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Q. What is Trip Free Mechanism ?

Ans. It means that when the breaker is switched "ON" using the push button and
simultaneously a fault occurs, the breaker will trip even if the push button is still being held
in "ON" position.

TRIP-FREE/NONTRIP-FREE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Circuit breakers are classified as being trip free or nontrip free. A trip-free circuit breaker is a circuit
breaker that will trip (open) even if the operating mechanism (ON-OFF switch) is held in the ON
position. A nontrip-free circuit breaker can be reset and/or held ON even if an overload or excessive
heat condition is present. In other words, a nontrip-free circuit breaker can be bypassed by holding
the operating mechanism ON. Trip-free circuit breakers are used on circuits that cannot tolerate
overloads and on nonemergency circuits. Examples of these are precision or current sensitive
circuits, nonemergency lighting circuits, and nonessential equipment circuits.Nontrip-free circuit
breakers are used for circuits that are essential for operations. Examples of these circuits are
emergency lighting, required control circuits, and essential equipment circuits.

trip-free mechanism
a mechanism designed so that disconnection can neither be prevented nor inhibited by a reset
mechanism, and so that the contacts can neither be prevented from opening nor be maintained
closed against a continuation of the excess temperature or current
Found on http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/

What is an anti-pumping relay?

The anti-pumping relay is a device in circuit-breaker whose function is to prevent multiple


breaker closures. For instance, if the operator gives the closing command to the breaker by
pressing the close button and the breaker closes. However, a fault in the system causes the
breaker to trip. Since the close command is still in the pressed condition, there is a chance of
the breaker closing again and being tripped by the relay multiple times. This can damage the
closing mechanism of the breaker. The anti-pumping relay prevents this by ensuring that the
breaker closes only once for one close command from the control panel.

Master Trip relay 86 is the main tripping relay in the relay protection scheme. It is actually
triping the breaker poles. It acts because of the stimuli from any of the protection relays. It's
tripping coils are related with the actuators from different relays. For example Directional
overcurrent relays and earth fault relays

There seems to be a misconception here regarding the purpose of an 86 relay. Device 86 is a lockout
function. Once tripped, operator intervention (either locally or remotely) is required to reset the
lockout. The 86 is typically used for trips which should be investigated prior to re-energization. For
example, a differential relay (87) trip on a substation power transformer may indicate damage to the
transformer. It would be prudent to physically inspect the transformer and associated equipment
before restoring it to service. The appropriate design is for the 87 relay to trip the 86 lockout, which
will in turn trip all breakers connected to either side of the transformer.

A 94 relay is a tripping relay that does not latch or require a manual reset. An 86 lockout is latching
relay used for catastrophic failures. It locks out the breakers to prevent reenergizing the system. An
86 requires a manual reset (some can be reset remotely). It makes the operator think about what has
happened and what he needs to check before returning power. Good 86 circuit design opens the
breakers close circuit as well as energizing the trip coil.

A transformer 86 won't trip unless a major fault is detected in the transformer (differential
overcurrent, sudden pressure, short circuit). You don't want to renergize until it has been checked
out.

But a distance relay is monitoring a transmission line that may be equipped with reclosing. A
lightning caused flashover can be cured by opening the breaker, waiting a few cycles, then reclosing
the breaker to return power to the customers. If the distance relay used an 86 to trip the breakers,
any reclosing would be locked out and a preventable outage might occur.

Use an 86 when you want it to stay denergized, a 94 when it may be OK to return power.

Why not just have the protective relays trip the breaker directly instead of using a 94 relay that adds
a few milliseconds to the tripping time? Maybe there is more than one breaker that needs to trip.
Maybe another 94 output contact intiates a breaker failure scheme or a sequential event recorder or
a SCADA input. Maybe the 94 contact energizes trip coil #2 on the same breaker while the relay trips
coil #1. Using the 94 relay contact keeps the two trip coil circuits seperated so a commmon failure
doesn't take everything down.

How do we classify an Antipumping relay?


It is classified as an auxiliary relay.

Why Antipumping relay is used?


Anti pumping relaying is done primarily to indicate the spring failure of TNC switch and a
person need to attend the problem. The function of this relay is to cut off the supply to 52C
(CB closing coil) in case of TNC switch spring failure and prevent CB hunting effect (i.e.
continuous closing, opening operation).

Anti pumping is also called trip free mechanism of any circuit breaker. Suppose the breaker
has been instructed to close by manual instruction by pressing the TNC (trip neutral close
push button) switch. The operating mechanism will start operating for closing operation.

Meanwhile a fault has taken place and relay closes the trip circuit of breaker. The trip free
mechanism/ Anti pumping feature permits the circuit breaker to be tripped by protective relay
even if it is under process of closing. Thus auxiliary relay (or sometimes the inbuilt feature of
circuit breaker) which prevent alternate tripping and closing of the circuit breaker if closing
push button is held close during fault is called the trip free mechanism or anti pumping
mechanism.

What will happen if Antipumping relay circuit is not present?

If the circuit breaker is closed using TNC switch, and at the same instant let spring of TNC
switch has failed and it did not came to its neutral state, and primary protection relay had
been operated at this instant and opened the CB, since supply is being extended to 52C (CB
closing coil) because of TNC spring failure, then CB will close again, since fault is still
persisting the following cycle occurs.

CB trip, because of protection. Operation -> CB close, because of TNC switch spring failure-
> CB trip, because of protection. Operation-> CB close, because of TNC switch spring
failure-> CB trip, because of protection. Operation -> CB close, because of TNC switch
spring.

The above cycle is termed as circuit breaker hunting. Circuit breaker hunting will cause
damage to breaker and it can be avoided by using 52 (Circuit breaker Antipumping
relay).The function of this relay is to cut off the supply to 52C (CB closing coil) coil in case
of TNC switch spring failure and prevent CB hunting effect (i.e. continuous closing, opening
operation).

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Let us analyse the behavior of circuit in case anti pumping is present and in case it is not
present, one by one:

CASE 1: Closing Coil Circuit Without 52 Relay

The path for CB close with out 52 relay is shown in Figure 1. In this case if spring of TNC
switch fails, then supply will be get extended to 52C (CB closing coil) coil as shown in
Figure 2.

Figure 1 - Circuit breaker closing coil without Antipumping relay


If the TNC switch spring has failed then supply will be extended as shown below.

Figure 2 - showing how supply will be extended to closing coil because of TNC spring failure

CASE 2: Closing Coil Circuit With 52 Relay

Closing coil circuit with 52 present is as shown in Figure 3. Path 1 in Figure 3 shows how
52C (CB closing coil) will be energized when we press TNC switch CS1.if CS1 comes to its
original state once we release it then 52 will not come in picture. if CS1 does not comes to its
original state then 52 will be energized as shown in path 2.then 52-NC contact present in path
1 will be got opened up and prevents extension of supply.

We have the concept that initially for the energization of 52 80% to 90% of 110V is required.
But once after energization 60-70% of 110V is sufficient to maintain its energization state.
This logic is achieved by introducing a resistance in 52 energization maintenance path. This
path is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 3 - With Antipumping relay present


Figure 4 - Antipumping relay with a resistor

Once 52 is energized it will give an alarm and a maintenance person in the substation need to
attend that problem. This is how 52 is useful in avoiding CB hunting effect.

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What is ANSI code for Master trip lockout relay?


ANSI code 86 is used.

What is function & Utility of lockout relay?


When a ‘‘drive-to-lockout’’ input is energized, the reclosing relay will go into lockout from
any point in the sequence. The relay will stay in lockout until the input is removed and the
breaker is closed manually or by supervisory control. Upon removal, the recloser will go
through its reset sequence and return to ‘‘ready’ state.

All the different trip signals from fault detection devices are wired to the lockout relay, which
is the master trip relay for the circuit breaker. It is usually a manually reset relay with an
indicating flag or lamp. In case of DG a similar philosophy of tripping is used in the engine
control panel in which all the mechanical failure signals are received at the engine lockout
relay (86-T, T for turbine). This lockout relay also trips the generator circuit breaker.

When either the 86-G or the 86-T relay sends its signal to the circuit-breaker trip coil, time is
taken before the circuit breaker begins to move and finally reach its fully open state. The
generator switchgear is recommended to have two separate lockout relays. One will receive
all the electrical protection relay trip signals, and denoted as 86–1. The other will receive a
master trip signal (or several trip signals) from the turbine unit control panel, and denoted as
86–2.
It operates whenever any of the protection relay operates and would prevent any circuit
breaker operation until the lock out relay is manually rest.

Can we manage without anti pumping since operation of lock out relay would prevent
any further operations of CB even continuous opening-closing?

Figure 5 - Antipumping relay & Lockout relay contacts in closing coil circuit

Let us assume that we have closed the circuit breaker using the TNC switch CS1.At this
instant TNC switch spring failed and fault is there which is sensed by primary protection
relay and sends tripping command to circuit breaker. This would energize the trip coil of
breaker; this will result in operation of lock out relay.

The lock out relay will go into lock out state as shown in Figure 6 below:

Figure 6 - The lock out relay goes into lock out state
Now let a person had attended that fault and resetted 86 lockout contacts. After resetting its
status will be NC and a closed command will be extended to closing coil without any human
interface which is a mal function.

So an 86 lockout relay cannot fulfill the purpose of anti pumping relay.

The function of anti pumping relay is to cut off the supply to closing coil in case of TNC
switch spring failure and prevent CB hunting effect (i.e. continuous closing, opening
operation) and a person needs to attend the problem. Where as 86 lock out relay contact in
closing circuit is meant to ensure that a person had attended the fault occurred and we are
closing the circuit after clearing the circuit.

It is extra mechanical protection meant for safety of equipments considering the cost and
sophistication involved; it is always advisable to go for extra human interface.
REFERENCES:

1. ANSI/IEEE C37.100 ‘‘Definitions for Power Switchgear”.


2. Relay And Circuit-Breaker Application Authors: E. L. Harder and J. C. Cunningham.
3. Protection Application Handbook: ABB, Transmission Systems and Substations.
4. http://www.electrotechnik.net/2009/06/what-is-anti-pumping-relay.html