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Table of Contents

I. Critical Thinking
II. Supervisory Communication
III. Airmanship
IV. Four Lenses
V. Full Range Leadership Development
VI. Standards and Discipline
VII. Performance Evaluation
VIII. Team Leader
IX. Ethical Leadership
X. Diversity
XI. Intro to Culture
XII. Emergent Leadership Issues
XIII. Leader Influence
XIV. Joint Organization
XV. Resource Stewardship
XVI. Intro to Negotiating
XVII. Continuous Improvement
Review Successful Learning MP 5 to
review the IDDP Process. Make
sure you fully understand how this
IDDP: Identify concept works!

Predict Differentiate

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is defined as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully
conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or
generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication as a guide to belief and

Characteristics that Embody a Proficient Critical Thinker

A & B. Open-minded and healthy skepticism
Being both open-minded and skeptical means seeking out the facts, information sources, and reasoning to
support issues we intend to judge; examining issues from as many sides as possible; rationally looking for the good
and bad points of the various sides examined.
C. Intellectual humility
Having intellectual humility means adhering tentatively to recently acquired opinions; being prepared to
examine new evidence and arguments even if such examination leads one to discover flaws in one’s own cherished
D. Free thinker
To think freely, one must restrain one’s desire to believe because of social pressures to conform.
E. Highly motivated
Finally, a critical thinker must have a natural curiosity to further one’s understanding and be highly
motivated to put in the necessary work sufficient to evaluate the multiple sides of issues.

Approaches for Evaluating Information

Three effective approaches for evaluating information are to ensure information is credible, unbiased, and accurate.
Credible – Information that is believable, from a trustworthy source (experts in a particular field, subject matter
experts, Air Force leadership, etc.)
Unbiased – Information that is fair, impartial rather than prejudiced.
Accurate – Information that is free from errors, a correct or truthful representation of something

Systems Thinking Approaches to Decision Making

Reactive Thinking (System-1)-quick Thinking/auto pilot
Reflective Thinking (System-2)-Informed problem solving/focused on resolving the problem

Hindrances to Critical Thinking

A. Basic Human Limitations
Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking
False Memories and Confabulation
Physical and Emotional Hindrances
B. The Use of Language
False Implications
Meaningless comparisons
Assuring Expressions
C. Faulty Logic or Perception
Apophenia and superstition
Argument from ignorance
False analogies
slippery slope fallacy
pragmatic fallacy
D. Psychological and Sociological Pitfalls
Ad hominem fallacy
Ad populum
Evading the Issue, Red Herring
Poisoning the well

Questions Focused on Intellectual Standards

Clarity is a gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant
Accuracy means checking to see if something is accurate or true
Precision means asking for more details or specifics
Relevance is the quality of being directly connected with and important to something else
Depth encompasses finding out how your answer addresses the complexities in the question
Breadth is having an open and tolerant view of things, other viewpoints, etc.
Logic is when the combination of thoughts is mutually supporting and makes sense. The thinking is then considered
Significance is the quality of having importance or being regarded as having great meaning
Fairness implies the treating of all relevant viewpoints alike without reference to one‘s own feelings or interests
A. Facione’s Scoring Rubric

Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric

4 (Strong): Consistently does all or almost all of the following:
- Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
- Identifies the salient arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con.
- Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major alternative points of view. - Draws
warranted, judicious, non-fallacious conclusions.
- Justifies key results and procedures, explains assumptions and reasons.
- Fair-mindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead. 3
3 (Acceptable): Does most or many of the following:
- Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
- Identifies relevant arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con.
- Offers analyses and evaluations of obvious alternative points of view. - Draws
warranted, non-fallacious conclusions.
- Justifies some results or procedures, explains reasons.
- Fair-mindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead
2 (Unacceptable): Does most or many of the following:
- Misinterprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc.
- Fails to identify strong, relevant counter-arguments.
- Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view. - Draws
unwarranted or fallacious conclusions.
- Justifies few results or procedures, seldom explains reasons.
- Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on
self- interest or preconceptions.
1 (Weak): Consistently does all or almost all of the following:
- Offers biased interpretations of evidence, statements, graphics, questions,
information or the points of views of others.
- Fails to identify or hastily dismisses strong, relevant counter-arguments.
- Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view.
- Argues using fallacious or irrelevant reasons, and unwarranted claims.
- Does not justify results or procedures, nor explain reasons.
- Regardless of the evidence or reasons, maintains or defends views based on
selfinterest or preconceptions.
- Exhibits close-mindedness or hostility to reason.

Supervisory Communication
Communication Skills
The Communication Process
The Sender is the originator of the communication process.
The message is the idea, feeling, or information that the sender transfers to his or her audience, and is a critical
factor when communicating, since not all terms and phrases mean the same thing to all people.
The Receiver is the target for the sender's message.
Feedback is a reaction to the received message.

Flow of Communication
Upward communication is the flow of communication through the chain of command from the lowest
organizational position to the highest.
Downward communication normally begins with the organization's upper level of management and filters down
through the chain of command.
Lateral communication flows neither downward nor upward; instead, it flows across organizational channels
Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging ideas or meaning between people

“Interpersonal communication is a face-to face, one-way, or multi-directional exchange of verbal messages and
nonverbal signals between two or more people for the purpose of gaining a shared meaning.”



Opening Skills

Attending Skills

Responding Skills

Resolving Skills

Closing Skills

Documenting Skills
Post Session

Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) – Oath of enlistment

Oath of

Profession of
Core Values


Warrior Ethos Resilience

Progressive Professionalism

Low Communication High Communication

Low Professionalism High Professionalism

DDR- Direction, Discipline, Recognition

Core Values
Warrior Ethos
Four Lenses
The Basics
Under the Four Lenses theory the terms ‘preferences‘, ‘colors‘, and ‘temperaments‘ are interchangeable. Every
person you meet or interact with is a unique individual. Each has their own preferences, expressed in different
styles, mannerisms, and ways of approaching life‘s challenges. What they like, where and how they were raised,
and their distinctive life experiences make them different from any other person who has ever lived on this earth.
This diversity is what makes life so interesting, and is also the cause of much heartache and misunderstanding.

These four colors can help you determine your preferences and the preferences of others. They are broken
into: green, blue, gold, and orange.
The green represents those that prefer competence and logic.
The blue is opposite the green and represents those that prefer relationships over other preferences.
The gold represents those that prefer organization.
The orange is opposite the gold and represents those that prefer excitement over other preferences.

Blind Spots
One of the most commonly used models used to illustrate your self-awareness and what others are aware of is The
Johari Window. This framework, developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is essentially a matrix with four
quadrants used to determine how you typically operate as levels of self-awareness and others ‘awareness of you

Known to Self Not Known to Self

Known to


to Others
Maturity is the ability to express one‘s own strengths, feelings, and beliefs in a manner that is considerate to the
abilities, thoughts, and feelings of others. With the Four Lenses, it is the ability to take off your primary ‗lens‘ (or
color) and put on someone else‘s. One‘s maturity can be viewed as a continuum of low maturity to high maturity.

Full Range Leadership Development

Motivational Theories: Mc
Intrinsic motivation--occurs when one experiences the positive feelings a task, activity, and the effort of
doing their best generates within him or her. The rewards one receives are internal and personal like self-
fulfillment (achievement), personal gratification (enjoyment) and happiness.
Extrinsic motivation--drives people to do things in order to attain a specific outcome (external). These
people are fueled by their desire to achieve (or avoid) some external result or reward for his or her
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory
+ Give -Take away
Verbal Recognition Paper work
Time off Late Hours
Lunch Break UIF
Award/Decoration Additional Duty
Squadron PT

Paperwork Deny Leave

Verbal Counseling Privileges Take Away
Weekend duty Pay Decrease
Mandatory Study
Additional Duty

High The Evolution of Full Range Leadership

Follower: Follower:
 High Competence  Has Low Competence
 Lacks Commitment  Has Some Commitment
 Is able but unwilling and/ or insecure  Is unable but willing and/or confident

Leader: Leader:
 Uses a Supportive Style  Uses a Coaching Style
Lea Follower: Follower:
der  Has High Competence  Has low competence
 Has High Commitment  Has Low Commitment
 Is able and willing and/or confident  Is unable and unwilling and/or insecure

Leader: Leader:
 Uses a delegating Style  Uses a Directive Style
Elements of FLR

Leader- A leader is someone who influences others to achieve a goal.

Follower- A follower is someone who chooses to follow a leader because of the leader’s character, abilities, and
Situation- There are many ways to describe a situation. Merriam-Webster describes situation as a “relative position
or combination of circumstances at a certain moment” or a “critical, trying, or unusual state of affairs.”

Passive Leadership:
 Laissez Faire (Non-Leadership)
Absent Leader/subordinates someone else’s problem
 Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)
A little more effective/if it isn’t broke don’t fix it
Transactional Leadership: Corrective and Constructive
 Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)
 Contingent Reward
Sets goals/supportive feedback/rewards when goals are attained
Transformational Leadership: Changes you for the future “4 I’s”

Individualized Consideration: Nurturing, Nurture’ followers by acting as mentors or coaches, listening to their
Intellectual Stimulation: Thinking, This is the degree a leader values their subordinates’ rationality and intellect,
seeking different perspectives and considering opposing points of view.
Inspirational Motivation: Charming, This leader behavior involves developing and articulating visions that paint
an optimistic and enthusiastic picture of the future that is appealing and inspiring to followers
Idealized Influence: Influencing, Display high levels of moral behavior, virtues, and character strengths, as well as
a strong work ethic.

The Four I’s

Contingent Rewards


Management by Exception

Management by Exception Transactional

Full R

Standards and Discipline
NCO Authority NCO Authority is defined as “the right to act and command.”2F3 One of the two legal sources of
your NCO Authority is Article 91 of the UCMJ, “Insubordinate conduct toward a warrant officer, noncommissioned
officer, or petty officer.” This article ensures others obey NCOs’ orders and protects NCOs from assault, insult, or
disrespect. For example, if you are the NCOIC of a section, and an airman is rude, vulgar, or makes inappropriate
comments to you or about you, he or she may have violated Article 91.
The second source of your legal authority from the UCMJ is Article 92 is entitled, “Failure to obey an order or
regulation.” This article covers anyone who 1) has a duty to obey an order; 2) has knowledge of the order and 3)
violates or fails to obey the lawful order or regulation. Before flexing this “muscle” of the UCMJ, consider that if
the accused attempted the task, but was unable to complete it due to lack of training or ability, you should not pursue
disciplinary or punitive actions. Also, if the order was unlawful (Go make me a sandwich) the airman is not guilty
of Article 92. Remember that your spoken directions are orders, even if you don’t say “This is a direct order.”
One more article that will provide you legal authority as an NCO is Article 7, “Apprehension.” As an NCO, the
UCMJ authorizes you to apprehend individuals in certain situations.

Preventive discipline stops a problem from happening before it starts. Examples of preventive discipline are:
safety briefings before three-day weekends, rewards, and training/education.
Corrective (or rehabilitative) discipline restores discipline and/or improves performance. These are the measures
you take once someone falls below standards and you must return him or her to the level of acceptability (the
When you establish standards, keep the following four attributes in mind:
 achievable/attainable (yet possible to exceed)
 specific (clearly defined, expressed without vagueness, unambiguous)
 observable (behavior and results of the behavior can be seen)
 measurable (using elements of timeliness, quality, quantity- TQ2)

The Progressive Discipline Process

Two-Way Communication-Discipline
Verbal Counseling
Written Counseling
Verbal Admonishment

One-Way Communication-
Written Admonishment
Verbal Reprimand
Written Reprimand
Commander Actions-
Includes Punishment
Control Roster
Performance Evaluation

Purposes The Enlisted Evaluation System has four purposes

1. To establish performance standards and expectations for ratees, provide meaningful feedback on how well
the ratee is meeting those expectations, and to give direction on how to better meet those established
standards and expectations.

2. To provide a reliable, long-term, cumulative record of performance and potential based on that

3. To provide senior NCO evaluation boards, the Weighted Airman Promotion System (WAPS) and other
personnel managers’ sound information to assist in identifying the best-qualified officers and enlisted
personnel as well as other personnel management decisions.

1) Promotions: EPRs are an important factor in determining the future of an enlisted member’s career.
2) Productivity: As a supervisor, you are responsible for helping your Airmen achieve their full potential.
3) Decorations: According to AFI 36-2803, Air Force Military Awards and Decorations Program, “Copies of
performance reports
4) Developmental Special Duties (DSD): Evaluations (EPRs) are an important part of the developmental
special duty process
5) Force Management: The Air Force uses Force Management programs to balance the force

Job Description Bullet Statement Examples:

- Manages/dispatches vehicle fleet of 78 special/general purpose vehicles valued at
$3.4M-supervises four Amn
- Controls $120K in facilities/equipment for servicing/cleaning of 458 leased tenant
unit vehicles valued at $838K
- Prepares/submits/tracks travel vouchers for 12K mil/civ personnel; accounts for
$4.8M per year
- Secures 100K acres of property/12 protection level (PL) 1/2/3 resources worth
$8.2B-25K mil/civ protected

 achievable/attainable (yet possible to exceed)

 specific (clearly defined, expressed without vagueness, unambiguous)
 observable (behavior and results of the behavior can be seen)
 measurable (using elements of timeliness, quality, quantity –TQ2)

Monitoring Performance
What to monitor….their behavior, their work, additional duties, and attitudes.

Direct observation is probably the most popular way of monitoring performance. It involves observing your
Airman’s performance with your own eyes.
If you have several Airmen, your Airmen are on different shifts or they work in different locations you may have to
use indirect observation as a method of monitoring. Seek indirect observations from trusted peers or leaders so you
receive unbiased and honest observations.
A third way to observe Airman performance is by checking completed work, products or services, and by talking to
customers who received the product or service.

Performance Feedbacks-
Initial Feedback is done 60 days of your assignment as a supervisor.
Midterm feedback is conducted 180 days after the initial performance feedback.

Delivering Your ACA Session

Step 1: Establish rapport and state the purpose of the session—Explain why you are having the session and tell
them the session is a two-way communication between both of you. (OPENING)

Step 2: Encourage the ratee to appraise their own performance—Listen to them and avoid dominating the
discussion. Use open-ended questions, not “yes/no” questions. (ATTENDING, RESPONDING & RESOLVING)

Step 3: Initial Feedback: Explain the expected performance standards and discuss the word pictures on the ACA

Step 3: Midterm Feedback: Present the results of your evaluation of their performance between the intial feedback
session and the midterm session—Be honest, constructive and up-front with them. Start on a positive note (with a
strength) and work your way through the session. (ATTENDING, RESPONDING & RESOLVING)

Step 4: Ask your Airman for comments throughout the session—Actively listen when your Airman presents his/her

Step 5: Negotiate a performance agreement: Ask your Airman how they would like to improve. (RESOLVING)

Step 6: Set future goals: set specific goals that are clear and can be measured against the standards you set.

Step 7: Close the session by reflecting on what was discussed and end the session on a positive note. (CLOSING)

Step 8: Schedule a follow-up (Post-Session) with them on any specific items you discussed during the feedback
which require additional information, resources, assistance, etc.
Team Leader

Groups versus Teams

A team is a group organized to work together. This may seem like a simple definition, but there are several aspects
to review. This definition consists of a few critical attributes:
- a group
- organized
- work together.
A group is an assemblage of persons or objects located or gathered together.

Team Mission and Vision

Mission statements define the "where and what" work centers, units, wings, etc. accomplish on a daily basis. They
define the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise; succinctly describe why it exists and what it
does to achieve its vision.

Vision Statements
Vision Statements As a mission defines the purpose of an organization; a Vision defines that purpose in connection
with the organizations values. Vision also considers what the organization wants to be (a preferred end state or how
the organization should operate in the future or ideally). It is a long-term view and concentrates on the future and
can provide the “how well” when it comes to accomplishing one’s mission.

Team Leader
An effective leader must learn to control the urge to over-direct the team. There must be a middle ground between
providing no direction and being over-directive.
Team Members
Team members, for obvious reasons, make up the bulk of the team. They are usually functional experts in their
respective areas and bring a wealth of ideas to the team.

Stages of Development
Forming Stage- When a team is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of
acceptable group behavior.
Storming Stage- This is where team members want to know the goals and objectives.
Norming Stage- During this stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities;
there is an attitude change. They accept the team, team ground rules.
Performing Stage- By this stage, the team has settled its individual relationships and expectations.
There is a sense of high morale, team loyalty and trust.
Ethical Leadership
Fundamentals of Ethics
 Ethics
 Values
 Morals
 Ethical Dilemma
 Military Ethics
Ethical Principles

The Three O’s

States that you must know who (US Constitution, Air Force, Unit) and what you owe; display proper
ordering of ethical priorities and understand what you should, or ought to do.

The Three P’s

Operate in the context that Airmen must put principle (truth telling and honor) first; purpose (mission
accomplishment and duty) second; and people (fellow citizens, Airmen, etc.) third.

The Three R’s

Provide guidance when considering the Os, they explain that when making decisions, and conducting one’s
self, it is the rules that give a person ethical guidance. The situation, circumstances, or realities influence if the
rules are followed. Don’t forget to consider the results or consequences of decisions and actions beforehand.

The Three D’s

States that we must try to discern the truth; at appropriate times, we declare the truth, as we have discerned
it; and then we do what we have discerned and declared.

Ethical Decision Making & Ethical Traps

There are three qualities individuals must possess to make ethical decisions. The first is the ability to recognize
ethical issues and to reason through the ethical consequences of decisions, while being able to see second and third
order effects. The second is the ability to look at alternative points of view, deciding what is right in a particular set
of circumstances. The third is the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best
information available

Ethical Traps: confusion or uncertainly as to what actions or behaviors to take because of conflicting
opinions/values. Ethical traps include:
- Ethical Relativism – making decisions based on personal values/beliefs rather than on military rules, regulations,
and codes of conduct
- Loyalty Syndrome – making decisions based on respect and/or loyalty to an individual, unit, or organization etc.
rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
- Worry Over Image – making decisions based on how they impact one’s reputation/standing among peers,
subordinates, supervisors, community etc. rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct.
- Drive for Success – making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude rather than on military rules,
regulations, and codes of conduct.
The primary dimensions of diversity is the one we are all most familiar with and includes characteristics that are
relevant to who we are and that cannot be voluntarily altered (usually).
 Gender
 Age
 Race
 Sexual affiliation/orientation
 Mental and Physical abilities/qualities
 Ethnicity/Culture
On the other hand, the secondary dimension consists of characteristics that can be changed.
 Work ethic
 Income
 Marital status

Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action

Diversity is not the same as equal opportunity (EO). EO refers to legal and regulatory mandates prohibiting
discrimination based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, disability, and reprisal. It also covers other
distinctions, such as harassment, and reasonable accommodation. Diversity is not the same thing as affirmative
Affirmative action (AA) refers to voluntary or mandated programs developed for the purpose of overcoming
imbalances in the workforce that affect designated groups, such as members of minority groups, women, veterans,
and people with disabilities. Per Air Force Policy Directive 36-27, Equal Opportunity (EO

Socio-Behavioral Tendencies (SBTs)

Social Biases Perceptions



Discrimination Collusion
Intro to Culture
Culture is a shared set of traditions, belief systems, and behaviors and is shaped by many factors, including history,
religion, politics, and resources (financial, informational, technological, material, energy, warfare, and human).
Macro-Culture: Macro-cultures are the most powerful or the most widely practiced cultures in a particular society,
whether the society is a region or an entire country. For instance, in the United States the "American" macro-culture
would be described as predominantly Euro-American, Christian, since those are both the most prevalent groups in
the American society. The “New York culture” can be called a micro culture of the American culture, and is a
macro-culture itself, comprised of various micro-cultures.
Micro-Culture: Micro-cultures are also called “subcultures.” They are described as a group of people living within
a larger society who share values, beliefs, behaviors, status, or interests that are different from the macro-culture or
the rest of society.
Culture- Shared set of traditions, belief systems, and behaviors; shaped by many factors, including history, religion,
politics, resources, and economic environment
Cultural Schema- A complex mental framework used to categorize the perceptions we associate to a particular
Culture-specific- An approach that emphasizes specific aspects of particular cultures, affording individuals much of
the knowledge and/or skills necessary to interact more competently with individuals of other cultural backgrounds
OODA Loop:
Observe Step- Gather information about the landscape, the people, and the activities and reviewing any
consequences you experienced from previous actions taken.
Orient Step- Attempt to make sense of what we see by organizing it in a practical way we find useful
Decide Step- Consider courses of action, options, and interpretations; select one to use
Act Step- Review the decisions made, actions taken, and results achieved
Ethnocentrism- Tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to other cultures
Stereotypes- Predetermined generalization about all members of a particular group.
Low-context communication style- Depends on the sender and their words to properly convey the message
Prejudices- Adverse or unreasonable opinion about a person or group without all the facts and usually based on
deeply held beliefs
Discrimination- Treatment or consideration of, making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based
on the group, class, or category
Cross-Cultural Competence- Ability to effectively comprehend and act in a culturally complex environment to
achieve desired results
Culture-General Knowledge- Understanding basic concepts like culture, relativism, ethnocentrism, and holism
Motivation- Perhaps the most essential element of cross cultural competence. Having a positive attitude toward
cultural differences
Holism- The idea that all aspects of a culture are related to each other
Communicate, Negotiate, Relate- These are the cultural skills an Airman must have to “operationalize” and
influence their environment
High-context communication style- Places burden of understanding the message on the receiver
Relativism- Viewing a situation through the local cultural schema
Communication competence- Understanding how to properly communicate in another language or culture
Cultural perspective taking- A cognitive process by which an individual is able to identify the thoughts and/or
feelings of another culture

Emergent Leadership Issues
A good wingman is alert, gets involved, and takes action because they believe getting help is a
sign of strength-NOT weakness!
In addition to these indicators, the Wingman Concept incorporates the skills of Ask, Care, and

- Ask your Wingman: Have the courage to ask the question, “Are you thinking of killing
yourself?” while remaining calm.
- Care for your Wingman: Calmly control the situation: do not use force; be safe while actively
listening to show understanding and to produce relief. Remove all means of self-injury.
- Escort your Wingman: Never leave your friend alone. Escort to your chain of command,
Chaplain, Mental Health professional, or primary care provider, or call the national Suicide
Prevention Lifeline. ***Only a commander can direct a military member to mental health***

Wingman Philosophy
Wingmen operate as a pair…watching each other’s back. As part of our unique Air Force flying
culture, we take responsibility for each other, we seek help from our Wingman when needed, and
we are always alert to other Airmen in distress. When an Airman needs help…we act. When
our Airmen are in crisis, we stay with them until we can ensure a safe hand-off to a supervisor or
other competent individual.

The Wingman philosophy impacts a wide range of Air Force issues including effective:
- Suicide awareness and prevention
- Sexual assault response and prevention
- Domestic violence intervention and prevention
- Workplace violence intervention and prevention
- Substance abuse intervention and prevention
- Financial management
- Responsible decision-making and behavior in all phases of our lives

4 Domains of Wellness
Physical Health
Emotional Health
Spiritual Health
Social Health

Leader Influence

Given the authority, any Airman can command, but leadership is more than simply giving orders and expecting
results. Leadership requires the application of emotional intelligence and a willingness to understand your

Great followers commit to the plan of the organization; requiring them to understand the mission and concurring
with its goals.

Followership Traits

Competence…know their job

Integrity…doing what is right when no one is looking
Loyalty…creating an environment of trust
Initiative…understand the mission direction and take action

Leadership Traits

Selflessness…sacrificing personal wants and needs for a greater cause

Commitment…devotion to duty
Decisiveness…making the hard decisions and acting on them

Competencies of Leadership

As noted by Hershey, diagnosing is understanding what the situation is now and knowing what you can
reasonably expect it to be in the future.
Hersey continues by explaining that adapting is a behavioral competency. It involves adapting your behaviors
and other resources in a way that helps to close the gap between the current situation and what you want to
According to Hersey, communication is a process competency. This process of diagnosing, adapting, and using
the resources available to you depends on a leader’s ability to communicate effectively. The tools you learn in
Supervisory Communication, when practiced, will help you become a more effective communicator.

Powers and Influence

Position Power

Position Power is derived from your rank and position within the organization and gives you a specific level of
authority the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence.

Connection Power is developed by networking and growing relationships with people who can connect you to
resources, opportunities, growth and development.

Reward Power comes from the ability to reward/recognize your Airmen.

Legitimate Power is the power you derive from your formal position held within the hierarchy of the

Coercive Power is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, and/or the use of punishment or threat.

Personal Power

Referent Power is personal charisma or likeability characteristics that a person displays. This type of power lies
in the relationships you develop with your subordinates.

Information Power occurs when a leader possesses knowledge that others want or need.

Expert Power is a leader’s special knowledge or skills related to the job.

Once you have determined the developmental needs of your Airmen, you should create a deliberate development
plan with each individual. Before moving on, look at the definitions of deliberate, develop, and plan according
to Webster’s Dictionary:
Deliberate - To think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully.
Develop - To create or produce especially by deliberate effort over time; to expand by a process of growth.
Plan - A method of achieving an end; a detailed program.
Joint Organization
How Defense Organizations Fit Into the Overall Structure
The DoD is responsible for the military component of the NSS. The DoD is a cabinet level organization

The Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) consists of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), Vice Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS), and the Service Chiefs: US Army Chief of Staff, Chief of Naval Operations, US Air Force Chief
of Staff, Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The Joint Staff supports the JCS
and constitutes the immediate military staff of the SecDef.

Two Distinct Branches of the Chains of Command

The President and SecDef, with assistance from the CJCS, exercise authority and control of the Armed Forces through two
distinct branches of the chain of command

Operational Branch: used to employ forces and begins with the President, through the SecDef, and onto the combatant
commanders (CCDRs)

Administrative Branch: Used to recruit, organize, train, and equip forces. It also begins with the President, through the
SecDef, but proceeds to the Secretaries of the military departments
Joint Force Commanders
Joint Force Commander (JFC) is a general term applied to a CCDR, subunified commander, or Joint Task Force
(JTF) commander authorized to exercise combatant command (command authority) or operational control over a
joint force

Service Component Commanders

A Service component command, assigned to a CCDR, consists of a Service component CDR and the Service
forces (such as individuals, units, detachments, and organizations, including the support forces) that have been
assigned to that CCDR.

Combat Support Agencies

In addition to the military Services, a number of DoD agencies provide combat support or combat service
support to joint forces and are designated as combat support agencies (CSAs). Included among CSAs are the:
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)
Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA)
Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
and National Security Agency (NSA).
Geographically Organized Combatant Commands (GCC) Functionally Organized Combatant Commands (FCC)
US Africa Command (USAFRICOM) US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM)
US Central Command (USCENTCOM) US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM)
US European Command (USEUCOM) US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM)
US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM)
US Pacific Command (USPACOM)
US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM)


Most units of the Air Force are assigned to a specific major command (MAJCOM), led by a general officer. MAJCOMs
have extensive functional responsibilities. MAJCOMs may be subdivided into numbered air forces (NAFs) with each NAF
responsible for one or more wings or independent groups.

Air Combat Command (ACC)

Headquarters: Langley AFB, Virginia Air
Combat Command organizes, trains, equips and deploys combat ready forces to support combatant commanders
around the globe. Additionally, ACC provides the air component headquarters to USNORTHCOM,
USSOUTHCOM, and USCENTCOM and supports the in-place air components of USEUCOM and USPACOM.
ACC also provides air defense forces to North American Aerospace Defense Command. To accomplish the
objectives of the National Defense Strategy, ACC operates fighter, attack, bomber, intelligence, surveillance and
reconnaissance (ISR), combat search and rescue, battle management, electronic-combat, and unmanned aircraft
system platforms. In addition, ACC conducts information operations and provides command, control,
communications, and intelligence systems to theater commanders and combat forces.

Air Education and Training Command (AETC)

Headquarters: Randolph AFB, Texas
Air Education and Training Command develops America‘s Airmen for tomorrow. With a vision to deliver
unrivaled air, space and cyberspace education and training, the command recruits Airmen and provides basic
military training, initial and advanced technical training, flying training, medical training, space and missile
training, cyber training, and professional military and degree-granting professional education. The command
also conducts joint, readiness and Air Force security assistance training. AETC sustains the combat capability of
the operational Air Force by providing highly trained and motivated Airmen and manages mobility and
contingency tasking support for combatant commanders.

Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC)

Headquarters: Barksdale AFB, Louisiana
Activated Aug. 7, 2009, this is the Air Force‘s newest command. AFGSC develops and provides combat-ready
forces for nuclear deterrence and global strike operations—safe, secure, effective—to support the President of
the United States and combatant commanders. AFGSC is responsible for organizing, training, and equipping the
Air Force‘s three intercontinental ballistic missile wings, two B-52 Stratofortress wings and the only B-2 Spirit
wing. The three weapons systems make up two-thirds of the nation‘s strategic nuclear triad by providing the
land-based and airborne nuclear deterrent forces.

Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC)

Headquarters: Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
Air Force Materiel Command delivers war-winning technology, acquisition support, sustainment, and
expeditionary capabilities to the warfighter. AFMC conducts research, development, and test and evaluation,
and provides acquisition management services and logistics support necessary to keep Air Force weapon systems
ready for war.

Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC)

Headquarters: Robins AFB, Georgia
Air Force Reserve Command provides personnel to augment the active duty community to carry out the
warfighting mission with approximately 14% of the total force while spanning a wide variety of missions such
as: space, flight testing, special operations, aerial port operations, civil engineering, security forces, intelligence,
military training, communications, mobility support, transportation, and services. AFRC also conducts two
missions no one else does in the DoD: fixed-wing aerial spray missions to kill mosquitoes in the aftermath of
natural disasters and the Hurricane Hunters who monitor hurricanes for the National Weather Service

Air Force Space Command (AFSPC)

Headquarters: Peterson AFB, Colorado
Air Force Space Command is responsible for organizing, training, and equipping mission ready space and
cyberspace forces and capabilities for North American Aerospace Defense Command, US Strategic Command,
and other combatant commands world-wide. AFSPC oversees Air Force network operations to provide
capabilities in, through, and from cyberspace, manages a global network of satellites, and is responsible for space
system development and acquisition. The command executes spacelift to launch satellites with a variety of
expendable launch systems and operates them to provide space capabilities in support of combatant commanders
around the clock. AFSPC also provides positioning, navigation, timing, communications, missile warning,
weather and intelligence warfighting support.

Air Mobility Command (AMC)

Headquarters: Scott AFB, Illinois
Air Mobility Command provides airlift and aerial refueling for all of America‘s armed forces. They also provide
aeromedical evacuation and Global Reach Laydown (GRL). GRL strategy uses resources from various
organizations and brings them together to form those deployed organizations required to achieve the specific
objectives of any particular mobility operation. These resources are also used to expand already existing AMC
presence or establish AMC presence and infrastructure where none exists.

Pacific Air Force (PACAF)

Headquarters: Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii
Pacific Air Force provides USPACOM integrated expeditionary Air Force capabilities to defend the homeland,
promote stability, dissuade/deter aggression, and swiftly defeat enemies. PACAF organizes, trains, equips, and
maintains resources prepared to conduct a broad spectrum of air operations—from humanitarian relief to
decisive combat employment—in DoD‘s largest area of responsibility.

US Air Forces in Europe (USAFE)

Headquarters: Ramstein Air Base, Germany
US Air Forces in Europe executes the USEUCOM mission with forward-based air power to provide forces for
global operations, ensure strategic access, assure allies, deter aggression and build partnerships. USAFE builds
and maintains partnerships, promotes regional stability, provides forces for global operations, supports
combatant command missions, sustains forward-based infrastructure, ensures strategic access to US forces,
assure allies and deter aggression

Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC)

Headquarters: Hurlburt Field, Florida
Air Force Special Operations Command is responsible to US Special Operations Command for the readiness of
Air Force special operations forces to conduct the war on terrorism and to disrupt, defeat, and destroy terrorist
networks that threaten the United States, its citizens, and interests worldwide. The command‘s mission areas
include shaping and stability operations, battlefield air operations, information operations, intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), specialized air and space mobility, precision engagement, and agile
combat support

Core Values of the Sister Services

At this stage in your career, you are no doubt familiar with the Air Force core values: Integrity First, Service
before Self, and Excellence in All We Do. They are at the heart of who we are and shape us as a Service. Below
are the core values of our sister Services. Take a moment to learn them. Consider the differences and
similarities between our core values and those of our brethren.
Army: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal Courage
Navy/Marines: Honor, Courage, and Commitment
Coast Guard: Honor, Respect, Devotion to Duty
Resource Stewardship
Let’s examine the various types of resources that you may be responsible for as an NCO.

 Personnel: Considered our “most valuable resource,” the appropriate amount (and mix) of skilled and
qualified individuals provides the workforce necessary for organizations to meet ongoing and future
mission requirements. Training and development plans, institutional programs and processes, along with
support organizations are integrated to assist in effectively managing personnel.

 Financial: This is the resource that is required in order to procure the material, information and technology,
and warfare resources we need to accomplish our missions. Understanding how the financial systems and
processes work is critical to the NCOs ability to ensure their Airmen have what they need to successfully
complete their missions both at home station and deployed locations.

 Information and Technology: Information and Technology resources include things such as cyber
operations submissions (including Defense Business Systems), national security systems (NSS), Command
and Control (C2), Communications and related programs, Combat Identification, Cyberspace Operations,
Information Assurance (including Information Systems Security), Offensive Cyber Operations, Defense
Cyber Operations, Operational Preparation of the Environment, Threat Detection and Analysis,
meteorological and navigations systems/programs as well as budgeting for contributions to
intergovernmental e-gov initiatives.4

 Warfare: Warfare resources are those resources such as aircraft, missiles, armor/armaments, specialized
ground handling equipment, etc. that support contingencies and warfare.

 Energy: Any usable power, including but not limited to coal, petroleum products, steam, electricity, natural
gas, propane, military operational fuels and propellants, alternative fuels and renewable energy. Renewable
energy includes things like synthetic and biomass-derived fuels, solar, wind, geothermal, and nuclear, but
excludes nuclear energy used in ship propulsion.

 Material: Material resources are the physical goods that are required by our personnel to complete their
assigned duties.
Budget cycle example here if you need to just to get an understanding on how Planning, Programming, Budgeting,
and Execution (PPBE) works.
Intro to Negotiating
Before you get into the basics of negotiating, you must first be familiar with a few key terms.

Negotiation: A communication process involving two or more people/groups where:

1. the parties have a degree of difference in positions, interests, goals, values or beliefs
2. the parties strive to reach agreement on issues or course of action

Opposite: The person or group with whom you are engaged in negotiations. Sometimes called the negotiation
partner, the opposite recognizes the idea that you lack agreement and must negotiate to solve a problem or reach an
agreement. As an NCO, your ‘opposite’ might be your subordinate, supervisor/chain of command, peer, etc.

Position: In negotiations, a position is what you want, not necessarily what you need. It is your vision of your best
possible outcome. A negotiating position is not based on haphazard thought. It should be based on carefully
developed interests and desired outcomes.

Interest: An interest is what you need. It is the underlying reason behind your position.

Aspiration point: The best each party hopes to get out of a negotiated agreement.

Reservation point: Your ‘bottom line’ in negotiation. It is the point you will absolutely not got over…your limit.

Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA): The area between each party’s aspiration point and reservation point. It is
also called the ‘bargaining range.’

Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA): An alternative to negotiation that you can execute
independent of your ‘opposite’. It is a solution you are prepared to execute even if you don’t get what you want in
the negotiation. To formulate a practical BATNA, you must have both the capability (resources) and the will to
execute this alternative on your own without any assistance.

TIPO Model

The more you trust the opposite’s actions and interactions, the more trusting you are of
the opposite’s actions and intentions

The level of trust directly influences the amount of information that is shared between
you and the opposite. Information is so critical to developing options it is actually one
of your personal power bases

As mentioned in the Leader Influence lesson, we possess an assortment of leadership powers that
enable us to accomplish various actions, to include negotiating. These powers are referred to as
personal and position powers.

The final part of the TIPO model uses the foundation of trust and the elements of
information and power to develop options. Options are just different ways to
potentially solve a problem or come to a mutual agreement and are often referred to as
solutions, choices, and alternatives.
People Orientation
The first variable, people orientation, are those relationships that exist between us and others. In some
situations, these relationships are more important to develop and maintain than the tasks at hand. A
trusting relationship means you are willing to consider the opposite’s needs and desires during
negotiations as well as sharing information with the expectation of receiving these actions of trust in

Task Orientation
The second variable is task orientation. In the NPSC, task orientation refers to the importance of
resolving the problem to meet your needs. In the military context, it is getting the mission done. A
positive task orientation means that you are very motivated to resolve a problem or respond to a critical

Negotiation Strategy Selection

 Evade (“Not now, can you come back later?”) The Evade strategy is a passive, unassertive
strategy where you do not have any motivation to work your expectations or meet their
 Comply (“Yes, absolutely, let’s do it your way!”) The Comply strategy tends to delegate the
responsibility to the other person or party. This (along with the Evade strategy) is a passive
approach to negotiations.
 Insist (“Take it or Leave it”) The Insist strategy is useful when you believe that obtaining your
objective is paramount, regardless of the cost to the opposite’s interests or the relationship. The
Insist strategy is usually associated with a position and declared with a demand that leaves little
room for movement and /or compromise.
 Settle (“Let’s just split the difference and call it a day”) The Settle strategy may be an option
when you seek resolution to a situation, but see little chance for you to really get it “your way”
(e.g. the Insist Strategy) or you don’t want to “give in” (e.g. the Comply Strategy) to the opposite.
By using the Settle strategy, you may minimally satisfy both side’s task interests through the
process of compromising on whatever difference separating you from the opposite.
 Cooperate (“Let’s work together and come up with an even better idea”) The Cooperative
Negotiation Strategy (CNS) reflects high interests in both people and task orientations. CNS
seeks to create new value within available resources. This style is useful when a party desires to
achieve a mutually satisfying outcome while simultaneously managing the relationship. For this
to occur, trust must exist with both parties willing to share information and power.
Continuous Improvement

“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” ~Einstein

Continuous Improvement (CI) is the strategic, never-ending, incremental refinement of the way we perform our
duties and responsibilities.

In 2014 The Air Force suspended the guidance for the IDEA program and provided implementation guidance and
procedures for the new idea/suggestion program, renamed Airman Powered by Innovation Program.

Problem Solving Methods

Eight-Step Problem Solving. The Air Force has adopted a standard Eight-Step Problem Solving model to progress
from assessment of current operations to measuring results after improvements are made.
1. Clarify and validate the problem
2. Break down the problem/identify performance gaps
3. Set improvement targets
4. Determine root causes
5. Develop countermeasures
6. See countermeasures through
7. Confirm results & process
8. Standardize successful processes

The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle is also referred to as the Deming cycle

Plan – Recognize an opportunity and plan a change
Do – Test the change by carrying out a small-scale study
Check – Review the test, analyze the results and identify what you‘ve learned
Act – Take action based on what you learned in the check step. If the change did not work, go through the cycle
again with a different plan. If you were successful, incorporate what you learned from the test into wider changes.

The Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) methodology, is a disciplined 5-step problem solving
approach used in the Six Sigma strategy to deliver high performance, reliability, and value to the end customer.
 Define: First define the improvement opportunity, develop an improvement project plan, define the
process and evaluate the process. This can include conducting a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
(FMEA), and identifying critical parameters.
 Measure: Measure the existing process and identify the process capability requirement.
 Analyze: Process is analyzed to determine its capability. Data is analyzed to identify opportunities for
improvement and to develop plans for improving the process. The steps in this phase include root cause
analysis, updating the FMEA, developing an improvement plan, and determining the path forward.
 Improve: The plan that was developed in the analyze phase is implemented. The results of the change are
evaluated and conclusions are drawn as to its effectiveness. This can lead to documenting changes and
updating new instructions and procedures.
 Control: Control plans are developed to ensure the process is institutionalized and are developed to ensure
the new process continues to be measured and evaluated. This can include implementing process audit
plans, data collection plans and plans of action for out of control conditions, if they occur.

Six “S” Six ―S‖ is often used during step 6, See countermeasures through of the 8-step problem solving model.
Six ―S‖ is also a systematic approach to productivity, quality, and safety improvement that you can use in your
immediate work center. It focuses on achieving visual order, organization, cleanliness, and standardization.
The following Six ―S‖ areas can help improve profitability, efficiency and service:
1. Sort – clean, organize and keep only what is necessary
2. Straighten – identify, organize, and arrange a place for everything
3. Shine – regular (usually daily) cleaning and maintenance
4. Standardize – simplify and standardize; make it easy to maintain
5. Sustain – continue to train and maintain the standards
6. Safety – make safety a priority in all improvement areas

Individual Roles
Change Sponsors: They initiate change because they have the power and authority to determine why, when,
and how changes will occur.
Change Agents: NCOs in this role are responsible for determining the best way to implement a change and
then actually implementing it.
Change Targets: This refers to all individuals or groups affected by the change. Because change targets often
help implement the change itself, they usually include the Change Sponsor and Change Agent as well.

Stages of Change (Janssen’s Model of Change)

Comfort-things are routine

Denial-forced to confront external change
Confusion-accept the change and begin to grapple with it
Renewal-where we accept the change

Reactions to change:
1. Innovators are a small percentage of the population—those who immediately embrace new ideas.
2. Early adopters are usually social and opinion leaders who are often popular, educated, and able to see a
competitive advantage in adopting new ideas early
3. The early majority makes up one of the largest groups of people, providing an important link in the
change process because they tend to represent mainstream thinking.
4. The late majority is the other large group in the middle of the curve. Most people in this category are
hampered by feelings of insecurity and skepticism, which prevent them from taking risks.
5. Laggards are the last people to embrace new ideas, and they influence no one! They are usually less
educated and uninformed, which tends to make them close-minded and afraid of change.
Levels of Change
According to Elton Mayo, noted for his work on the Hawthorne studies, there are four levels of change present in
people. Understanding these levels of change is extremely important for unit managers working through the change
Knowledge: This is generally the easiest change to bring about. It can occur as a result of reading a book or article,
or hearing something new from a person with information. For instance, reading the newest AFI on dress and
appearance alerts Air Force members to the latest changes in uniform standards.
Attitude: Attitudes are more difficult to change because they are emotionally charged (positive or negative). For
example, reading and understanding the latest uniform changes does not necessarily mean we agree with the
Individual Behavior: Changes in individual behavior seem to be significantly more difficult and time-consuming
than the previous levels. We can have the knowledge and the attitude, but now we have to put our knowledge and
attitude into action through behavior. Often, habits stand in the way of achieving this level. Habits are often deeply
rooted, thus changing them may be a lengthy and difficult
Group Behavior: Finally, changing individual behavior is not easy, but it‘s certainly easier than changing an entire
group of people. You may be attempting to change many customs and traditions that have developed over many
years. The old saying, ―We‘ve always done it this way!‖ may be deeply ingrained.

The Phases of Change

Unfreezing: The first step in deciding to create a change is to recognize the need for change. This is often the
most neglected, yet essential, element of any organizational change. To perceive a need to change, you must first
understand it. Become the expert on what you’re changing, inform your people about the change, and tell them how
it will improve or simplify their ability to accomplish their job.

Changing: Changing involves actually modifying technology, tasks, structure, or people. It’s the movement from
the old way of doing things to the new way of doing business.
 Create a felt need for the change: As a Change Agent, your mission is to sell the importance of the change
and explain its effects on your people and their jobs. If you can get the majority of your Airmen to
understand and accept the need for change, the process will work much smoother, with less pain and
 Deal with resistance to change: Many people fear the unknown. Developing a plan to calm those fears will
increase the likelihood of a successful change; you must listen to them for constructive feedback. They
may have legitimate concerns that you didn’t think of that might help the process move smoother. Some

Refreezing: Just because the change was implemented and appears to be going well, doesn’t mean your job is
complete. You must lock in (or refreeze) the new procedures to become a permanent part of daily operations.