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ES ASSIGNMENT 2

Submitted to- Prof Virendra Sethi Dept of CESE, IIT Bombay

Submitted by- Aleno Ringa

175320003

MSc App Geophysics

Proposal for air quality management in Kohima

Kohima is my hometown. It is the hilly capital city of Nagaland lying at an altitude of 1444m above sea level. Kohima is one of the cities where pollution level has drastically worsened since the last report in 2014, the WHO report indicated. In 2014 database, Kohima’s PM 10 level was at 64 but it rose to 82 in 2016. Most alarmingly, the PM 2.5 particles, which carries the most health risk has nearly dou- bled in the intervening period – increasing from 28 (2014) to 44 (2016). The quality of air in Kohima does not meet the national air quality standards, and is rapidly deteriorating. Air pollution due to dust particles has become a major threat for public health and environment in Nagaland, especially in Dimapur and Kohima. Annual average concentration of RSPM in Kohima (µg/m ³ ) is 115µg/m ³ .

This write-up has been divided into 6 sections according to the Flowchart given for Air Quality Management-

1. Already present method to control Air Pollution

2. CPCB norms

3. Topography and Meteorology of Kohima

4. Sources of Air pollution

5. Action for mitigation

6. Check for probable future new source

1. Already present method to control air pollution

These are some of the existing action plan on Air Quality in Kohima-

Sl

Subject

Suggested Action

Responsible

no

Agency(ies)

1

Drive against polluting vehicles for ensuring strict compliance of emission norms

a) Commercial diesel vehicles plying for more than 12 years should be o -limits within the Municipal areas of Kohima and Dimapur and for personalised vehicles the life span should be 15 years

b) Vehicles plying in the city without PUC and fitness certificates should be o -road.

- Transport Department

- Tra c Police

 

c) Phased out diesel vehicles from other states which have crossed the life span of 10 years should not be registered

d) Vehicle emitting thick smoke or generating loud noise should be held and emission should be checked for necessary actions.

e) Inspection and Certification centre should be easily available

2

Launch public awareness campaign for air pollution control, vehicle maintenance, minimising use of personal vehicles, lane discipline, etc

a) Induction of Public transportation like City buses an local taxis in addition to Autos and rickshaws in Dimapur

- Transport Department

- KMC & DMC

b) Extensive drive to create awareness among the general masses to be initiated

- Nagaland Pollution Control Board

3

Check fuel adulteration and random monitoring of

a) The Government should notify about the responsibilities of Dept of Legal Metrology & Consumer Protection for checking the fuel adulteration

- Department of Legal Metrology & Consumer Protection

- Oil Companies

fuel quality data and awareness

b) The Nagaland Pollution Control Board laboratory should be equipped for fuel adulteration testing since there is no testing centre in the state to check fuel adulteration at present

- NPCB

4

Creation of green bu ers along the trac corridors

a) The Department of environment, Forests and Climate Change to carry out a plantation drive in Kohima and Dimapur

- Dept of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

b) Awareness should be created before any cleanliness drive to avoid chopping of any tree saplings and better coordination between various departments and colony councils to ensure to maintain the saplings planted

- KMC & DMC

5

Drive against open burning of bio-mass, crop residue, garbage, leaves, etc

a) Mass awareness drive be initiated to

- NPCB

educate the general public about the ill-

- KMC & DMC

e

ects caused by burning of waste

6

Regular check and control of burning of municipal solid waste

The ULB’s to notify ban on burning of wastes within the town areas

- KMC & DMC

7

Burning of garden waste

Proper collection of horticulture waste (bio- mass) and its disposal following composting- cum-gardening approach

- KMC & DMC

8

Identification of brick Kilns and other polluting industries

Carry out inspections and enforce the existing emission norms and advise for better technologies where feasible including use of designated fuel

- Dept of Industries & Commerce

- NPCB

9

Action against non- complying industrial units

Carry out inspection and non-complying industries to be closed as per rules

- Dept of Industries & Commerce

- NPCB

 

- KMC & DMC

10

Public Complaints

Set up helpline for complaints against reported non-compliance of rules

- NPCB

- Dept of Industries & Commerce

 

- ULB’s ie KMC & DMC

2.The CPCB norms for NAAQ- The CPCB norms for National Ambient Air Quality Standards is given in the table-

Ambient Air Quality Standards is given in the table- 3. Topography and Meteorology of my region

3. Topography and Meteorology of my region ie Kohima

Kohima is located at 25º40'N 94º07'E 25.67ºN 94.12ºE with an elevation of 1444m above sea level. It covers an area of 1,463 sq. km Kohima experiences subtropical highland climate. The weather is pleasant all throughout the year. The city experiences an annual rainfall of 72.10inches. The coldest months are from December to February, when frost occurs and in the higher altitudes snowfall occurs occasionally. During the height of summers, from June–August, temperature ranges an average of 27–32 °C (80–90 °F).

4. Sources of Air Pollution The Air Quality in Kohima is increasing drastically. In 2014

4. Sources of Air Pollution

The Air Quality in Kohima is increasing drastically. In 2014 database, Kohima’s PM 10 level was at 64 but it rose to 82 in 2016. The main cause of Air Pollution in Kohima is bad and dusty roads. There are two stations to monitor the air quality in Kohima, one in a commercial area and the other in a residential area. Four air pollutants are monitored and analysed ie, Sul- phur Dioxide (SO 2 ), Oxides of Nitrogen (NO 2 ), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM/PM10) and Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5). The monitoring of pollu- tants is carried out for 24 hours and 8 hourly sampling for particulate matter (RSPM) and 4 hourly sampling for gaseous pollutants (NO 2 & SO 2 ) twice in a week. The NPCB monitoring data showed that in all the four monitoring stations, the RSPM level shot-up drastically during dry seasons. Other suspected sources include vehicular emissions, brick kiln & wood based in- dustries, burning of waste and lack of proper drainage system. In the rural areas of Kohima, burning of forest for Jhum cultivation also contributes to the air pollution as Forest fires increase carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change

5. Action for mitigation

The major source of air pollution in Kohima has been discussed in Section 4. Some suggestions to manage the air quality are listed below-

Sl no

Action points

1

Air Quality Index to be calculated periodically and create awareness to the people through the NPCB website, Local Newspaper or other social media (facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram)

2

Ensure that construction materials are carried or kept in closed/covered

vessels. Also, regular check against burning of garbage, plastic and other

waste

3

Strict enforcement of Construction & Demolition rules

4

Encourage public to switch to LPG/PNG for domestic purposes instead of the burning of firewood or biomass

5

Propose planting trees and plants for green bu ers along tra c corridors, at open areas, schools and community places. This can be enforced by asking schools and colleges to organise a monthly drive in a roster basis in

di

erent parts of the city.

6

Filling up the many potholes in the roads. This, in a way would allow free flow of tra c and also decrease dust particles in the atmosphere.

7

Prepare an action plan to check fuel adulteration and random monitoring of fuel data quality

8

Propose ban on cars that are either too old or produce too much exhaust gas (Carbon monoxide) and noise.

9

Check the activity of selling old cars from a di erent city to Kohima. This is

major factor, as with urbanisation ,a lot of people are buying second hand vehicles without understanding its consequences to the environment.

a

10

Strict laws against unnecessary hill cuttings for road widening. This causes

lot of dust particles and also more potholes to the already existing road due to the rocks and stones that come loose from the hill cutting

a

11

Prepare plan for construction and improvement of road infrastructure.

12

Propose proper drainage system. This is not just a concern of air pollution but also of water pollution

6. Check for probable future new sources.

Kohima is a small city. There are small cottage industries but not major industries so air pollution in terms of industries is decent for now. But urbanisation and in- dustrialisation in the future can be a major source of air pollution. For now, as discussed earlier, dust particles from roads are the major source of air pollution. If this is not settled properly and soon, it could deteriorate the at- mosphere drastically