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Aderoba

Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

E-mail: karbil2002@yahoo.com

applying linear programming techniques.

In this study, maintenance related data Linear programming is a widely used

of a cocoa processing industry in Akure, mathematical technique designed to help in

Ondo State of Nigeria were collected, planning and decision making relative to the

classified and analysed statistically. Linear trade-off necessary to allocate resources

Programming (LP) model was formulated (Joseph, 1987). In any production firm there

based on the outcomes of the analysed data. are two sub systems, human and technical.

The data analysed includes maintenance The two sub-systems must be balanced and

budget, maintenance cycle, production coordinated in order to function effectively

capacity and waiting time of production (Joseph, 1987). Many studies have been

facilities in case of failure. Data were carried out on how to make maintenance and

analysed based on manpower cost, machine manpower planning effective in a production

depreciation cost and the spare part cost, firm. In previous studies, models adopted to

which were assumed to be proportion to the analyze prevailing situation include:

number/magnitude of the breakdowns. The simulation model, queue model, utility

generated LP model was solved using model and network analysis. In this study,

software named “the Quantitative System for linear programming technique is used to

Business- QSB (Version 3.0). The results of analyze maintenance operations and

the model showed that four maintenance manpower planning in a production firm

crews were needed to effectively carryout used to analyze maintenance operations and

maintenance jobs in the industry. The manpower planning in a production firm that

sensitivity analysis showed that the results was used as a case study.

have a wide range of feasibility.

Allan et-al (1988) defined maintenance

Keywords: Maintenance System, Manpower as all activity in keeping equipment in

Planning, LP-model, QSB Software, working order. They also pointed out that the

Sensitivity Analysis. amount and type of maintenance applied

depends strongly on its cost and safety

implication of the system failure. Joseph

1. Introduction (1987) said that both passive and active

repair times are influenced by factors other

Many operation management decisions than equipment design. He said maintenance

involving making most effective use of philosophy plays an important role in

26

Linear Programming based Effective Maintenance and Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

determining overall availability, and defined while the term programming in the context

it as consideration of maintenance means planning of activities. The objective is

procedures, personnel and spare part to maximize or minimize a single objective

provision. function relative to a set of constraints.

refers to human resources used in carrying F (x1, x2,…,xn) and each

out jobs in any organization. Report of the G (x1, x2,…,xn) (i =2,3,…,n)

conference board on manpower planning and are linear in each of their argument.

evolving system in 1971 further defined

manpower planning as a process intended to That is,

assure an organization that it will have the F(x1,x2,…,xn) = c1x1+c2x2+…+cnxn

proper number of properly qualified and and

motivated employees in its workforce at g (x1,x2,…,xn) = a11x1+a12x2+…+dinxn

some specific future time to carry on the ci and aij (i = 1,2,…..n; j = 1,2,…,n)

work that would then have to be done. Many are known constants.

scientific approaches have been used to solve

the problem of manpower. Among these are All linear programming problems have

the workload method, mathematical the following properties in common: all seek

programming approach and simulation to optimize some quantity. This property is

techniques. In all these approaches the main referred to as the objective function. There

aim of manpower planning that is pursued are constraints, which limit the degree to

are to ensure that the organization: obtains which the objective can be pursued; and

and retains the quantity and quality of there must be alternatives to choose from.

manpower it needs; makes the best use of its The objectives and constraints in linear

manpower resources; and is able to programming must be expressed in terms of

anticipate the problems arising from linear equation or inequalities

potential surplus or deficit of manpower. In

this study linear programming approach is However, the following procedures are

used to determine optimal number manpower necessary when formulating Linear

that can work effective in maintenance sector Programming (LP) problems: write down

subject to manpower cost, spare part cost and decisions variables of the problem; formulate

depreciation cost of machine. Many of the the objective function in terms of decision

existing models on manpower planning variables; formulate the other

treated the above constraints separately. The conditions/constraints of the problem to

there are scanty work on model that which the optimization process is subjected

holistically considered the three constraints. to, such as resources limitation, market

constraints as linear equations in terms of the

Overview of Linear Programming Model variables; add non-negativity conditions/

constraints- the considerations that negative

Linear programming was developed in values of physical variable in most cases do

1947 by G.B. Dantzig and represents a not have any valid physical interpretation.

valuable method in the field of operations Summarily, the objective function, the set of

research. Linear programming is a constraints and the non-negativity together

mathematical tool for finding solution to a form the linear programming model of the

certain class of problem. The word (linear) problem.

implies that the relations involved are linear,

International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management Vol.16. N.o.2 (May-August, 2008) pp 26 -34

27

B. Kareem and A.A. Aderoba

firm of which the maintenance section is a

In pursuing the objective of the study, subsection for the year is as shown in Table

data were collected, classified, analysed and 1a. Table 1b shows maintenance cycle,

the linear programming model was production capacity and average waiting

formulated based on the data analysed. The time of each machine.

department whose data was studied is the

maintenance section of a production firm In the analysis of the data collected, the

(Cocoa Processing Industry) in Akure, Ondo following assumptions were made:

State of Nigeria, which is responsible for the manpower cost associated with the

keeping of the plant and machinery used for maintenance of each machine per hour is the

cocoa processing in operable condition. The same for all the machines; depreciation cost

data were collected through the use of associated with each machine is directly

questionnaires and oral interview among proportional to the rate of breakdown of the

employees in the maintenance section of the machine; and spare part cost associated with

firm. The data that were collected include the the maintenance of each machine is directly

following: number and list of all the proportional to the number of hours used

machines; types of maintenance applied; during the maintenance of the machine.

budget on the maintenance; factors affecting Based on these assumptions, the data are

maintenance; present level of manpower analyzed as followed.

planning in maintenance department;

maintenance cycle of each of the machines; Total manpower cost for Maintenance

and the waiting time of each of the machines. Section = 19 x 6,900,000

51

After the collection of the data a close = N2,570,588.24./Year.

monitoring of the maintenance operations of

the production section was done over a Manpower cost associated with the

period of two weeks to make ensure maintenance of each machine was calculated

reliability of the data. The major machines using

on which scheduled or time based preventive D x 2,570,588.24

maintenance was carried out include Y 5760 per hour.

machine one (1) cleaning and destoner, two

(2) dryer, three (3) winnower, four (4) Where, D is waiting time of the machine

reactor, five (5) roaster, six (6) map mill, during a year and Y is the total waiting time

seven (7) liquor press, eight (8) butter press of all the machines in the production section

and nine (9) boiler. The factors affecting the in a year.

maintenance operation of the firm include

understaffing in the maintenance section, Spare part cost for each machine was

mismanagement of budgetary allocation, calculated using

inadequate tools, equipment and spare part.

D x 4,000,000

The total number of employees in the Y 5760 per hour.

maintenance section is nineteen,

maintenance manager inclusive. The Depreciation cost associated with each

employees are grouped into six crews, each machine was calculated using

of which has three members. Among the Q x 52,000,000

three members, one acts as the supervisor. W 5760 per hour.

28

Linear Programming based Effective Maintenance and Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

Operation X1 = Number of crew allocated to

machine 1

Manpower remuneration for the N 6,900,000:00 X2 = Number of crew allocated to

production section. machine 2

X3 = Number of crew allocated to

Total allocation for spare part N 4,000,000:00

machine 3

for maintenance of the machine.

.

Total cost for depreciation of N52,000,000:00 .

the machine. X9 = Number of crew allocated to

machine 9

Capacity and Waiting Time. percentage production hour available per

maintenance cycle of each machine. That is

M/C Maintenance Waiting Production minimize the waiting time of each machine.

Cycle, (Hrs) Time Capacity

(Codes) (H1) (Tons/hr) The objective function is written as:

1 720 (i) 1 3

Maximize Z = 0.998X1 + 0.998X2 +

2 1384 (ii) 2 2

0.999X3 + 0.998X4 + 0.997X5 + 0.994X6 +

3 5760 (iii) 2.5 2 0.996X7 + 0.999X8 + 0.998X9

4 1800 (iv) 3.33 2

5 2000 (v) 5 2.5 Subject to:

6 720 (vi) 6 1.5 Constraint on manpower cost associated

7 2000 (vii) 8 1.5 with the maintenance of each machine

8 1600 (viii) 1 2.5

13.49X1 + 15.74X2 + 5.62X3 + 17.90X4 +

9 2000 (ix) 3 1.5

28.1X5 + 53.96X6 + 44.97X7 + 6.75X8 +

16.86X9 ≤ 347.22.

Where W is the total number of repairs Constraint on spare part cost associated

of all the machines and Q is the total number with the maintenance of each machine.

of repairs of each machine. From the above

relationships the Table 2 is generated. Also 20.99X1 + 24.5X2 + 8.75X3 + 27.99X4 +

from the data collected Table 3 estimates the 43.73X5 + 83.96X6 + 69.96X7 + 10.5X8 +

value of number of repair in a year, 26.24X9 ≤ 850.69.

maximum number of hours available for

repair in a year and the percentage Constraint on depreciation cost

production hour available for each machine. associated with the maintenance of each

machine.

The objective of the linear program is to

determine the crew size that will maximize 826.97X1 + 432.4X2 + 137.83X3 + 344.57X4

the effectiveness of maintenance thereby + 344.57X5 + 826.97X6 + 344.57X7 +

maximizing the effectiveness of the 413.49X8 + 344.57X9 ≤ 9027.78.

production operation.

International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management Vol.16. N.o.2 (May-August, 2008) pp 26 -34

29

B. Kareem and A.A. Aderoba

Machine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Max.

Available

cost/hr.

Manpower 13.49 15.74 5.62 17.90 28.10 53.96 44.97 6.75 16.86 347.22

cost/hr.

Spare part 20.99 24.50 8.75 27.99 43.73 83.96 69.96 10.50 26.24 850.69

cost/hr.

Depre- 826.97 432.40 137.83 344.57 334.57 826.94 344.57 413.49 344.57 9027.78

ciation

cost/hr

S/N in a year for repair in a year production cycle.

1 12 12 99.8

2 4 14 99.8

3 2 5 99.9

4 5 16 99.8

5 5 25 99.7

6 12 48 99.4

7 5 40 99.6

8 6 6 99.9

9 5 15 99.8

available for maintenance in each

maintenance cycle, X1 ≤1, X2 ≤2, X3 ≤2.5, 13.49X1 + 15.74X2 +5.62X3 + 17.90X4 +

X4 ≤ 3.33, X5 ≤ 5, X6 ≤4, X7 ≤8, X8 ≤1, X9 28.1X5 + 53.96X6 + 44.97X7 + 6.75X8

≤3 +0.998X9 ≤ 347.22

20.99X1 + 24.5X2 + 8.75X3 + 27.99X4 +

Non-negativity, X1≥0, X2≥0, X3≥0, … 43.73X5 + 83.96X6 + 69.96X7 + 10.5X8

X9≥0 +26.24X9 ≤ 850.69.

826.97X1 + 432.4X2 + 137.83X3 +

The general linear program is of the 344.57X4 + 344.57X5 + 826.97X6 +

form. 344.57X7 + 413.49X8 + 344.57X9 ≤

9027.78.

Max. Z* = 0.998X1 + 0.998X2 + 0.999X3 X1 ≤ 1, X2 ≤ 2, X3 ≤ 2.5, X4 ≤ 3.33, X5 ≤5,

+0.998X4 + 0.997X5 + 0.994X6 X6 ≤ 4, X7 ≤ 8, X8 ≤ 1, X9 ≤ 3

+0.996X7 + 0.999X8 + 0.998X9 X1, X2, X3, X4, …,X9 ≥0

32

Linear Programming based Effective Maintenance and Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

The linear program model generated machines. Invariably, only two crews are

was solved using software called the needed in this maintenance period. Also

Quantitative System for Business, QSB during the second maintenance cycle,

(version 3.0). The main advantage of this machines one, two and six broke-down and

software is that it does not only generate the the number of maintenance crew needed to

result, but also does the sensitivity analysis perform the maintenance job on machine,

of the optimal solutions. m/c one is one, on machine number two is

two and on machine number six is one.

4. Results and Discussion Invariably, four maintenance crews are

needed to effectively carry out the

Solving the linear programming model maintenance job during this maintenance

with QSB software, the optimal results with cycle. Following the trend of this Table, it

its objective function co-efficients sensitivity can be seen that the cycle that having the

analysis including opportunity cost are given highest number of machine breakdown (peak

in Table 5. From Table 4, which shows the maintenance period) and also requiring the

frequency of machine breakdown, Table 6 is highest number of maintenance crews is

developed to indicate how maintenance crew cycle period six (vi). At this cycle eight

must be allocated based on the results machines broke-down and twenty-crews will

obtained from the optimal solution of the be needed to carry out peak maintenance

linear programming model developed (Table jobs, instead of maximum of six crews

5). During the first maintenance cycle, only available in the section. This indicates a

machines machine number one and six shortage of 14 crews during the peak

broke-down and only one crew is needed to maintenance period.

perform the maintenance job in each of these

Table 4: Frequency of Machine Breakdown per Cycle

Machine i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii

1 a a a a a a a a a a a a

2 a a a a a a

3 a

4 a a a a

5 a a a a

6 a a a a a a a a a a a a

7 a a a a

8 a a a a

9 a a a a

Table 5: Sensitivity Analysis of the Optimal Results

Variable (Optimal crew) Minimum Original Maximum

X1 (1) 0.2988 0.998 Infinity

X2 (2) 0.3486 0.998 Infinity

X3 (3) 0.1245 0.999 Infinity

X4 (4) 0.3934 0.998 Infinity

X5 (5) 0.6225 0.997 Infinity

X6 (0) Infinity 0.994 1.1952

X7 (3) 0.8283 0.996 1.5952

X8 (1) 0.1494 0.999 Infinity

X9 (3) 0.3735 0.998 Infinity

International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management Vol.16. N.o.2 (May-August, 2008) pp 26 -34

33

Linear Programming based Effective Maintenance and Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2

3 - - - - - - - 3 - - - -

4 - - 4 - - 4 - - 4 - - 4

5 - - 5 - - 5 - - 5 - - 5

6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 - - 3 - - 3 - - 3 - - 3

8 - - 1 - - 1 - - 1 - - 1

9 - - 3 - - 3 - - 3 - - 3

From this, it can be seen that the number there is a change in the production capacity,

of crews needed to solve the maintenance which is equivalent to the production

problem that may arise at any point in time capacity per gain (reduction) in waiting time

as derived from the optimal result without of the machine. The same condition applies

the defective machines undergoing any to the change in production capacity per

unnecessary delay is twenty. From the maintenance cycle of all the remaining

optimal results, Table 7 was gotten which machines. It can be seen also that the change

shows the old and optimal waiting times. in production capacity per gain (reduction) in

From Table 8, it can be seen that there is no waiting time of machines is negligible when

significant change in production capacity per compared with the original (old) production

maintenance cycle of Machine number one, capacity per maintenance cycle of the

since there is no change in the waiting time machines.

of the machine, but in machine number two,

Table 7: The Old and Optimal Waiting Table 8: Production Capacity (in tons) per

Times of Repair Jobs Maintenance Cycle

Machine Waiting Time (in min.) Machine Production Capacity (in tons) per

Old Optimal Maintenance Cycle

1 60 60 Old Optimal

2 120 60 1 2160 2160

3 150 50 2 2768 2771

4 200 50 3 11520 11523

5 300 60 4 3600 3604

6 240 240 5 5000 5005

7 430 160 6 1080 1080

8 60 60 7 3000 3003

9 180 60 8 4000 4000

9 3000 3003

33

Linear Programming based Effective Maintenance and Manpower Planning Strategy: A Case Study

4. Conclusion References

Through the application of linear Allan, M., Lockyer, K., Oakland, J., (1988).

programming techniques to the analysis of Production and Operation

the manpower planning in maintenance, the Management. Pitman Publishing

following findings were made: the minimum Company. London. 421pp.

number of maintenance crew needed to solve Armstrong, M., (1979). Case Study in

the maintenance problem that may arise at Personnel Management. Kogan Page.

any point in time, in order to maximize the London. pp. 3.

effectiveness of the system is twenty (20); Bieghter, C.S., Phillips, D. T., Wilde, D.J.,

with the availability of this number of crew, (1979). Foundation of Optimization.

there will be an appreciable reduction in the Macmillan Press, London. 325pp.

waiting time of machines during Bronson, R., (1982). Shaums Outline of

maintenance as shown in Table 7; the change Theory and Problems of Operation

in production capacity per maintenance cycle Research. McGraw Hill Book

is not appreciable even with the use of the Company, Singapore. 423pp.

optimal number of crew (Table 8). These CBR-Conference Board Report., (1971).

findings can be used to predict the system Manpower Planning Evolving System.

operation and no doubt served as a very Vol.1. pp. 6-13. New York.

useful tool for future planning. Fapetu O.P., and Kareem, B., (2003). “An

Effective Manpower Planning

Since the twenty maintenance crews Approach for Maintenance

needed for peak maintenance period could be Departments: A Case Study of a Cocoa

idle at less maintenance periods, some of Processing Industry”, Ondo, Global J.

them could be transferred to work in of Pure and Applied Sci., 2: 59-67.

production section to promote efficiency and Heizer, J., Render, B. (1988). Production

reduce overall cost of production. To be able and Operations Management, Allyn

to achieve this objective maintenance crew and Bacon Inc., Massachusetts. 419pp.

must be multi-skilled in nature. These Howard, J.W. (1989). Production and

people should be trained and used as Operations Management. Allyn and

supplement whenever there is excess Bacon Inc. Massachusetts. 332pp.

production workload, but when there is John, F.C. (1970). Cost Optimization

excess maintenance workload they continue Engineering, McGraw Hill Book

with maintenance work. This is to avoid the Company. New York. 319pp.

cost of keeping idle maintenance crew(s). Joseph, P. (1987). Productivity Management,

For maintenance to be effective there is need Allyn and Bacon Inc. Massachusetts.

for experienced and skilled personnel. 412pp.

Therefore, further work should look at skill Kareem, B., and Aderoba, A.A., (2000).

vis-à-vis specified work to be done. “Development of a Queuing Model for

Improvement should be made in the Determining Effective Crew-Size in

documentation of maintenance data to allow Maintenance Operations”, Nig. J. of

easy analysis of the maintenance section in Eng. Manag., 1: 1-5.

the future. Kareem, B., and Aderoba, A.A., (2004).

“Application of Linear Programming

Model to Manpower Planning”,

Proceedings of the 2004 National

33

B. Kareem and A.A. Aderoba

pp. 164-171.

Kareem, B., (2005). “A Review of Strategies

for Manpower Planning in a Depressed

Economy”, J. of Sci. and Tech. Res., 4:

pp. 33-36.

___

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