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# CHAPTER 5 SECTION 10

Hydraulics for
Fire Protection
Revised by
Kenneth W. Linder

H
ydraulics is a subset of fluid mechanics that deals with A common, though incorrect, practice is to use the terms
the flow of water. As applied to fire protection, it in- pound mass (lbm) and pound force (lbf) interchangeably since
volves the flow of water through pipes, valves, fittings one lbm has a weight of one lbf under standard gravity. [A sim-
and orifices such as hydrant outlets, nozzles, and sprinklers. This ilar situation exists in SI units with kg (kilogram) and kgf (kilo-
chapter describes the physical properties of water that are per- gram force).] In this chapter, pound (lb) means pound force (lbf)
tinent to hydraulic calculations and the basic formulas used to and kilogram (kg) means kilogram force (kgf), as is common in
calculate flow and pressure loss in fire protection systems. It does engineering practice.
not include details on the specific rules required to design hy- One cu ft (0.028 m3) equals 7.48 U.S. gal. Assuming the
draulically calculated sprinkler systems in accordance with specific weight of water is 62.4 lb per cu ft (1000 kg/m3), 1 gal
NFPA 13, or the algorithms used to determine the how flow splits of water therefore weighs 62.4 lb per cu ft @ 7.48 gal per cu ft,
in looped systems or more complex gridded piping systems. or 8.34 lb (3.78 kg).

## Viscosity. Viscosity is a measurement of a fluid’s resistance to

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF WATER flow, and is usually measured in pound sec per square foot
As used in this handbook, water refers to fresh water unless oth- (lb s/ft2) in U.S. customary units or newton sec per square meter
erwise specified. All calculations are made in U.S. gallons (gal), (NÝs/m2) in SI units. Viscosity, like density, varies with temper-
unless otherwise indicated. One U.S. gal equals 3.78 L. An Im- ature. At 32°F (0.0°C), water has an absolute viscosity, 5, of
perial gal equals 1.20 U.S. gal (4.54 L). 3.746 × 10–5 lb s/ft2 (1.793 ? 10>5 NÝs/m2). In hydraulic prob-
lems, viscosity is often divided by density. This relative viscos-
Material Properties ity, called kinematic viscosity, =, is defined as
5
Density. Density, :, is defined as mass per unit volume: =C
‹  :
mass
:C While viscosity is an important factor in fluid flows, most
volume
fire protection hydraulics applications assume water at ambient
The density of water, as with many other liquids, varies conditions, and the empirical formulas normally used to calcu-
with temperature. The maximum density of water occurs at late losses do not take into account changes in viscosity.
39.2°F (4.0°C) and is 62.43 lbm (pound mass) per cu ft
[1000 kg/m3 (kilograms per cubic meter)] in vacuum or Pressure
62.35 lbm per cu ft (998.7 kg/m3) in air. For most hydraulic cal-
culations, an approximate value of 62.4 lbm per cu ft Pressure, p, is the unit that measures the force, caused by com-
(1000 kg/m3) is usually used. Average seawater has a density of pression, per unit area in a fluid. In fire protection hydraulics,
64.1 lbm per cu ft (1030 kg/m3) at 39.2°F (4.0°C). pressure is normally measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or
in kilopascals (kPa), as indicated by a pressure gage, or as head,
Specific Weight. The specific weight of a material, w, is defined h, in feet (ft) or meters (m) of water. Pressure is also commonly
as w C :g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity. The specific measured as a head of mercury, atmosphere, bar, or newtons per
weight is usually measured in lbf (pound force) per cu ft in U.S. square meter (N/m2).
customary units and kgf (kilogram force)/m3 in SI units and is For water flow in pipes, the total pressure, pt , is the sum of
normal pressure, pn, and velocity pressure, p=.
lbm ft lbfÝs2
w C :g C 62.4 3 ? 32.2 2 ? 1 32.2 lbmÝft
ft s pt C pn = p=
lbf
C 62.4 C 1000 kgf per m3 Normal Pressure. Net or normal pressure is the pressure
ft3 exerted against the side of a pipe or container by the liquid in
the pipe or container with or without flow. Without flow, this
Kenneth W. Linder is assistant vice president of loss prevention technical pressure is called “static pressure” or “static head.” With flow,
services for GE Global Asset Protection Services, Hartford, Connecticut. this pressure is called “residual” pressure.

10–71
10–72 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

## The pressure exerted by a column of water is related to its In SI units

specific weight. Expressed slightly differently, the specific
h=m C 0.0151=2 and p=m C 0.5=2
weight is
A convenient equation for calculating velocity in feet per sec-
62.4 lb 62.4 lb 1 ft2
3 C 2 ? C 0.433 psi per ft ond (fps) from the rate of flow can be developed from the princi-
ft ft ft 144 in.2
ple of conservation of mass. For a steady-state one-dimensional
It follows that pressure and static head are related by the flow with average velocity =, this principle can be stated as
following formulas:
Q C a=
p C wh C 0.433h
p p It follows that
hC C C 2.31p
w 0.433 Q
=C
a
For SI units, the weight of a 1-m column of water equals a
force of 9.81 kPa or: where = C the average velocity in ft/s, Q C the flow in cu ft/s,
p C 9.81h and a C the cross-sectional area of the pipe in sq ft.
For a pipe with flow in gpm and diameter in in., the veloc-
p
hC C 0.102p ity is
9.81
A 1-in. (25.4-mm) head of mercury generates a pressure of Q(gal/min) 9d 2 (in.)2
=(fps) C 3 =
0.491 psi (3.39 kPa), and is equivalent to a 1.135-ft (0.3456-m) 60 s/min ? 7.48 gal/ft 4 ? 144 in.2/ft2
Q ? 4 ? 144 0.4085 ? Q
Normal atmospheric pressure is taken as 14.7 psi C C
60 ? 7.48 ? 9d 2 d2
(101.4 kPa), equivalent to a head of water of 33.95 ft (10.35 m)
and a head of mercury of 29.9 in. (760 mm). It follows that h= and p= are
Velocity Head or Velocity Pressure. The velocity, =, pro- =2 (0.4085Q)2 Q2 (0.4085)2 Q2
duced in a mass of water by pressure acting upon it is the same h= C C 2 2 @ 64.4 C 4 C
2g (d ) d 64.4 386d 4
as if the mass was to fall freely, starting from rest, through a dis-
tance equivalent to the pressure head in feet. This relationship is Q2 0.433 Q2
p= C 4 ? 386 C
represented by Torricelli’s equation: d 891 (d)4
ƒ In SI units, the formula for velocity pressure is expressed as
= C 2gh
where = C the velocity produced in ft/s (m/s), g C the accelera- Qm2
p=m C 225
tion due to gravity or 32.2 ft/s2 (9.81 m/s2), and h C the head in d m4
ft (m) producing the velocity. where
Just as a static head can be converted into a velocity head,
velocity head can be converted to an equivalent static pressure p=m C velocity pressure (kPa)
head. This relation is Qm C flow (L/min)
= 2 d m C inside diameter (mm)
2g EXAMPLE 1: Find the velocity pressure in 1-in. Schedule 40
Because pipe with 36 gpm flowing. The actual diameter of the pipe is
1.049 in.
p= C 0.433h=
Q2 362
the velocity pressure can be expressed as SOLUTION: p= C C C 1.20 psi
891 (d)4 891 (1.049)4
=2 EXAMPLE 2: Find the velocity pressure in a 25-mm (actual di-
p= C 0.433 (psi)
2g ameter) pipe with 100 L/m flowing.
In SI units Qm2 225 ? (100)2
SOLUTION: P=m C 225 4 C C 5.8 kPa
=2 (d m) (25)4
p=m (k Pa) C 9.81
2g
Total Head. At any point within a piping system that contains
for = in m/s. water in motion, there is a pressure head, hp (normal pressure
Values of velocity pressure for different rates of flow in var- head), acting perpendicular to the pipe wall independent of ve-
ious pipe sizes are shown in Figure 10.5.1. (For SI units see Fig- locity, and a velocity head, h=, acting parallel to the wall but ex-
ure 10.5.2.) Velocity head or velocity pressure may be calculated erting no pressure against the wall. Therefore, the total head,
by formulas involving velocity and pipe diameter: H C hp = h=, expressed as pressure (psi) instead of feet is:
=2 0.433=2 =2 =2
h= C or p= C C pt C 0.433hp = 0.433
64.4 64.4 149 2g
where
Velocity pressure (psi)
Velocity pressure (kPa)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.0
2
3
4
5
6
8
10
15

10

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
10

20
20

30
#f in
. (.
30 824

FIGURE 10.5.2
in.)

=2
ptm C 9.81hpm = 9.81 m
2g
1 in
40

40 50
. (1

## In SI units, total head expressed in kPa is:

.05

FIGURE 10.5.1
50 in.)
1 !f
60 in.
70 20 1 !s
(1.
38
80 mm in. in.)
90 (1.

100
(20 61
100 .9 m in.)
25 m) 2 in
mm . (2
(26 .07
.7 m 2 !s in.)
m) in.
32 (2.
200

200
mm 47
3 in in.)
(35 . (3
40 .1 m .07
300 mm m) 3 !s

Flow (gpm)
300
in. in.)
(40 (3.
.1 m 4 in 55
400

Flow (L/min)
50 m) . (4 in.)
mm .03
500 (52 in.)
5 in
600 65 .6 m . (5
700 m)
600

mm .05
800 (62 6 in in.)
CHAPTER 5

900
.7 m . (6
1000 80 m) .07
mm in.)
(78

1000

90 8 in

.0 m
m m) . (8
.07
100 m (90
mm .2m 10 in.)
2000

=M C velocity (m/s)
(10 m) in.
(10
2.4 .0 i
125 mm n.)
)
2000

3000 mm

## ptm C total pressure (kPa)

Graph for the Determination of Velocity Pressure

200 (12
8.3
4000 mm 150 mm
(20
5m
mm )
5000

## Graph for the Determination of Velocity Pressure (SI Units)

250 m) (15
mm 4.2
6000 mm
7000
(25
4m )
8000
5000

m)
9000
10,000
Hydraulics for Fire Protection
10–73
10–74 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

Œ ÷
Pressure Sources p pm
C pressure head in ft (m)
A Am
The sources of pressure head commonly found in fire protection
hydraulic systems include the following. hab (habm) C lost head between location A and location B in
ft (m)
Gravity (Elevated Tanks, Reservoirs, Standpipes). Head is
the elevation of the water supply surface above the point under Application of Bernoulli’s Theorem
consideration, measured directly in ft (m) or converted from a
Consider a reservoir and a pipeline discharging water to atmos-
phere at B (Figure 10.5.3). Assuming datum through B, Ber-
noulli’s theorem applied from the water surface at A to the outlet
Pumping. Head is the combination of pump discharge pres-
at B is
sure and any difference in elevation between the pump discharge
gage and the point under consideration. =2A pA =2 p
= = zA C B = B = zB = hAB
2g w 2g w
Pneumatic (Pressure Tanks). Head is the tank air pressure
The velocity at A is practically zero because the tank is very
combined with any difference in elevation in tank water surface
large, and the gage pressure is zero because only atmospheric
and the point under consideration.
pressure works on the water surface. At A, the elevation is zA
Combination. Any combination of the above pressure sources. measured in ft (m) above the datum.
At B, the elevation above the datum is zero; the gage pres-
sure is zero, since the water is discharging to atmosphere; and
only velocity pressure is available as the water leaves the outlet.
BERNOULLI’S THEOREM (A gauge at a right angle to the emerging stream would register
Bernoulli’s theorem expresses the physical law of conservation zero pressure.)
of energy applied to problems of incompressible fluid flow. The Therefore,
theorem can be defined as follows: “In steady flow without fric- =2
0 = 0 = zA C B = 0 = 0 = hAB
tion, the sum of the velocity head, pressure head, and elevation 2g
head is constant for any incompressible fluid particle through- or
out its course.” In other words, the total pressure (head) is the =2B
same at all locations within the system. C zA > hAB
2g
[Note that, in Bernoulli’s theorem, all of the individual head
head, are expressed in ft (m). When using velocities in fps (m/s) reservoir where water enters the pipeline, at the valve, and at
and gage pressure in psi (kPa), they must be converted to ft (m), the discharge outlet, plus (2) the friction loss in the pipeline. The
or all of the terms expressed as pressures.] values of the components producing lost head can be estimated,
as discussed later in the chapter.
As another example, calculate the head loss across 1000 ft
Bernoulli’s Theorem of 8-in. pipe with 750 gpm flowing from a 2½-in. hydrant outlet
Expressed Mathematically at B and a residual pressure at hydrant A of 40 psi. With no flow,
hydrant A has a 60 psi static pressure, and hydrant B has an 80 psi
Real systems are not frictionless, however, and in practice,
static pressure. Assume a datum through hydrant B. Again,
losses due to pipe friction and other factors are accounted for.
Bernoulli’s theorem applied from point A to point B applies:
Expressed mathematically, Bernoulli’s theorem, when applied
to locations A and B, is =2A pA =2 p
= = zA C B = B = zB = hAB
2g w 2g w
=2A pA =2 p
= = zA C B = B = zB = hAB Because we are interested in finding the head loss from A to
2g w 2g w
B (hAB), we rearrange Bernoulli’s equation to solve for this term:
where
=2A pA =2 p
hAB C = = zA > B > B > zB
= (=m) C velocity in fps (m/s) 2g w 2g w
g (gm) C acceleration of gravity [32.2 fps (9.81 m/s2)]
p (pm) C pressure [lb/sq ft (kPa)] Water level
A
z (zm) C elevation head [(distance above assumed
Reservoir
datum), in ft (m)] ZA
Valve
w (wm) C specific weight of the fluid in lb/cu ft (64.4 pcf Pipeline
Datum
or 9.81 kN/m3 for water) B
Œ ÷
2
=2 =m FIGURE 10.5.3 Graphic Representation of the Application
C velocity head in ft (m)
2g 2g of Bernoulli’s Theorem to a Reservoir and Pipelines
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–75

The next step is to use the information provided to calculate pressure of 300 kPa. If the pipeline has changed in diameter to
each of the terms on the right side of the equation, starting with 70 mm at “B” and there is frictional head loss over the length of
the velocity head at A: the pipe (hAB) of 12 m, determine the residual pressure at “B” for
a flow rate of 4200 L/min.
Q Q The solution is expressed as
=A C C
a 9d 2
4 ? 144 =2A pA =2 p
= = zA C B = B = zB = hAB
750 gpm 2g w 2g w
7.48 gal/ft3 ? 60 s/min Rearranging for the pressure head at “B,”
C C 4.79 fps
3.1416 ? (8 in.)2
4 ? 144 in.2/ft2 pB =2A pA =2
C = = zA > B > zB > hAB
w 2g w 2g
=2A (4.79 fps)2
C C 0.36 ft V 0.4 ft Substituting,
2g 64.4 fps/s
Next we calculate the pressure head at A: 4200 L/min
144 in. 2 Q 60 s/min ? 1000 L/m3
40 psi ? =a C C
pA ft2
aa 9(80 mm)2
C C 93.2 ft 4 ? 106 mm2/m2
w 62.4 pcf
zA C (80 psi > 60 psi) ? 2.31 ft/psi C 46.2 ft =2A (13.9 m/s)2
C C 9.8 m
2g 2 ? 9.81 m/s2
Because we are using point B as our datum or zero-elevation
reference, zA is the elevation difference between points A and B. pA 300 kPa
C C 30.6 m
We can use Bernoulli’s equation with no flow to determine this w 9.81 kPa/m
difference. Because there is no flow, the velocity head terms are zA C 0 (datum through “A”)
zero. Also, because there is no flow, there is no friction or head
loss. We know that because the static pressure at B is greater 4200 L/min
than the static pressure at A, the elevation of A is positive. Solv- Q 60 s/min ? 1000 L/m3
=B C C C 18.2 m/s
ing for the elevation difference we get aB 9(70 mm)2
4 ? 106 mm2/m2
pB pA
zA > zB C >
w w vB2 (18.2 m/s)2
C C 16.9 m
We know the pressure head at B is 80 psi and that head at A is 2g 2 ? 9.81 m/s2
60 psi. Because the elevation at B is zero, substituting and con- zB C 5.0 m
verting the units we get
hAB C 12 m (friction loss)
zA C (80 psi > 60 psi) ? 2.31 ft/psi C 46.2 ft.
Then
The velocity at B is calculated in the same manner as at A:
750 gpm pB
C 9.81 = 30.6 = 0 > 16.9 > 5 > 12 C 6.5 m
w
Q 7.48 gal/ft3 ? 60 s/min
=B C C C 49.02 fps
a 3.1416 ? (2.5 in.)2 In pressure terms
4 ? 144 in.2/ft2
kPa
=2B (49.02 fps)2 6.5 m ? 9.81
m
C 64 kPa
C C 37.3 ft
2g 64.4 fps
that is, the residual pressure at “B” is 64 kPa.
There is no normal pressure, as the flow discharges to
atmosphere.
pB
C 0. FLOW OF WATER
w
THROUGH ORIFICES
zB C 0, since the datum goes through hydrant “B”
As a liquid leaves a pipe, conduit, or container through an ori-
Thus fice and discharges to atmosphere, the normal pressure is con-
hAB C 0.4 = 92.3 = 46.2 > 37.3 > 0 > 0 C 101.6 ft verted to velocity pressure. The rate of flow though an orifice
can be expressed in terms of velocity and cross-sectional area of
One further problem is expressed in SI units. Water is the stream, the basic relations being Q C a=, where Q C rate of
pumped via a pipeline, up a 5.0-m incline from “A” to “B.” The flow in cu ft/s (m3/s); a C area of cross section in sq ft (m2); and
pipeline at “A” has an inside diameter of 80 mm and a static = C velocity at the cross section in ft/s (m/s) (Table 10.5.1).
TABLE 10.5.1 Theoretical Flow through Circular Orifices—gpm (L/min)

This table may be computed from the formula Q = 29.84cd 2 —— p (Q = 0.0666cdm2 p———
m ) with c = 1.00. The theoretical discharge from seawater, as from fireboat nozzles, may be found by subtracting 1
ƒ ƒ

percent from the figures in the following table or from the value computed using the formulas.
When pressures are read with a Pitot gage at a nozzle, the nozzle discharge in most cases will correspond to the values in the table within a range of 1 to 3 percent for nozzles up to 13/8 in.
(35 mm) in diameter. For larger diameter nozzles, the principles discussed in “The Nozzle Method of Measuring Flow” in this chapter of the handbook apply. Appropriate coefficients should be applied
where it is read from a hydrant outlet. Where more accurate results are required, a coefficient appropriate to the particular nozzle must be selected and applied to the figures of the table.
The discharge from circular openings of sizes other than those in the table may readily be computed by applying the principles that quantity discharged under a given head varies as the square of
the diameter of the opening.
Orifice Diameter
in. (mm)
Pressure Velocity
psi ft/s 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.375 2.5 2.625 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5
(kPa) (m/s) (9.53) (12.7) (15.9) (19.1) (22.2) (25.4) (28.6) (31.8) (38.1) (44.5) (50.8) (57.2) (60.3) (63.5) (66.7) (69.9) (76.2) (82.6) (88.9) (95.25) (102) (114)
1 12.2 4.20 7.46 11.7 16.8 22.8 29.8 37.8 46.6 67.1 91.4 119 151 168 187 206 226 269 315 366 420 477 604
(6.89) (3.71) (15.9) (28.2) (44.1) (63.4) (86.4) (113) (143) (176) (254) (345) (451) (571) (636) (705) (777) (853) (1020) (1190) (1380) (1590) (1800) (2280)
2 17.2 5.93 10.6 16 23.7 32.3 42.2 53.4 65.9 95.0 129 169 214 238 264 291 319 380 446 517 593 675 855
(13.8) (5.25) (22.4) (39.9) (62.4) (89.8) (122) (160) (202) (249) (359) (489) (638) (808) (900) (998) (1100) (1210) (1440) (1690) (1960) (2240) (2550) (3230)
3 21.1 7.27 12.9 20.2 29.1 39.6 51.7 65.4 80.8 116 158 207 262 292 323 356 391 465 546 633 727 827 1050
(20.7) (6.43) (27.5) (48.9) (76.4) (110) (150) (195) (247) (305) (440) (599) (782) (990) (1100) (1220) (1350) (1480) (1760) (2060) (2390) (2750) (3130) (3960)
4 24.4 8.39 14.9 23.3 33.6 45.7 59.7 75.5 93.3 134 183 239 302 337 373 411 451 537 630 731 839 955 1210
(27.6) (7.43) (31.7) (56.4) (88.2) (127) (173) (226) (286) (353) (508) (691) (903) (1140) (1270) (1410) (1560) (1710) (2030) (2380) (2770) (3170) (3610) (4570)
5 27.3 9.38 16.7 26.1 37.5 51.1 66.7 84.4 104 150 204 267 338 376 417 460 505 601 705 817 938 1070 1350
(34.5) (8.31) (35.5) (63.1) (98.6) (142) (193) (252) (319) (394) (568) (773) (1010) (1280) (1420) (1580) (1740) (1910) (2270) (2670) (3090) (3550) (4040) (5110)
6 29.9 10.3 18.3 28.6 41.1 56.0 73.1 92.5 114 164 224 292 370 412 457 504 553 658 772 895 1030 1170 1480
(41.4) (9.10) (38.9) (69.1) (108) (156) (212) (276) (350) (432) (622) (847) (1110) (1400) (1560) (1730) (1910) (2090) (2490) (2920) (3390) (3890) (4420) (5600)

10–76
7 32.3 11.1 19.7 30.8 44.4 60.4 78.9 100 123 178 242 316 400 445 493 544 597 711 834 967 1110 1260 1600
(48.3) (9.83) (42.0) (74.7) (117) (168) (229) (299) (378) (467) (672) (915) (1190) (1510) (1680) (1870) (2060) (2260) (2690) (3150) (3660) (4200) (4780) (6050)
8 34.5 11.9 21.1 33.0 47.5 64.6 84.4 107 132 190 258 338 427 476 528 582 638 760 891 1030 1190 1350 1710
(55.2) (10.5) (44.9) (79.8) (125) (180) (244) (319) (404) (499) (718) (978) (1280) (1620) (1800) (2000) (2200) (2410) (2870) (3370) (3910) (4490) (5110) (6460)
9 36.6 12.6 22.4 35.0 50.4 68.5 89.5 113 140 201 274 358 453 505 560 617 677 806 946 1100 1260 1430 1810
(62.0) (11.1) (47.6) (84.6) (132) (190) (259) (338) (428) (529) (761) (1040) (1350) (1710) (1910) (2110) (2330) (2560) (3040) (3570) (4140) (4760) (5410) (6850)
10 38.6 13.3 23.6 36.9 53.1 72.2 94.4 119 147 212 289 377 478 532 590 650 714 849 997 1160 1330 1510 1910
(68.9) (11.7) (50.2) (89.2) (139) (201) (273) (357) (451) (557) (802) (1090) (1430) (1810) (2010) (2230) (2460) (2700) (3210) (3770) (4370) (5020) (5710) (7220)
11 40.4 13.9 24.7 38.7 55.7 75.8 99.0 125 155 223 303 396 501 558 619 682 748 891 1050 1210 1390 1580 2000
(75.8) (12.3) (52.6) (93.5) (146) (210) (286) (374) (473) (585) (842) (1150) (1500) (1809) (2110) (2340) (2580) (2830) (3370) (3950) (4580) (5260) (5990) (7580)
12 42.2 14.5 25.8 40.4 58.1 79.1 103 131 162 233 317 413 523 583 646 712 782 930 1090 1270 1450 1650 2090
(82.7) (12.9) (54.9) (97.7) (153) (220) (299) (391) (495) (611) (879) (1200) (1560) (1980) (2200) (2440) (2690) (2960) (3520) (4130) (4790) (5490) (6250) (7910)
13 44.0 15.1 26.9 42.0 60.5 82.4 108 136 168 242 329 430 545 607 672 741 814 968 1140 1320 1510 1720 2180
(89.6) (13.4) (57.2) (102) (159) (229) (311) (407) (515) (636) (915) (1250) (1630) (2060) (2290) (2540) (2800) (3080) (3660) (4300) (4980) (5720) (6510) (8240)
14 45.6 15.7 27.9 43.6 62.8 85.5 112 141 174 251 342 447 565 630 698 769 844 1000 1180 1370 1570 1790 2260
(96.5) (13.9) (59.4) (106) (165) (237) (323) (422) (534) (660) (950) (1290) (1690) (2140) (2380) (2640) (2910) (3190) (3800) (4460) (5170) (5940) (6750) (8550)
15 47.2 16.3 28.9 45.1 65.0 88.5 116 146 181 260 354 462 585 652 722 796 874 1040 1220 1420 1630 1850 2340
(103) (14.4) (61.3) (109) (170) (245) (334) (436) (552) (681) (981) (1340) (1740) (2210) (2460) (2730) (3000) (3300) (3920) (4610) (5340) (6130) (6980) (8830)
16 48.8 16.8 29.8 46.6 67.1 91.4 119 151 187 269 366 477 604 673 746 822 903 1070 1260 1460 1680 1910 2420
(110) (14.8) (63.4) (113) (176) (253) (345) (451) (570) (704) (1010) (1380) (1800) (2280) (2540) (2820) (3110) (3410) (4060) (4760) (5520) (6340) (7210) (9130)
17 50.3 17.3 30.8 48.1 69.2 94.2 123 156 192 277 377 492 623 694 769 848 930 1110 1300 1510 1730 1970 2490
(117) (15.3) (65.4) (116) (182) (261) (356) (465) (588) (726) (1050) (1420) (1860) (2350) (2620) (2900) (3200) (3510) (4180) (4910) (5690) (6540) (7440) (9410)
18 51.7 17.8 31.7 49.5 71.2 96.9 127 160 198 285 388 506 641 714 791 872 957 1140 1340 1550 1780 2030 2560
(124) (15.7) (67.3) (120) (187) (269) (366) (478) (606) (748) (1080) (1470) (1910) (2420) (2700) (2990) (3300) (3620) (4310) (5050) (5860) (6730) (7660) (9690)
Pressure Velocity
psi ft/s 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.375 2.5 2.625 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5
(kPa) (m/s) (9.53) (12.7) (15.9) (19.1) (22.2) (25.4) (28.6) (31.8) (38.1) (44.5) (50.8) (57.2) (60.3) (63.5) (66.7) (69.9) (76.2) (82.6) (88.9) (95.25) (102) (114)
19 53.1 18.3 32.5 50.8 73.2 100 130 165 203 293 398 520 658 734 813 896 984 1170 1370 1590 1830 2080 2630
(131) (16.2) (69.2) (123) (192) (277) (377) (492) (622) (768) (1110) (1510) (1970) (2490) (2770) (3070) (3390) (3720) (4430) (5190) (6020) (6920) (7870) (9960)
20 54.5 18.8 33.4 52.1 75.1 102 133 169 209 300 409 534 676 753 834 920 1010 1200 1410 1630 1880 2140 2700
(138) (16.6) (71.0) (126) (197) (284) (386) (505) (639) (789) (1140) (1550) (2020) (2560) (2850) (3150) (3480) (3820) (4540) (5330) (6180) (7100) (8080) (10200)
21 55.9 19.2 34.2 53.4 76.9 105 137 173 214 308 419 547 692 771 855 942 1030 1230 1440 1680 1920 2190 2770
(145) (17.0) (72.8) (129) (202) (291) (396) (517) (655) (808) (1160) (1580) (2070) (2620) (2920) (3230) (3570) (3910) (4660) (5470) (6340) (7280) (8280) (10500)
22 57.2 19.7 35.0 54.7 78.7 107 140 177 219 315 429 560 709 789 875 964 1060 1260 1480 1710 1970 2240 2830
(152) (17.4) (74.5) (132) (207) (298) (406) (530) (670) (828) (1190) (1620) (2120) (2680) (2990) (3310) (3650) (4010) (4770) (5600) (6490) (7450) (8480) (10700)
23 58.5 20.1 35.8 55.9 80.5 110 143 181 224 322 438 572 724 807 894 986 1080 1290 1510 1750 2010 2290 2900
(159) (17.8) (76.2) (135) (212) (305) (415) (542) (686) (847) (1220) (1660) (2170) (2740) (3060) (3390) (3730) (4100) (4880) (5720) (6640) (7620) (8670) (11000)
24 59.7 20.6 36.5 57.1 82.2 112 146 185 228 329 448 585 740 825 914 1010 1110 1320 1540 1790 2060 2340 2960
(165) (18.2) (77.6) (138) (216) (310) (423) (552) (699) (862) (1240) (1690) (2210) (2790) (3110) (3450) (3800) (4170) (4970) (5830) (6760) (7760) (8830) (11200)
25 61.0 21.0 37.3 58.3 83.9 114 149 189 233 336 457 597 755 842 933 1030 1130 1340 1580 1830 2100 2390 3020
(172) (18.5) (79.2) (141) (220) (317) (431) (564) (713) (880) (1270) (1730) (2250) (2850) (3180) (3520) (3880) (4260) (5070) (5950) (6900) (7920) (9020) (11400)
26 62.2 21.4 38.0 59.4 85.6 116 152 193 238 342 466 609 770 858 951 1050 1150 1370 1610 1860 2140 2430 3080
(179) (18.9) (80.8) (144) (225) (323) (440) (575) (728) (898) (1290) (1761) (2299) (2910) (3240) (3590) (3960) (4350) (5170) (6070) (7040) (8080) (9200) (11600)
27 63.3 21.8 38.8 60.6 87.2 119 155 196 242 349 475 620 785 875 969 1070 1170 1400 1640 1900 2180 2480 3140
(186) (19.3) (82.4) (147) (229) (330) (449) (586) (742) (916) (1320) (1795) (2344) (2970) (3310) (3660) (4040) (4430) (5270) (6190) (7180) (8240) (9380) (11900)
28 64.5 22.2 39.5 61.7 88.8 121 158 200 247 355 484 632 799 891 987 1090 1190 1420 1670 1930 2220 2530 3200
(193) (19.6) (83.9) (149) (233) (336) (457) (597) (755) (933) (1340) (1830) (2390) (3020) (3370) (3730) (4110) (4510) (5370) (6310) (7310) (8390) (9550) (12100)
29 65.7 22.6 40.2 62.8 90.4 123 161 203 251 362 492 643 814 906 1004 1110 1220 1450 1700 1970 2260 2570 3250
(200) (20.0) (85.5) (152) (237) (342) (465) (608) (769) (949) (1370) (1860) (2430) (3080) (3430) (3800) (4190) (4600) (5470) (6420) (7440) (8550) (9720) (12300)
30 66.8 23.0 40.9 63.8 91.9 125 163 207 255 368 501 654 827 922 1020 1130 1240 1470 1730 2000 2300 2620 3310

10–77
(207) (20.3) (86.9) (155) (241) (348) (473) (618) (782) (966) (1390) (1890) (2470) (3130) (3490) (3860) (4260) (4680) (5560) (6530) (7570) (8690) (9890) (12500)
31 67.9 23.4 41.5 64.9 93.5 127 166 210 260 374 509 665 841 937 1040 1140 1260 1500 1750 2040 2340 2660 3360
(214) (20.7) (88.4) (157) (246) (354) (481) (629) (796) (982) (1410) (1920) (2510) (3180) (3550) (3930) (4330) (4750) (5660) (6640) (7700) (8840) (10100) (12700)
32 69.0 23.7 42.2 65.9 95.0 129 169 214 264 380 517 675 855 952 1060 1160 1280 1520 1780 2070 2370 2700 3420
(221) (21.0) (89.8) (160) (250) (359) (489) (639) (808) (998) (1440) (1960) (2560) (3230) (3600) (3990) (4400) (4830) (5750) (6750) (7820) (8980) (10200) (12900)
33 70.0 24.1 42.9 67.0 96.4 131 171 217 268 386 525 686 868 967 1070 1180 1300 1540 1810 2100 2410 2740 3470
(228) (21.4) (91.2) (162) (253) (365) (497) (649) (821) (1014) (1460) (1990) (2600) (3280) (3660) (4050) (4470) (4910) (5840) (6850) (7950) (9120) (10400) (13100)
34 71.1 24.5 43.5 68.0 97.9 133 174 220 272 391 533 696 881 981 1090 1200 1320 1570 1840 2130 2450 2780 3520
(234) (21.6) (92.4) (164) (257) (370) (503) (657) (832) (1030) (1480) (2010) (2630) (3330) (3710) (4110) (4530) (4970) (5920) (6940) (8050) (9240) (10500) (13300)
35 72.1 24.8 44.1 69.0 99.3 135 177 223 276 397 541 706 894 996 1100 1220 1340 1590 1860 2160 2480 2820 3570
(241) (22.0) (93.8) (167) (261) (375) (511) (667) (844) (1040) (1500) (2040) (2670) (3380) (3760) (4170) (4600) (5040) (6000) (7050) (8170) (9380) (10700) (13500)
36 73.1 25.2 44.8 69.9 101 137 179 227 280 403 548 716 906 1010 1120 1230 1350 1610 1890 2190 2520 2860 3630
(248) (22.3) (95.2) (169) (264) (381) (518) (677) (856) (1060) (1520) (2070) (2710) (3430) (3820) (4230) (4660) (5120) (6090) (7150) (8290) (9520) (10800) (13700)
37 74.2 25.5 45.4 70.9 102 139 182 230 284 408 556 726 919 1020 1130 1250 1370 1630 1920 2220 2550 2900 3680
(255) (22.6) (96.5) (172) (268) (386) (525) (686) (868) (1070) (1540) (2100) (2740) (3470) (3870) (4290) (4730) (5190) (6180) (7250) (8410) (9650) (11000) (13900)
38 75.2 25.9 46.0 71.9 103 141 184 233 287 414 563 736 931 1040 1150 1270 1390 1660 1940 2250 2590 2940 3720
(262) (22.9) (97.8) (174) (272) (391) (532) (695) (880) (1090) (1560) (2130) (2780) (3520) (3920) (4350) (4790) (5260) (6260) (7350) (8520) (9780) (11100) (14100)
39 76.1 26.2 46.6 72.8 105 143 186 236 291 419 571 745 943 1050 1160 1280 1410 1680 1970 2280 2620 2980 3770
(269) (23.2) (99.1) (176) (275) (396) (540) (705) (892) (1100) (1590) (2160) (2820) (3570) (3980) (4400) (4860) (5330) (6340) (7440) (8630) (9910) (11300) (14300)
40 77.1 26.5 47.2 73.7 106 144 189 239 295 425 578 755 955 1060 1180 1300 1430 1700 1990 2310 2650 3020 3820
(276) (23.5) (100) (178) (279) (402) (547) (714) (903) (1120) (1610) (2190) (2860) (3610) (4030) (4460) (4920) (5400) (6420) (7540) (8740) (10000) (11400) (14500)
41 78.1 26.9 47.8 74.6 107 146 191 242 299 430 585 764 967 1080 1190 1320 1440 1720 2020 2340 2690 3060 3870
(283) (23.8) (102) (181) (282) (407) (553) (723) (915) (1130) (1630) (2210) (2890) (3660) (4080) (4520) (4980) (5470) (6510) (7630) (8850) (10200) (11600) (14600)
TABLE 10.5.1 Continued

Pressure Velocity
psi ft/s 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.375 2.5 2.625 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5
(kPa) (m/s) (9.53) (12.7) (15.9) (19.1) (22.2) (25.4) (28.6) (31.8) (38.1) (44.5) (50.8) (57.2) (60.3) (63.5) (66.7) (69.9) (76.2) (82.6) (88.9) (95.25) (102) (114)
42 79.0 27.2 48.3 75.5 109 148 193 245 302 435 592 774 979 1090 1210 1330 1460 1740 2040 2370 2720 3090 3920
(290) (24.1) (103) (183) (286) (412) (560) (732) (926) (1140) (1650) (2240) (2930) (3700) (4130) (4570) (5040) (5530) (6590) (7730) (8960) (10300) (11700) (14800)
43 79.9 27.5 48.9 76.4 110 150 196 248 306 440 599 783 991 1100 1220 1350 1480 1760 2070 2400 2750 3130 3960
(297) (24.4) (104) (185) (289) (417) (567) (740) (937) (1160) (1670) (2270) (2960) (3750) (4180) (4630) (5100) (5600) (6660) (7820) (9070) (10400) (11800) (15000)
44 80.9 27.8 49.5 77.3 111 152 198 251 309 445 606 792 1000 1120 1240 1360 1500 1780 2090 2420 2780 3170 4010
(303) (24.6) (105) (187) (292) (421) (573) (748) (947) (1170) (1680) (2290) (2990) (3790) (4220) (4670) (5150) (5660) (6730) (7900) (9160) (10500) (12000) (15100)
45 81.8 28.1 50.0 78.2 113 153 200 253 313 450 613 801 1010 1130 1250 1380 1510 1800 2110 2450 2810 3200 4050
(310) (24.9) (106) (189) (296) (426) (579) (757) (957) (1180) (1700) (2320) (3030) (3830) (4270) (4730) (5210) (5720) (6810) (7990) (9270) (10600) (12100) (15300)
46 82.7 28.5 50.6 79.1 114 155 202 256 316 455 620 810 1020 1140 1260 1390 1530 1820 2140 2480 2850 3240 4100
(317) (25.2) (108) (191) (299) (430) (586) (765) (968) (1200) (1720) (2340) (3060) (3870) (4320) (4780) (5270) (5790) (6890) (8080) (9370) (10800) (12200) (15500)
47 28.8 51.1 79.9 115 157 205 259 320 460 627 818 1040 1150 1280 1410 1550 1840 2160 2510 2880 3270 4140
(324) (25.5) (109) (193) (302) (435) (592) (773) (979) (1210) (1740) (2370) (3090) (3920) (4360) (4830) (5330) (5850) (6960) (8170) (9470) (10900) (12400) (15700)
48 84.5 29.1 51.7 80.8 116 158 207 262 323 465 633 827 1050 1170 1290 1420 1560 1860 2180 2530 2910 3310 4190
(331) (25.7) (110) (195) (305) (440) (599) (782) (989) (1220) (1760) (2390) (3130) (3960) (4410) (4890) (5390) (5910) (7040) (8260) (9580) (11000) (12500) (15800)
49 85.3 29.4 52.2 81.6 117 160 209 264 326 470 640 836 1060 1180 1310 1440 1580 1880 2210 2560 2940 3340 4230
(338) (26.0) (111) (197) (309) (444) (605) (790) (1000) (1230) (1780) (2420) (3160) (4000) (4460) (4940) (5440) (5970) (7110) (8340) (9680) (11100) (12600) (16000)
50 86.2 29.7 52.8 82.4 119 162 211 267 330 475 646 844 1070 1190 1320 1450 1600 1900 2230 2580 2970 3380 4270
(345) (26.3) (112) (200) (312) (449) (611) (798) (1010) (1250) (1800) (2440) (3190) (4040) (4500) (4990) (5500) (6040) (7180) (8430) (9780) (11200) (12800) (16200)
52 87.9 30.3 53.8 84.1 121 165 215 272 336 484 659 861 1090 1210 1340 1480 1630 1940 2270 2640 3030 3440 4360
(358) (26.8) (114) (203) (318) (457) (622) (813) (1030) (1270) (1830) (2490) (3250) (4120) (4590) (5080) (5600) (6150) (7320) (8590) (9960) (11400) (13000) (16500)
54 89.6 30.8 54.8 85.7 123 168 219 278 343 493 672 877 1110 1240 1370 1510 1660 1970 2320 2690 3080 3510 4440

10–78
(372) (27.3) (117) (207) (324) (466) (634) (829) (1050) (1290) (1860) (2540) (3310) (4200) (4670) (5180) (5710) (6270) (7460) (8750) (10200) (11700) (13300) (16800)
56 91.2 31.4 55.8 87.2 126 171 223 283 349 502 684 893 1130 1260 1400 1540 1690 2010 2360 2740 3140 3570 4520
(386) (27.8) (119) (211) (330) (475) (646) (844) (1070) (1320) (1900) (2590) (3380) (4270) (4760) (5280) (5820) (6380) (7600) (8920) (10300) (11900) (13500) (17100)
58 92.8 32.0 56.8 88.8 128 174 227 288 355 511 696 909 1150 1280 1420 1570 1720 2050 2400 2780 3200 3640 4600
(400) (28.3) (121) (215) (336) (483) (658) (859) (1090) (1340) (1930) (2630) (3440) (4350) (4850) (5370) (5920) (6500) (7730) (9080) (10500) (12100) (13700) (17400)
60 94.4 32.5 57.8 90.3 130 177 231 293 361 520 708 925 1170 1300 1440 1590 1750 2080 2440 2830 3250 3700 4680
(414) (28.8) (123) (219) (342) (492) (669) (874) (1110) (1370) (1970) (2680) (3500) (4430) (4930) (5460) (6020) (6610) (7870) (9230) (10700) (12300) (14000) (17700)
62 96.0 33.0 58.7 91.8 132 180 235 297 367 528 719 940 1190 1330 1470 1620 1780 2110 2480 2880 3300 3760 4760
(427) (29.2) (125) (222) (347) (499) (680) (888) (1120) (1390) (2000) (2720) (3550) (4490) (5010) (5550) (6120) (6710) (7990) (9380) (10900) (12500) (14200) (18000)
64 97.5 33.6 59.7 93.3 134 183 239 302 373 537 731 955 1210 1350 1490 1640 1810 2150 2520 2920 3360 3820 4830
(441) (29.7) (127) (226) (352) (508) (691) (902) (1140) (1410) (2030) (2760) (3610) (4570) (5090) (5640) (6220) (6820) (8120) (9530) (11100) (12700) (14400) (18300)
66 99.0 34.1 60.6 94.7 136 186 242 307 379 545 742 970 1230 1370 1520 1670 1830 2180 2560 2970 3410 3880 4910
(455) (30.2) (129) (229) (358) (516) (702) (917) (1160) (1430) (2060) (2810) (3670) (4640) (5170) (5730) (6320) (6930) (8250) (9680) (11200) (12900) (14700) (18600)
68 101 34.6 61.5 96.1 138 188 246 311 384 554 754 984 1250 1390 1540 1700 1860 2210 2600 3010 3460 3940 4980
(469) (30.6) (131) (233) (363) (523) (712) (931) (1180) (1450) (2090) (2850) (3720) (4710) (5250) (5820) (6410) (7040) (8370) (9830) (11400) (13100) (14900) (18800)
70 102 35.1 62.4 97.5 140 191 250 316 390 562 765 999 1260 1410 1560 1720 1890 2250 2640 3060 3510 3990 5060
(483) (31.1) (133) (236) (369) (531) (723) (944) (1200) (1480) (2120) (2890) (3780) (4780) (5330) (5900) (6510) (7140) (8500) (9970) (11600) (13300) (15100) (19100)
72 103 35.6 63.3 98.9 142 194 253 320 396 570 775 1010 1280 1430 1580 1740 1910 2280 2670 3100 3560 4050 5130
(496) (31.5) (135) (239) (374) (538) (733) (957) (1210) (1500) (2150) (2930) (3830) (4840) (5400) (5980) (6590) (7240) (8610) (10100) (11700) (13500) (15300) (19400)
74 105 36.1 64.2 100 144 197 257 325 401 578 786 1030 1300 1450 1600 1770 1940 2310 2710 3140 3610 4110 5200
(510) (31.9) (136) (243) (379) (546) (743) (970) (1230) (1520) (2180) (2970) (3880) (4910) (4570) (6060) (6690) (7340) (8730) (10200) (11900) (13600) (15500) (19600)
76 106 36.6 65.0 102 146 199 260 329 406 585 797 1040 1320 1470 1630 1790 1970 2340 2750 3190 3660 4160 5270
(524) (32.4) (138) (246) (384) (553) (753) (984) (1240) (1540) (2210) (3010) (3930) (4980) (5550) (6150) (6780) (7440) (8850) (10400) (12000) (13800) (15700) (19900)
Pressure Velocity
psi ft/s 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.125 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.375 2.5 2.625 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5
(kPa) (m/s) (9.53) (12.7) (15.9) (19.1) (22.2) (25.4) (28.6) (31.8) (38.1) (44.5) (50.8) (57.2) (60.3) (63.5) (66.7) (69.9) (76.2) (82.6) (88.9) (95.25) (102) (114)
78 108 37.1 65.9 103 148 202 264 334 412 593 807 1050 1330 1490 1650 1820 1990 2370 2780 3230 3710 4220 5340
(538) (32.8) (140) (249) (389) (561) (763) (997) (1260) (1560) (2240) (3050) (3990) (5050) (5620) (6230) (6870) (7540) (8970) (10500) (12200) (14000) (15900) (20200)
80 109 37.5 66.7 104 150 204 267 338 417 601 817 1070 1350 1510 1670 1840 2020 2400 2820 3270 3750 4270 5400
(552) (33.2) (142) (252) (394) (568) (773) (1280) (1580) (2270) (3090) (4040) (5110) (5690) (6310) (6960) (7630) (9090) (10700) (12400) (14200) (16200) (20400)
82 110 38.0 67.6 106 152 207 270 342 422 608 828 1080 1370 1520 1690 1860 2040 2430 2850 3310 3800 4320 5470
(565) (33.6) (144) (255) (399) (574) (782) (1020) (1290) (1600) (2300) (3130) (4090) (5170) (5760) (6380) (7040) (7720) (9190) (10800) (12500) (14400) (16300) (20700)
84 112 38.5 68.4 107 154 209 273 346 427 615 838 1090 1380 1540 1710 1880 2070 2460 2890 3350 3850 4380 5540
(579) (34.0) (145) (258) (404) (582) (792) (1030) (1310) (1620) (2330) (3170) (4140) (5230) (5830) (6460) (7120) (7820) (9310) (10900) (12700) (14500) (16500) (20900)
86 113 38.9 69.2 108 156 212 277 350 432 623 847 1110 1400 1560 1730 1910 2090 2490 2920 3390 3890 4430 5600
(593) (34.4) (147) (262) (409) (589) (801) (1050) (1320) (1630) (2350) (3200) (4190) (5300) (5900) (6540) (7210) (7910) (9420) (11100) (12800) (14700) (16700) (21200)
88 114 39.4 70.0 109 157 214 280 354 437 630 857 1120 1420 1580 1750 1930 2120 2520 2960 3430 3940 4480 5670
(607) (34.8) (149) (265) (414) (595) (810) (1060) (1340) (1650) (2380) (3240) (4230) (5360) (5970) (6620) (7290) (8010) (9530) (11200) (13000) (14900) (16900) (21400)
90 116 39.8 70.8 111 159 217 283 358 442 637 867 1130 1430 1600 1770 1950 2140 2550 2990 3470 3980 4530 5730
(620) (35.2) (150) (267) (418) (602) (819) (1070) (1350) (1670) (2410) (3280) (4280) (5420) (6030) (6690) (7370) (8090) (9630) (11300) (13100) (15000) (17100) (21700)
92 117 40.2 71.6 112 161 219 286 362 447 644 877 1140 1450 1610 1790 1970 2160 2580 3020 3510 4020 4580 5800
(634) (35.6) (152) (270) (423) (609) (828) (1080) (1370) (1690) (2430) (3310) (4330) (5480) (6100) (6760) (7450) (8180) (9740) (11400) (13300) (15200) (17300) (21900)
94 118 40.7 72.3 113 163 222 289 366 452 651 886 1160 1460 1630 1810 1990 2190 2600 3060 3540 4070 4630 5860
(648) (36.0) (154) (273) (427) (615) (837) (1090) (1380) (1710) (2460) (3350) (4380) (5540) (6170) (6840) (7540) (8270) (9840) (11600) (13400) (15400) (17500) (22100)
96 119 41.1 73.1 114 164 224 292 370 457 658 895 1170 1480 1650 1830 2010 2210 2630 3090 3580 4110 4680 5920
(662) (36.4) (155) (276) (432) (622) (846) (1110) (1400) (1730) (2490) (3390) (4420) (5600) (6240) (6910) (7620) (8360) (9950) (11700) (13500) (15500) (17700) (22400)
98 121 41.5 73.9 115 166 226 295 374 462 665 905 1180 1500 1670 1850 2040 2230 2660 3120 3620 4150 4730 5980
(676) (36.8) (157) (279) (436) (628) (855) (1120) (1410) (1750) (2510) (3420) (4470) (5660) (6300) (6980) (7700) (8450) (10100) (11800) (13700) (15700) (17900) (22600)
100 122 42.0 74.6 117 168 228 298 378 466 671 914 1190 1510 1680 1870 2060 2260 2690 3150 3660 4200 4770 6040

10–79
(689) (37.1) (159) (282) (441) (634) (864) (1130) (1430) (1760) (2540) (3450) (4510) (5710) (6360) (7050) (7770) (8530) (10200) (11900) (13800) (15900) (18000) (22800)
105 125 43.0 76.4 119 172 234 306 387 478 688 936 1220 1550 1720 1910 2110 2310 2750 3230 3750 4300 3890 6190
(724) (38.1) (163) (289) (452) (650) (885) (1160) (1460) (1810) (2600) (3540) (4620) (5850) (6520) (7230) (7970) (8740) (10400) (12200) (14200) (16300) (18500) (23400)
110 128 44.0 78.2 122 176 240 313 396 489 704 958 1250 1580 1770 1960 2160 2370 2820 3310 3830 4400 5010 6340
(758) (38.9) (166) (296) (462) (666) (906) (1180) (1500) (1850) (2660) (3620) (4730) (5990) (6670) (7400) (8150) (8950) (10600) (12500) (14500) (16600) (18900) (24000)
115 131 45.0 80.0 125 180 245 320 405 500 720 980 1280 1620 1800 2000 2200 2420 2880 3380 3920 4500 5120 6480
(793) (39.8) (170) (302) (473) (681) (926) (1210) (1530) (1890) (2720) (3710) (4840) (6130) (6820) (7560) (8340) (9150) (10900) (12800) (14800) (17000) (19400) (24500)
120 134 46.0 81.7 128 184 250 327 414 511 735 1000 1310 1650 1840 2040 2250 2470 2940 3450 4000 4600 5230 6620
(827) (40.7) (174) (309) (483) (695) (946) (1240) (1560) (1930) (2780) (3790) (4940) (6260) (6970) (7720) (8520) (9350) (11100) (13100) (15100) (17400) (19800) (25000)
125 136 46.9 83.4 130 188 255 334 422 521 751 1020 1330 1690 1880 2090 2300 2520 3000 3520 4090 4690 5340 6760
(862) (41.5) (177) (315) (493) (710) (966) (1260) (1600) (1970) (2840) (3860) (5050) (6390) (7120) (7880) (8690) (9540) (11400) (13300) (15500) (17700) (20200) (25500)
130 139 47.8 85.1 133 191 260 340 431 532 766 1040 1360 1720 1920 2130 2340 2570 3060 3590 4170 4780 5440 6890
(896) (42.3) (181) (322) (502) (724) (985) (1290) (1630) (2010) (2890) (3940) (5150) (6510) (7260) (8040) (8860) (9730) (11600) (13600) (15800) (18100) (20600) (26000)
135 142 48.8 86.7 135 195 265 347 439 542 780 1060 1390 1760 1960 2170 2390 2620 3120 3660 4250 4880 5550 7020
(931) (43.1) (184) (328) (512) (737) (1000) (1310) (1660) (2050) (2950) (4010) (5240) (6640) (7390) (8190) (9030) (9910) (11800) (13800) (16100) (18400) (21000) (26500)
140 144 49.7 88.3 138 199 270 353 447 552 794 1080 1410 1790 1990 2210 2430 2670 3180 3730 4330 4970 5650 7150
(965) (43.9) (188) (334) (521) (751) (1020) (1330) (1690) (2090) (3000) (4090) (5340) (6760) (7530) (8340) (9200) (10100) (12000) (14100) (16400) (18800) (21400) (27000)
145 147 50.5 89.8 140 202 275 359 455 561 808 1100 1440 1820 2030 2250 2480 2720 3230 3800 4400 5050 5750 7280
(1000) (44.7) (191) (340) (531) (764) (1040) (1360) (1720) (2120) (3060) (4160) (5430) (6880) (7660) (8490) (9360) (10300) (12200) (14300) (16600) (19100) (21700) (27500)
150 149 51.4 91.4 143 206 280 365 463 571 822 1120 1460 1850 2060 2280 2520 2760 3290 3860 4480 5140 5850 7400
(1030) (45.4) (194) (345) (539) (776) (1060) (1380) (1750) (2150) (3100) (4220) (5520) (6980) (7780) (8620) (9500) (10400) (12400) (14600) (16900) (19400) (22100) (27900)
10–80 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

From the previous discussion in this chapter on velocity head, it procedures using this definition. The actual rate of flow is mea-
is known that sured by calibrated meters, or “weigh tanks.” The theoretical
ƒ flow is calculated using cd C 1.0, the carefully measured orifice
Q C a 2gh
or nozzle diameter, and the measured velocity pressure in the
and h (ft) C 2.307p (psi). It follows that, with the orifice diam- flow equation.
eter in inches, Q in gal/min, and h in psi,
9d 2 ƒ
Standard Orifice
Q C 60 ? 7.4805 ? 64.4 ? 2.3077p=
4 ? 144 An orifice with a sharp entrance edge, shown as form (1) in Fig-
ƒ ure 10.5.4, is known as a standard orifice, and is commonly used
Q C 29.84d 2 p=
to measure water flow. If the shape of the orifice is changed so
In SI units, the flow formula is expressed as as to decrease the contraction, its capacity will be increased.
ƒ Form 1 in the illustration is a standard orifice having a sharp
Qm C 0.0666d m2 p=m
edge on the approach side. Form 2, when in a thin plate, gives
where the same stream characteristics as Form 1. Form 3 is the reverse
Qm C flow rate (L/m) of 1. In Form 4, the edge is rounded to conform to the shape of
d m C inside diameter (mm) the stream. The coefficients of discharge of 3 and 4 are greater
than those of the standard orifices, approaching a value of 1.0 in
p=m C velocity pressure (kPa) the case of 4. As water leaves the orifice, it contracts to form a
The above equations (and tables derived therefrom) assume jet whose cross-sectional area is less than that of the orifice. The
that (1) the jet is a solid stream the full size of the discharge ori- contraction is complete at the plane a ′, which is located a dis-
fice, and (2) 100 percent of the available total head is converted tance from the plane of the orifice equal to approximately half
to velocity head, which is uniform over the cross section. This is the diameter of the jet (Figure 10.5.5).
a theoretical situation only, however, as these two conditions are The quantity flowing is obviously the same at the orifice a
not totally attainable, as the following discussion will show. as at the contracted section a ′, so the quantity flowing could be
obtained by measuring the velocity and area at either of these
planes. Expressed in a formula, where Q is cu ft/s (m3/s), = is ve-
COEFFICIENTS OF FLOW locity in ft/s (m/s), and a is the area in sq ft (m2),

## In actual flow from nozzles or orifices, the velocity, considered Q C =a C =′a ′

to be average velocity across the entire cross section of the
stream, is somewhat less than the velocity calculated from the
head. The reduction is due to friction of the water against the noz-
zle or orifice and turbulence within the nozzle, and is accounted
for by a coefficient of velocity, designated c=. Values of c= are de-
termined by laboratory tests. With well-designed nozzles, the
coefficient of velocity is nearly constant and is approximately
equal to 0.98.
Some nozzles are designed so that the actual cross-sectional
area of the stream is somewhat less than the cross-sectional area
of the orifice. This difference is accounted for by the coefficient
of contraction, designated cc. Coefficients of contraction vary
greatly with the design and quality of the orifice or nozzle. For (1) (2) (3) (4)
a sharp-edged orifice, the value of cc is about 0.62.
The coefficients of velocity and contraction are usually FIGURE 10.5.4 Orifices of Various Shapes
combined as a single coefficient of discharge, designated cd:
cd C c= ? cc
The basic flow equation can now be written as
ƒ
Q C 29.8cd4 d 2 p=
In SI units the formula is v a a' v'

ƒ
Q C 0.0666cd d m2 p=m
The coefficient of discharge, cd, is defined as the ratio of the
actual discharge to the theoretical discharge. For any specific
orifice or nozzle, values of cd are determined by standard test FIGURE 10.5.5 Flow Through a Standard Orifice
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–81

## The coefficient of discharge for a standard orifice is the

product of the coefficient of velocity and the coefficient of con- h
traction, or c C 0.98 ? 0.62 C 0.61. v

Other Orifices
The hydraulic characteristics of good solid-stream nozzles are
consistent within a wide range of flow conditions. The velocity
at the surface of the stream of most such nozzles is reduced
slightly by friction against the orifice or nozzle. A coefficient of
FIGURE 10.5.7 Flow in Cylindrical Short Tube
velocity of 0.97 is usually applied to nozzles of fire stream sizes
to account for this friction.
Coefficients of discharge are available for the flow through
hydrants, hose nozzles, automatic sprinklers, and other common
fire protection discharge outlets. Representative values for the h
coefficients of discharge are given in Table 10.5.2. Again, these
coefficients only apply when there is flow through the full ori- a'
fice or nozzle opening with a reasonably uniform velocity pro- β
file. Three general types of hydrant outlets and their coefficients
of discharge are shown in Figure 10.5.6.

## Flow in Short Tubes

FIGURE 10.5.8 Flow in Short Conical Converging Tube
A tube attached to an orifice is known as a standard short tube if
it is 2½ to 3 times longer than the diameter of the orifice, and its

diameter is the same as the orifice. A shorter tube will not flow
TABLE 10.5.2 Typical Discharge Coefficients of Solid
full, and friction losses in a longer tube will affect results when
Stream Nozzle used as a measuring device, hence the specified length limit.
The characteristics of a standard short tube and a short
Spray sprinkler, average (nominal 1/2-in. dia.) 0.75 conical converging tube are shown in Figures 10.5.7 and 10.5.8,
Spray sprinkler, average (nominal 17/32-in. dia.) 0.95 respectively. The principles of flow in orifices apply, but with
Large-drop sprinkler (0.64 in. dia.) 0.90 different coefficients. With the conical tube, the coefficients c=
Standard orifice (sharp edge) 0.62 and cc vary with the angle +. When + is 0 degrees, the converg-
Smooth-bore nozzles, general 0.96–0.98 ing tube becomes a cylindrical tube, with cc C 1 and c= C 0.82;
Underwriter playpipes or equal 0.97 cd is then 0.82. As the angle + increases, the coefficient of con-
Deluge or monitor nozzles 0.997 traction (cc) develops, and the coefficient of velocity (c=) in-
Open pipe, burred opening 0.80 creases, approaching the 0.98 value for a sharp-edge orifice.
Open pipe, smooth, well rounded 0.90
Relations are such that the coefficient of discharge attains a max-
Hydrant butt, smooth and well-rounded outlet, 0.90
imum value of 0.94, with a + angle of about 13 degrees.
flowing fulla
Hydrant butt, square and sharp at hydrant barrela 0.82
Hydrant butt, outlet square, projecting into barrela 0.70 FLOW MEASUREMENT
a
See Figure 10.5.6.
Pitot Tube Method of Measuring Flow
The most commonly used method of measuring flow in an open
stream discharging from an orifice, nozzle, or open pipe is by di-
rect measurement of the velocity head that produces the flow.
This measurement process makes use of the well-known Pitot
tube and pressure gage combination of which representative
forms are shown in Section 10, Chapter 6, “Determining Water
When the small opening [usually not over 1/16 in. (1.6 mm)
Outlet smooth Outlet square Outlet square and
in diameter] is inserted into the center of a stream at the point of
and well-rounded and sharp projecting into barrel maximum contraction, with the opening directly in the line of
coef. 0.90 coef. 0.80 coef. 0.70 flow, the gage will indicate the total head at that location. With
FIGURE 10.5.6 Three Types of Hydrant Outlets and the stream open to the atmosphere, there will be no pressure
10–82 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

thus the velocity of the stream can be calculated directly. As a re- Nozzle Method of Measuring Flow
sult, velocity pressure is sometimes referred to as Pitot pressure.
If the area of the cross-section of the stream at the location The rate of discharge can also be calculated from the gage pres-
of the velocity measurement location is known, the quantity flow- sure at the base of the nozzle. The flow formula for using base
‚ pressure is
ing can be determined from the relation,
ƒ Q C a= C 29.84d d 2 p
ƒ
or in SI units, Qm C 0.0666cd d m2 p=m, previously derived. In 29.84cd 2 p1
practice, discharge tables are usually used to determine the flow QC ˆ‡ ‹ 4

† d
from hydrants and nozzles (see Table 10.5.1). 1 > c2
A typical Pitot tube as used in the measuring of the flow D
from a fire stream nozzle is shown in Figure 10.5.9. For the usual where
forms of orifices and nozzles, the coefficient of discharge (cd) is Q C flow in gallons per minute
accurately known, so that a C cd ? actual discharge opening.
For example, with a sharp-edge orifice the area of the stream c C coefficient of discharge
may be determined from the actual diameter of the orifice open- d C diameter of outlet (in.)
ing and the use of the 0.62 coefficient of discharge, as outlined p1 C gage pressure at base of nozzle (psi)
in the previous section on flow-through orifices. D C inside diameter of fitting to which gage is attached (in.)
When measuring flow from a straight stream fire nozzle,
the use of the Pitot tube method only holds with reasonable ac- For SI units, the formula is expressed as
curacy for tip sizes up to 13/8 in. (35 mm) supplied from 2½-in. ƒ
0.0666cd m2 p1m
(64-mm) hose. Above that, the error rate increases beyond ac- Qm C ˆ‡
‡ Œ ÷4
ceptable limits, as the assumptions of uniform velocity and full ‡
†1 > c 2 d m
flow become less valid. An exception is the Underwriters play- Dm
pipe which maintains a uniform coefficient over a wide range of
flows and pressures for tip sizes of 11/8 or 1¾ in. (29 or 45 mm). where
The Pitot tube method is also commonly used to measure Qm C flow (L/min)
the flow discharging from the outlets of fire hydrants to deter- c C coefficient of discharge
mine the water supply available for fire protection. Unlike the
d m C diameter of outlet (mm)
flow entering a nozzle on the end of a pipe or hose line, the flow
through large hydrant outlets, or through smaller hydrant outlets p1m C gage pressure at base of nozzle (kPa)
at high velocities, has neither a uniform velocity profile nor full Dm C inside diameter of fitting to which gage is attached
flow, since the additional turbulence generated by the flow pass- (mm)
ing through the hydrant has not dissipated.
This is the same formula that is used for discharge from an
In cases such as these, the flow conditions must be changed
orifice, except that (1) gage pressure at the base of the nozzle is
so that the assumptions needed for the Pitot tube method are
substituted for Pitot pressure, and (2) a factor is added that repre-
valid, or an alternative method, such as the one described next
sents the ratio between gage pressure (normal) and total pressure
under “The Nozzle Method of Measuring Flow,” should be used.
at the nozzle base. (Total pressure is gage plus velocity pressure.)
If flow is from an open hydrant outlet, hoses and nozzles, a re-
When base pressure is to be used, the gage is attached to a
ducer, or a short tube can often be connected to the outlet to im-
fitting close to the nozzle with a straight piece of approach pipe
prove the flow characteristics.
or hose to eliminate turbulence or unstable flow conditions. To
obtain greater accuracy than provided by a simple fitting, a
piezometer fitting may be used. With this device, the gage is
connected to an annular tube or channel having a number of
small holes drilled into the waterway around the circumference.
The mean or resultant static pressure indicated by the gage is p1
in the formula above.
Although accurate and convenient for fixed test arrange-
ments, the measurement of pressure at the base of a nozzle is not
practical for usual hose stream operations. However, because a
Pitot gage is useless with spray-type nozzles, or other devices
producing special types of discharge, the base pressure method
is necessary.

Discharge Calculations
The most common method of estimating nozzle or orifice dis-
charge is to use Table 10.5.1. The flow from the table, corre-
sponding to the measured Pitot pressure and orifice diameter, is
FIGURE 10.5.9 Taking Nozzle Pressure with a Pitot Tube multiplied by the discharge coefficient (see Table 10.5.2).
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–83

EXAMPLE 1: A Pitot reading of 20 psi was measured on an To simplify calculations for a specific orifice or nozzle, the
open 2½-in. smooth and well-rounded hydrant butt. From Table constants in the flow formula can be combined, reducing the for-
10.5.2, the discharge coefficient is 0.90. The theoretical flow mula to
for a 20-psi velocity head is 834 gpm. The discharge is Q C ƒ
QCk p
834 ? 0.90 C 751 gpm. (Or subtract 10 percent from 834 and
get 751 gpm.) where k combines the constants 29.84 (0.0666 in SI units), cd,
EXAMPLE 2: A Pitot reading was 200 kPa at a 38.1-mm pipe
and d 2. Table 10.5.3 lists k factors of some common discharge
with a square sharp opening (discharge coefficient C 0.80). From orifices used for fire protection. For SI units, use the Km values.
Table 10.5.1, 200 kPa gives a theoretical flow of 1370 L/min. The Because
actual flow would be 0.8 ? 1370 C 1100 L/min. Q
kCƒ
Discharge curves, such as those shown in Figure 10.5.10, p
are available for many nozzles and are sufficiently accurate for
most fire flow calculations. These usually incorporate the spe- the k values of spray nozzles can be calculated from data in test-
cific discharge coefficients for the nozzle involved, but occa- ing laboratory listings of nozzles. For some nozzles, the flow
sionally plot theoretical flow. Nozzle discharge can also be
determined by the standard formulas previously discussed. (See TABLE 10.5.3 Values of k for Various Discharge Orifices
“Flow of Water through Orifices” and “The Nozzle Method of
Nominal
Measuring Flow” in this chapter).
Diameter K-Factor
Type of
EXAMPLE 3: Calculate the rate of discharge from a 2-in. Orifice (in.) (mm) gpm/p 1/2
Lpm/Pm1/2
(51-mm) nozzle with a pressure measured by a 2½-in. (64-mm)
piezometer ring and gage of 80 psi (552 kPa) at the base of the Sprinkler 1/4 7 1.3–1.5 1.9–2.2
nozzle. The nozzle has a coefficient of discharge of 0.99. Sprinkler 5/16 8 1.8–2.0 2.6–2.9
Using the formula for the nozzle method of measuring flow, Sprinkler 3/8 10 2.6–2.9 3.7–4.2
ƒ
29.84cd 2 p1 Sprinkler 7/16 11 4.0–4.4 5.8–6.3
QC ˆ ‡ ‹ 4 Sprinkler 1/2 13 5.3–5.8 7.6–8.4

† 2 d Sprinkler 17/32 14 7.4–8.2 10.6–11.8
1>c
D Sprinkler 5/8 16 11.0–11.5 15.9–16.6
ƒ Sprinkler 3/4 19 13.5–14.5 19.5–20.1
29.84 ? 0.99 ? (2)2 80 Sprinkler 25/32 19.8 16.0–17.6 23.1–25.4
QC ‡ ˆ ‹ 4
‡ Sprinkler 15/16 23.6 23.9–26.5 38.9–43.0
† 2
1 > (0.99)2
2.5 Nozzle 1/2 13 7.2 10.3
Q C 1366 gpm (5171 L/min). Nozzle 7/8 22 22.2 32.0
Nozzle 1 25 29.1 41.9
Nozzle 1 1/16 27 32.8 47.2
Pitot tube pressures (kPa) Nozzle 1 1/8 29 36.8 53.0
69 138 207 276 345 414 483 552 621 690 758 827
Nozzle 1 3/16 30 41.0 59.0
1400 5.29 Nozzle 1 1/4 32 45.4 65.4
1300 4.92 Nozzle 1 5/16 33 50.1 72.1
Nozzle 1 3/8 35 54.9 79.1
1200 4.54
m)

4m

(6
tt
bu

nt

)
m
dra

## m Nozzle 1 1/2 38 65.4 94.2

Discharge (m2\min)

1
hy

900 (5 3.41
le Nozzle 1 9/16 40 70.9 102.0
pen
Discharge (gpm)

zz )
no mm Nozzle 1 5/8 41 76.8 110.6
"O

800 th 3.03
oo e (44
l
2 !s

700
m
no
z z
2.65 Nozzle 1 11/16 43 82.8 119.2
S

th
2"

## moo Nozzle 1 3/4 44 89.0 128.2

)
600 "S mm 2.27
1 #f (38 Nozzle 1 13/16 46 95.5 137.5
zle
noz
500 mo
oth 1.90 Nozzle 1 7/8 48 102.0 146.9
"S mm)
1 s! e ( 32 ) Nozzle 2 15/16 49 109.0 157.0
Feeble fair good excellent

## 400 ozzl (64 mm 1.51

th n nozzle
" Smo o
k
! "s mo th
o Nozzle 2 51 116.0 167.0
1 f! 1 5 mm)
300 with zzle (2 1.14
Hose ooth no
2 s! " 1" Sm n ozzle (22
m m)
oo th Hydrant butt 2 51 107.4 154.7
&k " S m 0.75
200
k% " Smooth nozzle
(16 mm) (c = 0.90)
100 s! " Smooth nozzle (13 mm)
0.40 Hydrant butt 2 1/4 57 135.9 195.7
!s " Sprinkler (13 mm) 0 (c = 0.90)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Hydrant butt 2 1/2 64 167.8 241.6
Pitot tube pressures (psi)
(c = 0.90)
FIGURE 10.5.10 Relative Discharge Curves
10–84 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

rate at 25 and 125 psi (170 and 162 kPa) pressure is given, from In Figure 10.5.11,
which the k factor can be calculated. p1
EXAMPLE 4: A certain fire service spray nozzle is rated for w
83 gpm at 50 psi. Therefore,
is represented by h1, and
83 83 p2
kCƒ C C 11.7
50 7.07 w
At 25 psi pressure, the discharge would be by h2, which are used in the following equations.
ƒ The quantity of liquid passing through all portions of the
11.7 25 C 11.7 ? 5 C 58.5 gpm
Venturi meter must be the same. Therefore,
EXAMPLE 5: Determine the discharge from a 51-mm hydrant
butt (cd C 90) at a pressure of 350 kPa. Q Q
Q C a1=1 C a2=2 or =1 C or =2 C
a1 a2
k m C 0.0666cd m2 C 0.0666 ? 0.90 ? 512 C 156
Substituting in Bernoulli’s theorem,
Thus, Œ ÷2 Œ ÷2
ƒ ƒ Q Q
Qm C k m pm C 156 350 C 2918 L/min a1 a2
= h1 C = h2
Alternatively, from Table 10.5.3, k m C 154.7. 2g 2g
Thus, Œ ÷2 Œ ÷2
ƒ ƒ Q Q
Qm C k m pm C 154.7 350 C 2894 L/min a2 a1
> C h1 > h2
2g 2g
Flow Meters Œ ÷
1 1
When it is not convenient to discharge water to the atmosphere, Q2 2 > 2 C 2g(h1 > h2)
a2 a1
meters are used to determine flow. Œ ÷
2 2
2 a1 > a2
Venturi Tube. The Venturi principle has a number of applica- Q C 2g(h1 > h2)
a12a22
tions in fire protection. The Venturi tube is essentially a tapered
constriction in a pipe. In the constricted part, the velocity must a1a2 ƒ
QC ƒ 2g(h1 > h2)
be greater than in the straight tube, and the pressure is corre- a12 > a22
spondingly less, in accordance with Bernoulli’s theorem. If the
increase in velocity through the restricted portion is sufficient, For any specific Venturi meter, a1 and a2 are known con-
the pressure at that point will be less than atmospheric, and a stant values. There is also a friction loss coefficient, which is
suction will be created at any opening into the side of the tube. usually determined by test and which does not remain constant
The Venturi tube is illustrated in Figure 10.5.11. The diverging with very low velocities. Combining the known constant values,
portion of a Venturi tube serves only to restore the system pres- the Venturi meter formula is generally expressed as
ˆ

sure with a minimum of friction loss. ƒ ‡p p
Q C k h1 > h2, or Q C k † 1 > 2
w w
Venturi Meter. The Venturi principle as applied in the Venturi
meter for the measurement of flow in closed pipelines under By test, a value of k for any specific meter can be estab-
pressure is as follows. lished with reasonable accuracy, thus allowing the measurement
With no elevation difference along the line of flow, of flow to be calculated from the pressure differential across the
Bernoulli’s theorem becomes meter.
When used as a device for inducing gas or liquid into the
=21 p =2 p
= 1 = 0C 2 = 2 = 0 stream, as is made possible by the reduced pressure, in the throat
2g w 2g w section, the hydraulic performance will not be in strict accor-
dance with the above theoretical calculations because energy is
expended on the induced substance.
h₄
h₁ h₃ Orifice Meters. When water flows through a thin sharp-edged
h₂ orifice (such as the standard orifice discussed earlier) within a
V₁ V₃ = V₁
pipe, the flow diameter contracts the same way it does when the
Area a ₁ Area a ₃ = a ₁
V₂ flow discharges to atmosphere, and then increases back to the
Area a ₂ full pipeline diameter. The pressure at the pipe wall is reduced
due to this change in flow, and is related to the flow rate (Figure
FIGURE 10.5.11 The Venturi Tube 10.5.12).
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–85

C
1.3

1.2
d1
β= d = 0.80
1.1 2
= 0.75
1.0 = 0.70
= 0.65
0.9 = 0.60
= 0.50
0.8

d₂ 0.7
d₂
2
0.6 d1
β= d = 0.40
0.5 2
= 0.30
d₂ = 0 to 0.20
d₁ 0.4

0.3
3 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 80 10² 2 4 6 8 10³ 2 4 6 8 10⁴

e
C d1/d2 = β
Flow
0.78

Cd 0.76
C=
√ I – β⁴ 0.74
0.75

## Ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter

0.72 0.725

0.70 0.70

0.68
0.65
0.66
0.60
0.64
0.55
0.62 0.50
0.45
0.60 0.40
0.30
0.20
0.58
2 4 6 8 10⁴ 2 4 6 8 10⁵ 2 4 6 8 10⁶
R e (Reynolds number based on d 2 )

## Bernoulli’s equation can be applied to an orifice meter in FLOW OF WATER IN PIPES

the same way as it is applied to the Venturi meter. The resultant
k factor or discharge coefficient depends upon several factors, The theory of liquid flow in pipes involves the same continuity
including the ratio of orifice/pipe diameter and the location of principles used in the previous discussions. These include con-
the pressure taps upstream and downstream of the orifice. tinuity of energy (Bernoulli’s theorem with friction) and conti-
nuity of flow.
ASME Flow Nozzle. Flow can also be measured by an ASME When water flows through a pipe, there is always a drop
flow nozzle, as shown in Figure 10.5.13. The pressure taps for in pressure. Theoretically, the lost head between two points is
this device are normally one pipe diameter upstream of the noz- caused by (1) friction between the moving water and the pipe
zle and one-half pipe diameter downstream from the nozzle wall and (2) friction between water particles, including that
inlet. Combining known constant values, the Venturi meter for- produced by turbulence when flow changes direction or when
mula is generally expressed as a rapid increase or decrease in velocity takes place, such as
ˆ at abrupt changes in pipe diameter. A change in velocity results
ƒ ‡
‡p p in some conversion of velocity head to pressure head, or vice
Q C k h1 > h2, or Q C k † 1 > 2
w w versa.
10–86 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

C d₁/d₂ = β
d₂ 1.20 0.75
d₂
2
1.18
0.725
1.16

## Ratio of nozzle diameter to pipe diameter

1.14 0.70
d₂ d₁
1.12
0.675
1.10 0.65

1.08 0.625
Flow 0.60
1.06
0.575
Cd 0.55
1.04
d₁
C= β= 0.50
√ I – β⁴ d₂ 1.02 0.45
0.40
1.00 0.30
0.20
0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92
2 4 6 8 10⁴ 2 4 6 8 10⁵ 2 4 6 8 10⁶ 2

## FIGURE 10.5.13 Flow Coefficient C for ASME Flow Nozzles

At low velocity in a smooth pipe, very little turbulence is Friction (Head) Loss Flow Formulas
produced, and the flow is called “laminar” or “streamline” flow.
With this condition, all particles of water move along the pipe in Experimental data have established that frictional resistance in
definite paths, which are essentially straight lines, in concentric a pipe is
layers. Friction loss occurs due to shear stress, mainly in a thin
1. Independent of pressure in the pipe
boundary layer at the pipe wall, and also between adjacent
2. Proportional to the amount and character of the flow
stream layers. The friction loss is small compared to that of tur-
3. Variable with the velocity of the flow (nearly proportional
bulent flow.
to the second power of the velocity for velocities above the
The flow within either a smooth or a rough pipe remains
critical; if velocity is below critical, resistance varies with
laminar until the velocity reaches what is called critical veloc-
the first power).
ity. At this point, there is a range of unstable flow which is nei-
ther laminar nor completely turbulent. This is called the
transition zone. The Chezy Formula. One of the best-known and oldest ex-
As the flow continues to increase, it becomes turbulent. In pressions relating velocity to friction loss in piping is known as
turbulent flow the fluid moves in an eddying mass, and, at any the Chezy formula:
point, the individual water particles move rapidly in a random ƒ
v C c rs
manner rather than in a straight line.
Reynolds demonstrated that for any fluid, the critical point where
at which the flow changes from laminar to turbulent could be c C a factor that is dependent on the kind and roughness of
predicted. In circular pipes, the critical point occurs when the di- the pipe;
mensionless parameter d=:/5 (called the Reynolds number) is
approximately 2000. The transition to complete turbulence is r (the hydraulic radius) C area/circumference C d/4, where
complete for Reynolds numbers exceeding 4000. d C diameter of the pipe in ft (m); and
Most fire protection systems and water distribution mains s C the hydraulic slope C h/l C slope of hydraulic gradient
function under turbulent flow conditions, and friction losses in which h is the head loss in length of pipe l in ft (m).
within the pipe itself account for most of the lost head. Other (See Section 10, Chapter 2, “Fixed Water Storage Fa-
losses are usually considered together and are called “minor cilities for Fire Protection,” for a discussion of hy-
losses” or “losses in fittings.” draulic gradients.)
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–87

## Therefore, at a specific temperature, regardless of pressure and the rate of

ƒ shear.) The friction factor f is dimensionless and variable, and
4lv 2
v C c d/4 ? h/l or h C 2 depends on the pipe roughness and the Reynolds number.
cd
The value of f can be computed by the Colebrook-White
The Darcy-Weisbach Formula. Another classic formula for equation, which is neither a completely empirical nor rigidly
friction loss, applicable to long, straight pipes of uniform diame- theoretical formula. This equation is usually written as
ter and roughness, is ascribed to Darcy, Manning, Fanning, and  ā
others. In modern textbooks, the formula is derived by analysis of 1 . 2.51
ƒ C >2 log10 Ÿ = ƒ
forces acting on a flowing particle of water in a pipe. Often called f 3.7D R f
the Darcy-Weisbach formula, it is a variation of Chezy’s formula,
with a friction factor f replacing c, and expressed as follows: where
l v 2 . C a linear measure of roughness
hCf
d 2g f C the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor
where D C the pipe diameter (ft)
h C friction head R C the Reynolds number
f C friction factor (For SI units: 1 ft C 0.305 m.)
l C length of pipe Computing f by the formula can be avoided by using tables
d C diameter of pipe and charts known as “Moody” diagrams.
v C velocity Figure 10.5.14 is a Moody diagram (© Hydraulic Institute,
1954) from which f can be read directly off the chart. Values for
g C acceleration of gravity
friction factor are on the vertical scale, at left. The dimensionless
The Darcy-Weisbach formula is suitable for all Newtonian parameter, ./D, is sometimes difficult to obtain, and it may be
fluids. (A Newtonian fluid is one where the viscosity is constant necessary to assume a value for ./D, based on experience and

0.10
0.09

## 0.08 Laminar Critical Transition

flow zone zone Complete turbulence rough pipe
0.05
0.07
0.04
0.06
0.03

0.05
0.02
Lam - 64

0.015
fR
inar

0.04
0.01
flow

0.008
0.006
0.03
f₁

Relative roughness ( Dε )
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.0015
0.02 0.001
0.0008
0.0006
0.0004
0.015 0.0003
0.0002
0.00015
0.0001
0.00008
0.00006
0.01 0.00004
0.00003
0.009 0.00002
0.000015
0.008 0.00001
10³ 2 3 4 5 6 8 10⁴ 2 3 4 5 6 8 10⁵ 2 3 4 5 6 8 10⁶ 2 3 4 5 6 8 10⁷ 2 3 4 5 6 8 10⁸
0.00 0.00000
Reynolds number (R) 000 5
1

## FIGURE 10.5.14 Moody Diagram for Friction in Pipe

10–88 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

judgment. The roughness factor of new pipe usually can be pro- which is the formula normally used for fire protection purposes.
vided by the manufacturer. The derived constant 4.64 is slightly different than the normally
accepted constant of 4.52 due to rounding errors in the deriva-
The Hazen-Williams Formula. The friction-flow formulas tion and the constants in the original formula. The remainder of
commonly used in fire protection hydraulics have been devel- this discussion will use the generally accepted formula with a
oped by experiment and experience. These formulas (which are constant of 4.52.
variations of the Chezy formula) are usually exponential in the In SI units the formula is
form v C Cr xs y, where v is velocity, c the coefficient of friction,
r the hydraulic radius (area divided by circumference), and s the Qm1.85
pm C 6.06 ? ? 102
hydraulic slope (loss of head divided by length). The most pop- c 1.85d m4.87
ular exponential formula is the Hazen-Williams, its basic form
where
being v C 1.31cr 0.63s 0.54. The friction coefficients in formulas
of this type are constant for a specific roughness of pipe and are pm C pressure loss (kPa) per m of pipe
independent of velocity, and thus the accuracy of these formu- Qm C rate of flow (L/min)
las is variable. However, the fixed values generally assumed for d m C inside diameter (mm)
viscosity and density are considered adequate for most fire pro-
tection hydraulic work.
Friction Loss Calculations. The solutions of many fire pro-
The basic form of the Hazen-Williams formula (v C
tection problems involving pipe flow and friction do not require
1.31Cr 0.63s 0.54) is not practical for ordinary fire protection flow
direct calculation using formulas, since tables and charts are
calculations. The form normally used is expressed in terms of
readily available. However, in using the simplifying charts and
pressure loss in psi rather than velocity, in terms of actual diameter
tables, great care must be taken to identify the C value (coeffi-
rather than the hydraulic radius, and in terms of flow in gpm.
cient of friction) on which the chart or table is based. Where the
Because the hydraulic radius is the area divided by the cir-
type or condition of a pipe necessitates the use of a different C
cumference, it can be expressed as
value, the friction loss from the table must be multiplied by a
Area 9d 2/4 d conversion factor to obtain the correct results for the desired C
rC C C
Circumference 9d 4 value.
By way of illustration, Table 10.5.4 gives values of p when
where the diameter is in terms of ft or C C 100 for standard pipe sizes from ½ in. to 30 in. in diameter.
d 1 ft d For values of C other than 100, the tabular value losses are mul-
rC ? C tiplied by the corresponding factor in Table 10.5.5. Where a dif-
4 12 in. 48
ferent type of pipe is used, the friction loss from the table can be
where the diameter is expressed in inches corrected using the formula
The hydraulic scope (s) is simply the pressure loss divided
Œ ÷4.87
by the length. The Hazen-Williams formula is usually used to d 40
determine the pressure loss per ft of pipe, so the length is 1 and !pa C !p40
da
can be replaced by the pressure loss (p), again in ft.
Because we want to use flow rather than velocity, we know where
from the discussion on velocity pressure that !pa C actual friction loss
Q 0.4085Q !p40 C friction loss in Schedule 40 pipe
vC C
a d2 d 40 C internal diameter of Schedule 40 pipe
where Q is expressed in gallons per minute and d is expressed in d a C internal diameter of actual pipe
inches. Substituting,
EXAMPLE: Determine the friction loss with 700 gpm, flowing
‹ 0.63
0.4085Q d in 700 ft of 8-in. cast-iron pipe having a C value of 80.
C 1.31C (2.31p).54
d2 48
SOLUTION: From Table 10.5.4, the loss for 700 gpm per 100 ft
Solving for p we get of 8-in. pipe with C C 100 is 0.662 psi. From Table 10.5.5, the
factor for C C 80 is 1.51. Because friction loss is directly propor-
0.4085Q/d 2 0.3118Q tional to the length of pipe, multiply 0.662 ? 7 ? 1.51 C 6.95 psi
(2.31p).54 C C (answer). Since other than Schedule 40 steel pipe is used, this
1.31C (d/48)0.63 Cd 2 (d/48)0.63
value must be adjusted using the previously discussed formula.
0.31181/0.54Q1/0.54 Œ ÷4.87
2.31p C 1/0.54 2/0.54
C d (d/48)0.63/0.54 d 40
!pa C !p40
0.31181.85Q1.85 0.11579Q1.85 da
C 1.85 3.7 1.17 C ‹ 4.87
C d (d/48) C 1.85d 4.87/481.17
8.071
C 6.95
4.64Q1.85 4.52Q1.85 8.23
pC 1.85 4.87 ≅
C d C 1.85d 4.87 C 6.32 psi
TABLE 10.5.4 Friction Loss in Pipe
lb/in.2 per 100 ft of Pipe
Hazen-Williams C = 100a

## Actual Diameter of Pipe ½ through 3½ in.b,c

Nominal Diameter of Pipe for 4 through 30 in.c
gpm ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 gpm

## 5 17.9 4.55 1.40 0.369 0.174 0.052 — — — — 5

10 64.5 16.4 5.06 1.33 0.629 0.186 0.078 0.030 — — 10
15 34.7 10.7 2.82 1.33 0.394 0.166 0.064 0.028 — 15
20 5 59.1 18.2 4.89 2.27 0.671 0.282 0.109 0.048 0.027 20
30 0.019 6 38.6 10.2 4.80 1.42 0.598 0.231 0.102 0.057 30
40 0.033 — 65.8 17.3 8.17 2.42 1.02 0.393 0.174 0.097 40
50 0.050 .020 8 26.2 12.3 3.66 1.54 0.593 0.263 0.147 50
60 0.069 .029 — 36.6 17.3 5.12 2.16 0.831 0.369 0.206 60
70 0.092 .038 — 48.7 23.0 6.81 2.87 1.11 0.490 0.274 70
80 0.118 .049 — 62.4 29.4 8.72 3.67 1.41 0.628 0.350 80
90 0.147 .060 — 77.6 36.6 10.8 4.56 1.76 0.781 0.435 90
100 0.178 .074 — 10 44.5 13.1 5.55 2.14 0.949 0.529 100
120 0.250 .103 — — 62.3 18.5 7.77 3.00 1.33 0.741 120
140 0.333 .137 0.034 — 82.9 24.6 10.3 3.98 1.77 0.986 140
160 0.426 .175 0.043 — 106.0 31.4 13.2 5.10 2.26 1.26 160
180 0.529 .218 0.054 0.018 12 39.1 16.5 6.34 2.81 1.57 180
200 0.643 .265 0.065 0.022 — 47.5 20.0 7.71 3.42 1.91 200
220 0.768 .316 0.078 0.026 — 56.7 23.9 9.19 4.08 2.28 220
240 0.902 .371 0.091 0.031 0.013 14 28.0 10.8 4.79 2.67 240
260 1.05 .430 0.106 0.036 0.015 — 32.5 12.5 5.56 3.10 260
280 1.20 .493 0.122 0.041 0.017 — 37.3 14.4 6.37 3.55 280
300 1.36 .562 0.138 0.047 0.019 — 42.3 16.3 7.24 4.04 300
350 1.81 .746 0.184 0.062 0.026 0.012 16 21.7 9.63 5.37 350
400 2.32 .955 0.235 0.079 0.033 0.015 — 27.8 12.3 6.88 400
450 2.88 1.19 0.292 0.099 0.041 0.019 — 34.6 15.3 8.55 450
500 3.51 1.44 0.353 0.120 0.049 0.023 0.012 42.0 18.6 10.4 500
550 4.18 1.72 0.424 0.143 0.059 0.028 0.015 50.1 22.2 12.4 550
600 4.91 2.02 0.498 0.168 0.069 0.033 0.017 58.8 26.1 14.6 600
650 5.70 2.34 0.577 0.195 0.080 0.038 0.020 68.2 30.3 16.9 650
700 6.53 2.69 0.662 0.223 0.092 0.043 0.023 18 34.7 19.4 700
750 7.42 3.05 0.752 0.254 0.104 0.049 0.026 — 39.4 22.0 750
800 8.36 3.44 0.848 0.286 0.118 0.056 0.029 — 44.5 24.8 800
850 9.35 3.85 0.948 0.320 0.132 0.062 0.032 — 49.7 27.7 850
900 10.4 4.28 1.05 0.356 0.146 0.069 0.036 — 20 30.8 900
950 11.5 4.73 1.17 0.393 0.162 0.076 0.040 — — 34.1 950
1,000 12.6 5.20 1.28 0.432 0.178 0.084 0.044 — — 37.5 1000
1,250 19.1 7.85 1.94 0.653 0.269 0.127 0.066 — — 24 1250
1,500 30 11.0 2.71 (18.7) 0.914 0.376 0.178 0.093 — — — 1500
1,750 — — 3.61 1.22 0.501 0.236 0.123 — — — 1750
2,000 .007 — 4.62 1.56 0.641 0.303 0.158 0.089 0.053 0.022 2000
2,250 .009 — — 1.94 0.797 0.376 0.196 0.111 0.066 0.027 2250
2,500 .011 — — 2.35 0.969 0.457 0.239 0.134 0.081 0.033 2500
2,750 .013 — — 2.81 1.160 0.545 0.285 0.160 0.096 0.040 2750
3,000 .016 — — 3.30 1.360 0.641 0.334 0.188 0.113 0.046 3000
4,000 .027 — — — 2.310 1.090 0.569 0.321 0.192 0.079 4000
5,000 .040 — — — 3.490 1.650 0.860 0.485 0.290 0.119 5000
a
To convert friction loss at C = 100 or other values of C, see Table 10.5.5.
b
Schedule 40 pipe sizes ½- through 3½-in. steel pipe.
c
SI units: 1 psi = 6.895 kPa; 1 gpm = 0.378 L/min; 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Note: Actual inside diameter for sizes ½ in. through 3½ in. is given for greater accuracy as these sizes include sprinkler branch lines and the
smaller sizes of cross mains. For sizes 4 in. and greater, the nominal diameters were used as a fairly safe average for the diameters of various
types of underground pipes as follows: cast-iron unlined and Enameline, greater than nominal; cast iron cement lines and Class 200 asbestos
cement, less than nominal; Class 150 asbestos-cement sizes 6 and 8 in. less than nominal, and other sizes even nominal. (A 0.10 variation is
true for Class 150 cement lined only—see ASHD FT-9 through 45 for actual IDs.)
This table will be useful in approximating friction loss in flow through existing underground piping where the type, inside diameter, and
condition are frequently unknown. However, in such cases, a flow test is recommended.
When the type, inside diameter, and condition are known, and in designing new systems for all sizes and types of pipes, the friction loss
tables should be used. Friction tables based on Hazen-Williams formula are published in Automatic Sprinkler Hydraulic Data by “Automatic”
Sprinkler Corporation of America, and tables based on Darcy-Weisbach formula are published in Standards of the Hydraulic Institute.
10–90 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

TABLE 10.5.5 Conversion Factors for Friction Loss in Pipe SOLUTION: From the intersection of the 1500 gpm vertical line
for Values of Coefficient Other Than 100 with the sloping 8-in. pipe diameter line in Figure 10.5.15, read
left horizontally for a loss of head value, which is found to be
C Factor C Factor C Factor
0.019 psi per foot. For 300 ft, the loss would be 300 ? 0.019 psi
150 0.472 110 0.838 70 1.93 or 5.7 psi. The probable C value of cement-lined pipe is 140
145 0.503 105 0.914 65 2.22 (Table 10.5.6), and the conversion factor is 0.75 (Figure
140 0.537 100 1.00 60 2.57 10.5.15). Therefore, the friction loss is 5.7 ? 0.75 C 4.3 psi.
135 0.574 95 1.10 55 3.02 Since other than Schedule 40 steel pipe is used, this value must
130 0.615 90 1.22 50 3.61 be adjusted using the previously discussed formula.
125 0.662 85 1.35 45 4.38 Œ ÷4.87
120 0.714 80 1.51 40 5.48 d 40
115 0.772 75 1.70 35 6.97 !pa C !p40
da
‹ 4.87
8.071
The Hazen-Williams Diagram. Figure 10.5.15 is a graphi- C 4.3
7.98
cal representation of Table 10.5.4, except that it is based upon
C 4.54 psi
a Hazen-Williams coefficient of C C 120 rather than C C 100,
as used in the table. For other C values use: Value of C:
EXAMPLE 2: What is the friction loss in 400 m of 150 mm 30-
80 100 120 130 140 150; multiplying factor: 2.12 1.40 1.00 0.86
year-old unlined cast-iron pipe (C C 80) for a flow of
0.75 0.66. It is limited in scope to pipes not over 10 in. in diam-
10,000 L/min?
eter, and due to the reduced scale is less accurate than the table.
Figure 10.5.16 (p. 10-91) gives data in SI units for pipes up SOLUTION: From the intersection of the 10,000 L/min vertical
to 10 in. (254 mm) in diameter, again based on a C C 120. For line with the sloping 150 mm pipe diameter line in Figure
other C values use: Value of C 80 100 120 130 140 150; multi- 10.5.16, read left horizontally for a loss of head value, which is
plying factor 2.12 1.40 1.00 0.86 0.75 0.66. 480 kPa per 100 m. For 400 m, the loss would be 4 ? 480 kPa
or 1920 kPa, based on C C 120. For cast-iron pipe, C C 80 and
EXAMPLE 1: What is the friction loss in 300 ft (90 m) of 8-in. the conversion factor is 2.12 (see Figure 10.5.16). Therefore, the
cement-lined cast-iron pipe, a 1500 gpm (5678 L/min)? friction loss is 1920 ? 2.12 C 4070 kPa.

1.0
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4

.3

.2
s
he
inc
Loss per ft (psig)

e in
1 !f

2 !s

3 !s
1 !s

10
1

8
siz

.1
ipe
al p

.08
.07
7000
8000

10000
min

.06
6000
No

.05

.04
5000

.03

.02

.01
10

15

20

30

40
50
60
70
80
100

150

200

300

400
500
600
700
800
1000

1500

2000

3000

4000
5
6
7
8

10

Flow (gpm)

## FIGURE 10.5.15 Friction Loss in Schedule 40 Steel Pipe, Hazen-Williams C = 120

CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–91

10,000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000

3000

2000

)
mm
Loss (kPa/100m)

e(

0
50

65

80

90
25

32

40

10

12

15

20

25
siz
1000

ipe
900
800 lp
na
700
mi
No

600
500
400

300

200

100

100,000
150

200

300

400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

1500

2000

3000

4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000

15,000

20,000

30,000

40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
Flow (L/min)

FIGURE 10.5.16 Friction Loss (SI units) in Schedule 40 Steel Pipe, Hazen-Williams C = 120

TABLE 10.5.6 Guide for Estimating Hazen-Williams C being substituted. The formula for using the friction loss table is
applicable here.
Value of C
EXAMPLE: What length of 8-in. pipe (C C 110) is equivalent
a
Kind of Pipe 1 2b 3c to 700 ft of 6-in. pipe (C C 85)?
Cast iron, unlined L1 L
SOLUTION: N1 ? ? T1 C N 2 ? 2 ? T2
10 years old 110 90 75 100 100
15 years old 100 75 65
where
20 years old 90 65 55
30 years old 80 55 45 N C C factor conversion for each pipe
50 years old 70 50 40 L C length of each pipe
Cast iron, unlined, new 120 T C friction loss from Table 10.5.4
Cast iron, cement-lined 140
Cast iron, bitumastic enamel-lined 140 Assume a rate of flow (say, 1000 gpm) and substitute
Average steel, new 140 known values:
Riveted steel, new 110
700 L
Asbestos-cement 140 1.35 ? ? 5.20 C 0.838 ? 2 ? 1.28
Reinforced concrete 140
100 100
Plastic 150 Solving for L2,
a
Water mildly corrosive. Use same values for fire-protection
1.35 ? 700 ? 5.20
mains having no mill-use or domestic draft. C 4581 ft
b
Water moderately corrosive. 0.838 ? 1.28
c
Water severly corrosive.
Note: C values chosen for design of piping systems should be based which can be rounded off to 4600 ft.
on applicable NFPA standard or the authority having jurisdiction.
Minor Losses
Equivalent Pipes. Problems involving piped water supplies
and fire protection systems occasionally require substitution of While the friction loss within the pipe normally accounts for
one pipe for another. The term “equivalent pipe” usually means most of the lost head, head losses also occur when the flow in a
a pipe having the same friction loss as the pipe for which it is pipe changes direction, the pipe size changes, or a valve or other
10–92 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

## fitting is encountered. These losses are typically referred to as Equivalent Total

minor losses even though they can be significant for some fit- Fittings Length per Equivalent
tings, such as swing check valves or backflow preventers, that or Pipe Number Fittings (m) Length (m)
are commonly found in fire protection systems.
Std. elbow 3 1.5 4.5
The amount of minor losses from fittings can be found in
T-junction 1 3.1 3.1
many references and is often expressed in various forms. The
Butterfly 2 1.8 3.6
most common are as an equivalent length (l/d), a resistance co-
Pipe 1 200.0 200.0
efficient (k), or a flow coefficient (Cv). Total equivalent pipe length C 211.2

## Equivalent Length. For most fire protection calculations,

friction loss is obtained by using the equivalent length method From Figure 10.5.15, the total friction loss of 600-L/min
from a table such as Table 10.5.7, which expresses the friction flow in 50-mm (2 in. nominal) pipe is 500 kPa per 100 m of
loss of the fitting as an “equivalent pipe length” having the same pipe. Because friction loss is directly proportional to length of
friction loss as the fitting. This length is then added to the length pipe, total loss is given by
of the pipe to which the fittings are connected to obtain the total
friction loss of pipe and fittings. 211.2
? 500 C 1056 kPa
100
EXAMPLE: Calculate total friction loss for 600 L/min flow
through 200 m of nominal 2-in. (50-mm) pipe (C C 120) which The loss due to fittings is given by
incorporates three 90-degree elbows, one tee junction (90-
degree turn), and two butterfly valves. 11.2
? 500 C 56 kPa
100
SOLUTION: Using Table 10.5.7 for equivalent lengths of fit-
tings (C C 120): or 5.3 percent of the total friction loss.

## TABLE 10.5.7 Equivalent Pipe Length Chart

Fittings and Valves Expressed in Equivalent ft (m) of Pipe
¾ in. 1 in. 1¼ in. 1½ in. 2 in. 2½ in. 3 in.
(20 mm) (25 mm) (32 mm) (40 mm) (50 mm) (50 mm) (80 mm)

## 45° Elbow 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 3 (0.9)

90° Standard Elbow 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 6 (1.8) 7 (2.1)
90° Long-Turn Elbow 1 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5)
Tee or Cross (Flow Turned 90°) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 6 (1.8) 8 (2.4) 10 (3.1) 12 (3.7) 15 (4.6)
Gate Valve — — — — 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)
Butterfly Valve — — — — 6 (1.8) 7 (2.1) 10 (3.1)
Swing Checka 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 7 (2.1) 9 (2.7) 11 (3.4) 14 (4.3) 16 (4.9)

## Fittings and Valves Expressed in Equivalent ft (m) of Pipe

3½ in. 4 in. 5 in. 6 in. 8 in. 10 in. 12 in.
(90 mm) (100 mm) (125 mm) (150 mm) (200 mm) (250 mm) (300 mm)

## 45° Elbow 3 (0.9) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 7 (2.1) 9 (2.7) 11 (3.4) 13 (4.0)

90° Standard Elbow 8 (2.4) 10 (3.1) 12 (3.7) 14 (4.3) 18 (5.5) 22 (6.7) 27 (8.2)
90° Long-Turn Elbow 5 (1.5) 6 (1.8) 8 (2.4) 9 (2.7) 13 (4.0) 16 (4.9) 18 (5.5)
Tee or Cross (Flow Turned 90°) 17 (5.2) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.2) 35 (10.7) 50 (15.3) 60 (18.3)
Gate Valve 1 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 4 (1.2) 5 (1.5) 6 (1.8)
Butterfly Valve — 12 (3.7) 9 (2.7) 10 (3.1) 12 (3.7) 19 (5.8) 21 (6.4)
Swing Checka 19 (5.8) 22 (6.7) 27 (8.2) 32 (9.8) 45 (13.7) 55 (16.8) 65 (19.8)
Use with Hazen-Williams C = 120 only. For other values of C, the figures in this table should be multiplied by the factors below.
Value of C 80 100 120 130 140 150
Multiplying factor 0.472 0.713 1.00 1.16 1.32 1.51
(This is based on the friction loss through the fitting being independent of the C factor applicable to the piping.)
Specific friction loss values or equivalent pipe lengths for alarm valves, dry pipe valves, deluge valves, strainers, and other devices or fittings
should be made available to the authority having jurisdiction.
a
Due to the variations in design of swing check valves, the pipe equivalents shown in this table should be considered average.
Note: Use the equivalent ft (m) value for the “standard elbow” on any abrupt 90-degree turn, such as the screw-type pattern. Use the
equivalent ft (m) value for the “long-turn elbow” on any sweeping 90-degree turn, such as a flanged, welded, or mechanical joint elbow type.
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–93

## Resistance Coefficients. Resistance coefficients are some- FRICTION LOSS COEFFICIENTS

times used to express the head loss in a fitting as a function of Head loss = h = k v²
2g
velocity according to the relationship:
Sharp-edged inlet
v2 V k = 0.5
hf C k
2g

The equivalent length and the resistance coefficient meth- Inward projecting pipe
ods are related. Using the basic Darcy-Weisbach formula,
V k = 0.8 - 1.0
l v2 v2
hCf Ck
d 2g 2g
r Rounded inlet
or
V d
l r/d 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
kCf
d k 0.20-0.25 0.09-0.17 0.08 0.05 0.04

## Most entrance losses are calculated using resistance coeffi-

SUDDEN CONTRACTION
cients. Figure 10.5.17 provides resistance coefficients for some
common entrance conditions and fittings.
D D/d 1.1 1.5 2.0 3.0 10
d
Flow Coefficients. Where the loss in a fitting is defined by a k .15 0.28-0.30 0.36-0.40 0.42-0.50 0.50
flow coefficient Cv, the coefficient is defined as the flow of water
that will produce a known friction loss (usually 1 psi) through GRADUAL CONTRACTION
the fitting. The relationship is usually shown as
Note: Use k with V of small pipe section

Q C Cv h
a₂ d₂ θ V d₁ a₁ NOTE: Use k with V from large pipe
We know from our discussion on pressure that pressure (ex-
d₁
pressed in terms of psi) and head (expressed in terms of ft) are k = 0.05
β = d₂
related by the formula 2

p p IF θ 45 degrees θ
2 ( 1– β² )
hC C 0.8 sin
w .433 k=
θ > 45 degrees
β⁴
Substituting, we get
ˆ
‡ ˆ
‡ k=
0.5 ( 1 – β² ) √sin θ
2
† p † p Q
Q C Cv or C β⁴
.433 .433 Cv
SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
Squaring both sides and solving for p we get
Q2
p C 0.433 V d D
Cv2

## The flow coefficient can be shown to be related to the re-

sistance coefficient. Because d/D 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
k 0.98 0.92 0.83 0.71 0.56 0.41 0.28 0.13 0.04
v2 Q2 v2 Q2
hCk and hC then k C 2
2g Cv2 2g cv GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT
Rearranging we get
2gQ2 d D V NOTE: Use k with V in large pipe
θ
Cv2 C
kv 2 β = d/D
2
Because Q C av and a C 9d /4 we get If θ 45 degrees θ
2.6 sin 2 ( 1 – β² )
2 2 4 2 2 4 2 k=
2g(9d v/4) 2gd 9 v gd 9
Cv2 C C C β⁴
kv 16kv 2 8k
( 1 – β² )²
Solving for Cv we get If θ > 45 degrees k =
‚ 2 ˆ
‡ β⁴
gd 9 †g
Cv C ‚ C 9d 2
8k 8k FIGURE 10.5.17 Friction Loss Coefficients
10–94 SECTION 10 ■ Water-Based Suppression

ƒ
For d in inches, and Cv in gpm/ psi, the formula is normally ex- slow to counteract the speed of the pressure rise. In fire protec-
pressed as tion systems, a jockey pump is used to maintain a high pressure
2 on the system and reduce the water hammer causing surge when
29.9d

Cv C the fire pump starts.
k
The principal factors contributing to water column separa-
tion are (1) rate of flow stoppage, either by rapid closing of a
WATER HAMMER valve, or the fast deceleration of a pump; (2) length of pipe sys-
Water hammer is an effect of the pressure rise (surge) that ac- tem (this determines the time that pressure continues to fall be-
companies a sudden change in the velocity of water flowing in fore positive-pressure waves returning from the far end of the
a pipe. When deceleration of velocity is rapid or completely line counteract the initial pressure drop); (3) the normal operat-
stopped, the kinetic energy of the moving water column is ing pressure at critical points, such as the crests of hills; and
absorbed temporarily by elastic deformation of the pipe and by (4) the velocity of the water just before pump stoppage or valve
the compressibility of water. A pressure wave is then formed that closure occurs; the greater the velocity the larger the size of the
is reflected back and forth within the pipe. void, reverse flow velocity, and the final pressure rise.
Pressure surges may be initiated by the closing of a valve,
stopping of a pump, or by the sudden development of abnormal ELASTIC WAVE THEORY
water demand when a water main breaks. Occasionally, the op-
eration of automatic control valves in sprinkler systems may re- The basic concepts of elastic wave theory (EWT) are
sult in the reversal of flow and a buildup of high pressure in the 1. The magnitude of the pressure rise is proportional to the fluid
fire protection system. velocity destroyed and to the velocity of the pressure wave.
Consideration of water hammer and transient pressure 2. The pressure rise is independent of the length and profile of
surges is traditionally based on the elastic wave theories of the pipe.
Joukowski and Allievi. Chapter 4-2 of The SFPE Handbook of 3. The velocity of the pressure wave is the same as the veloc-
Fire Protection Engineering provides an alternative discussion ity of sound through water.
based on the elastic wave theories of Zhukovsky.
The force of water hammer is sometimes sufficient to rup- The theoretical pressure rise when flow is stopped instantly
ture pipes, fittings, or hose lines. Theoretically, the resultant may be calculated by the formula
forces could be infinite if the system were totally inelastic. 0.433av
The elasticity of hose tends to reduce the danger from water !p C
g
hammer, but the sudden closing of shutoff nozzles on long hose
lines may cause a pressure rise sufficient to rupture the hose. where
Tests on water hammer were conducted by Robert Fitzgerald !p C pressure rise (psi)
of the New York City Fire Department and published in that a C velocity of the pressure wave (ft/s)
department’s WNYF Magazine in July 1949. Tests with low-
v C water flow velocity (fps)
pressure hydrants indicated that pressure surges from the clos-
ing of nozzles became acute in long hose lines and that shock g C acceleration of gravity (ft/s2)
waves developed that traveled from the nozzle to the hydrant In SI units, the formula is
and back toward the nozzle, developing pressure surges approx-
imately twice the hydrant pressure. These tests point to the ad- 9.81amvm
!pm C
vantage of operating nozzle valves slowly. gm
Discharge lines from pumps are subject to water hammer where
caused by water column separation. This may occur when a
!pm C pressure rise (kPa)
pump suddenly stops (due to power failure, manual shutdown,
etc.) or if the discharge valve is closed too quickly with the pump am C velocity of the pressure wave (m/s)
operating. Separation takes place somewhere downstream, es- vm C water flow velocity (m/s)
pecially at a summit, or where the downward slope of the pipe gm C acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
increases sharply. When forward movement becomes exhausted,
the flow reverses direction and closes the gap. In practice, the calculated !p may be reduced, allowing for
When a pump is located at an elevation above the system valve closure characteristics, and friction loss in the pipe. Usu-
outlet, a vacuum breaker in the line may provide effective con- ally, this is a matter of judgment and experience. For the pipe
trol. When there is static head on a pump at discharge, it is prac- sizes used in fire protection systems, an allowance of 100 to
tically impossible to completely eliminate a water column 125 psi (690 to 860 kPa) is suggested.
reversal. Surge suppressors or special-type vacuum breakers de- The pressure rise, !p, is at maximum when the flow is
signed to bypass a portion of the reverse flow water column stopped in a time equal to or less than the critical time of the
around the check valve or control valve may be effective. pipe, which is the time required for the pressure wave to travel
The restarting of a fire pump too quickly after a tripout may from the point of closure to the end of the pipe and return. The
cause excessive surging, and installations subject to intermittent formula for critical time is
operation should be protected by time-delay relays. Simple re- 2L
TC
lief valves are considered useless, because their operation is too a
CHAPTER 5 ■ Hydraulics for Fire Protection 10–95

where L C length of pipe. lines or automatically via sprinkler, water spray or other ware-
The wave velocity, a, is based systems. It is commonly available through public or pri-
vate piping systems and storage tanks on the protected property.
12 The fundamentals of hydraulics presented in this chapter
aC ˆ
‡ ‹ 
†w 1 d are applied in the design of these systems. The chapter covered
? =
g k E?e the basic properties of water, the concepts of pressure, velocity
where and velocity head were combined with Bernoulli’s theorem on
w C weight of water (lb/ft3) the conservation of energy for noncompressible fluids to derive
the basic equations for the flow of water through orifices and
g C acceleration of (ft/s2)
ways to measure that flow. Energy losses occur in real systems,
k C bulk modulus of compressibility of water (psi) and several methods can be used to calculate those losses. The
E C Young’s modulus of elasticity of pipe wall material (psi) empirical relationship developed by Hazen and Williams is the
e C thickness of the pipe wall (in.) most widely used and accepted of these methods to determine
the friction loss of water in pipes of fire protection systems. Fi-
d C inside diameter of the pipe (in.)
nally, methods were provided to deal with losses to fittings that
To avoid calculating a, use the chart in Figure 10.5.18. The fig- are found in piping systems and a glimpse into the problem of
ures on the curves represent values of E in millions of pounds water hammer in closed piping systems. The methods provided
per square inch (bulk modulus of elasticity). can be used to make most of the common fire protection water
The calculated pressure rise in a 6-in. cast-iron pipe is about calculations and are the basis for calculating more complex pip-
60 psi per foot (1357 kPa/m) of arrested velocity. ing arrangements, including those involving looped or gridded
The water hammer potential of distribution systems, espe- piping systems and those with multiple sources of water supply.
cially those with automatic pumps, should be examined, and
practical steps taken to reduce the probability of destructive
pressure surges. It should be noted, however, that because of the
BIBLIOGRAPHY
conditions under which dedicated fire protection distribution References
systems are designed (automatic operation of pumps with check
AWWA M11, Steel Pipe—A Guide for Design and Installation, Amer-
valves in their discharge lines), the potential for water hammer ican Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 1989.
cannot be completely eliminated. Baumeister, T., Avallone, E. A., Baumeister, T., III (Eds.), Marks’
To prevent water hammer, valves and hydrants should be Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 8th ed.,
maintained in good condition, and operated carefully to pre- McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978.
Casey, James F. (Ed.), Fire Service Hydraulics, 2nd ed., Dun-Donnel-
vent an abrupt reduction in flow; and remote-controlled power- ley, New York, 1970.
operated valves should be carefully timed to prevent them from Crocker, S., and King, R. C. (Eds.), Piping Handbook, McGraw-Hill,
closing too fast (never less than 5 s). New York, 1967.
DiNenno, P. J. (Ed.), SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering,
SUMMARY 3rd ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2002.
“Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe,” Crane Technical
Water is the most universally used agent for fire protection. It Paper No. 410, Crane Co., Chicago, 1976.
can be applied manually using hydrants, standpipes and hose Hydraulic Institute, Engineering Data Book, Hydraulic Institute,
Cleveland, OH, 1970.
Idelchik, I. E. (Ed.), Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 2nd ed.,
4660 Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 1986.
4,500 Jeppson, R. W., Analysis of Flow in Pipe Networks, Butterworth,
Centrifugal pipe - 12
Average for pit-cast pipe - 11 Boston, MA, 1976.
Parmakian, J., Water Hammer Analysis, Dover, New York, 1963.
Pressure wave velocity a (fps)

4,000 Perry, R. H., and Chilton, C. H., Chemical Engineers Handbook, 5th
ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.
Wass, H. S., Sprinkler Hydraulics, 2nd ed., Society of Fire Protection
3,500
30 Engineering, Bethesda, MD, 2000.
Steel
3,000 15
11 12 Cast iron Cottet, J. L., “Supply Lines: What Size do You Need?” Fire-Rescue
10
Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1997, pp. 41–42.
2,500 Halton, B., and Allen, K., “Water Flow Technology. Part 1. Pumping
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cement 3.4
No. 6, 2001, p. 72.
2,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Halton, B., and Allen, K., “Water Flow Technology. Part 2. Fire At-
tack Hose,” Firehouse, Vol. 26, No. 11, 2001, pp. 85–86.
Inside diameter
(d
e) Stevens, L. H., “Master Streams: Communications Are Essential. Part
Wall thickness
2,” Fire-Rescue Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1997, pp. 61–67.
FIGURE 10.5.18 Surge Wave Velocity Chart for Water