom Animation and select the text flow direction
or insert date & Time, Picture display time, etc…,

Step4:-Repeat the Step2&3 to create the rest of the slides.

Step5:-Apply the Slide flow time by using Timer.

Step6:-Save the file and press F5 key in key board the view the Presentation.

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

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RESULT:

Thus I created a Presentation about the Placements of the College successfully using MS-
Power Point.

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Ex.No:- 12 MS-ACCESS WITH SQL QUERY GENERATION

Date:-______________

AIM:- To write an experiment to Create an Employee Database in Access and to execute the
access of Database with SQL Query generation for INSERT, SELECT, DELETE quires.

PROCEDURE:-

Step1:-Click start menu Click all Programs Select Microsoft Office Then Select
Microsoft Office Access and Click it. Now Ms-Office Access is opened.

Step2:-Select new  Click Blank database Give name to save the database Now your
Database window is open.

Step3:-Click Tables option Then Click the Create table in design view Now the design view
of the Table window is open Enter the Field name1, Data Type1& Field name2, Data Type2…..
Field namen, Data Typen.

Step4:-While close the window give table name to save it You get on Message window for
primary Key you Click Yes on it Now the Icon of your Table with its name is displayed in the
Database window.

Step5:-Click on your table icon  Now the design view window of table entry is displayed,
Enter the table entries for 5 Employees.  Then close the window.

Step6:-Click the Query option  Click the Create Query in design view Close the Show
Tables Window Select the View option in Access Task window Click the SQL View
Now Query window will open.

Step7:-Try out the following SQL Queries:-

a. To Select all the Records from Table the SQL Query is:-

SELECT * FROM <table_name>;

b. To Select specific field of Records from Table the SQL Query is:-

SELECT <fieldname1, fieldname2…..fieldnamen> FROM <table_name>;

c. To Select the Records from Table with condition the SQL Query is:-

SELECT * FROM <table_name> WHERE <fieldname=Value>;

d. To Insert the values into Table the SQL Query is:-

INSERT INTO <table_name> VALUES(value1,value2 ……. valuen );

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e. To Delete all Record from Table the SQL Query is:-

DELETE FROM <table_name>;

f. To Delete specific Record from Table the SQL Query is:-

DELETE FROM <table_name> WHERE <fieldname=Value>;

Step8:-Select the Form option in Database window  Click Create Form Using Wizard Select
the Form type Give Design of report Click next Finally Click Finish  Now you get the
Form of the database fields what you selected.

Step9:- Select the Report option in Database window  Click Create Report Using Wizard
Select the report type Give the arrangement of report Click next Finally Click Finish 
Now you get the Report of the database what you selected.

Step10:-You can also Create Pages like Form the option which is available in the same window
Finally Close all windows safely.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:-

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RESULT:

Thus i created the Employee Database in Ms-Access and with SQL Query was generated
for Select, Insert & Delete query successfully.

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