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Module MT PraPKPG

Section B BASIC CALCULUS (105 HOURS)

1.0 Differentiation ( 55 hours )

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this chapter students will be able to:


1. Understand the concept of limits of a function,
2. Determine the limit of a particular function,
3. Understand the concept and characteristics of continuity,
4. Understand and apply the definition of differentiation from the first principle,
5. Differentiating axn , trigonometric functions and functions involving addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division and composite functions,
6. Understand and determine the second degree differentiation,
7. Applications of differentiation to solve the problems.

1.1 Differentiation : Limits and Continuity


Slope
increase in x
The slope of a straight line is the ratio , going from one point to another
increase in y
on the (Fig. 1.1) we have also seen that (x1, y1) , (x2, y2) are two points on a line , the
y 2  y1
slope of PQ, equals which is equivalent to the definition given above
x2  x1
y

Q(x2, y2)

P(x1, y1)

x
O
1
Fig: 1.1

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Consider the curve y = x2 ( Fig.1.2 ), we try to find the slope at the point P(x, x 2) on the
curve y = . Now take a point Q whose x-coordinate is x + h. Then QR = (x + h) 2 – x2 and
Pr = h. The size of h is not fixed and we can vary it as we please, except that it must not
equal 0.
QR
Slope of PQ =
PR
( x  h) 2  x 2

h
x  2 xh  h 2  x 2
2

h
2 xh  h 2

h
 2x  h

Clearly so long as h is positive, this value will be greater then 2x, but as h  0 the
slope of PQ will tend to 2x. Hence the limiting value will be 2x and this will be the slope
of the tangent at P. When x = 2 for instance, the slope of the tangent will equal 4 and so
on.

An alternative notation for the slope function

Once again take the curve y = x2 and the point ( Fig.1.2 ) . Now consider the neighboring
point Q whose x-coordinate is x  x . x ( read delta x) is the increase in the value of x.
Note carefully that x is one symbol. The coordinate of Q will be written x  y , where
y is the corresponding increment in y.

Fig 1.2

Now at P and at Q, y  y = ( x  x )2 since both points lie on the curve y = x2 ,


Therefore

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y  ( x  x) 2  x 2
 2 xx  (x) 2

y
Hence the slope of PQ, 
x
 2 x  x

y
Now as QP, y .0 and the limiting value of will be 2x. To signify that is the
x
y dy
limiting value of we rewrite it in the form ( read dee y by dee x) and we have
x dx
dy
= 2x
dx

The slope function of y = f(x) is f’(x) = where is


the limiting value of as  0

Example 1.

If y = 3x2 –x + 5, find the derivative of y using first principles without the graphical
illustration.

Solution:

We have y = 3x2 –x + 5 . An increase in x  x produces a corresponding increase in y


to x  y ,

Then y + y = 3( x  x )2 – ( x  x ) + 5
y = 3( x  x )2 – ( x  x ) + 5 – y
= 3( x  x )2 – ( x  x ) + 5 – (3x2 –x + 5)
= 3x + 6x x + 3( x )2 – x - x + 5 - 3x2 +x – 5
= 6x x + 3( x )2 - x
y
Therefore = 6x + 3 ( x ) – 1
x

y y
If we now consider x  0 the limiting value of would be 6x – 1 and so = 6x –
x x
1.
Exercise 1.1(a)

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1. For the curves given by the functions find the slope function by the above limiting
process;

(a) y = 2x2 (b) y = 2x2 – 5


(c) y = 2x2 + 7 (d) y = x2 + x – 1

(e) y = x3 (f) y = x3 - x2 – 2x
2 (h) y = 2x3
(g) y=
x

2. Find the slope of the tangents to the following curves at the points specified.

(a) y = 2x2 when x = 3 (b) y = 2x2 – 5 when x = -2

(c) y = 2x2 + 7 when x = 3 (d) y = x2 + x – 1 when x = -4

(e) y = x3 + when x = -2 (f) 2


y= when x = -4
x

Exercise 1.1(b)

1. Taking an increase x find the corresponding change y in y and find the


y
limiting value of for each of the following ;
x

(a) y = 6x2- 4 (b) y = 2x3

(c) y= 2x2 + 3x + 7 (d) y = x2 - x + 3

1 2
(e) y = x 1
2

2. For each of the above curve, find the slope of tangents where x = -1, 0, 2

1.2 Differentiation Rules for All Functions


We will noticed a certain common pattern in the derivatives so far obtained and perhaps
guessed that the derivatives has some connection with the power of the variable(x0

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used. If we used the first principles without graphical illustration these result already
obtained;

Function Derivative
X2 2x
X3 3x
3x2 – 2 6x
X2 + x – 1 2x + 1
2x2 – 4 4x
1 1
-x-2 (i.e. - )
x x2

From these result it would appear that the derivative of x2 is nxn-1 . So we can say:

dy
If y = a xn , = nxn-1 where a is a constant
dx

(This result will be proved when we have studied the binomial theorem)

Polynomials
dy
Let say that y = ax2 + bx + c, find .
dx
Take an increase x in x and a corresponding increase y in y

Than y + = a(x + ) 2 + b( x + ) + c
= ax2 + 2ax + a()2 + bx + b + c
So, = 2ax + a( ) 2+ b

And = 2ax + a + b  2ax + b as  0

Hence = 2ax + b

The derivatives of separate terms ax 2, bx , c are 2ax , b and 0 respectively. Hence the
derivatives of y is the sum of the separate terms . This result is true for any polynomial or
collection of term involving powers of a variable. Hence expressions containing brackets
and fractional terms can differentiated only if simplified first

Exercise 1.2

1. Find the derivatives of the following with respect to x;

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(a) 5 x2 (b) 3 x2
(c) x2+ 5x (d) 10 x4

3 3
(e) 4x - (f) x-
x4 x
(g) 8x (h) 8

(i) 4 x-5 1
(j) x3
1 1 3
(k) (l) x- + 2
x x x
(m) 3
x 5
(n) 9x +
x

1 dy
2. if y = 2t2 - , find
t dt
ds
3. If s = 3t3 + 2t2 – 7t + 3, find
dt

4. Find the slope at the point where x = 1 on the curve y = x3 + x2 – 3


.
5. Find the slope of the tangent where x = 9 on the curve y = 3 x-4

1.3 Chain Rule

1.3.1 Composite Function

1
A function such as y = (3x -2) -2 or y = poses a problem for differentiation. We
(3 x  2 ) 2
cannot express it as polynomial. To find we treat it as composite function, built up with
two stages from a core function (3x – 2) which we call u and then taking y = u-2. so we
have u = 3x – 2 and y = u-2.

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Consider an increase x in x. this will produce an increase u in u which in turn


change y by an amount y .

y y u
Now by ordinary fractions, = x as u cancels
x u x
The important point now is that we shall assume that

y  y   u 
lim   lim    lim 
x 0 x
 u 0 u   x 0 x 

dy dy du
i.e, that, = x
dx du dx

du dy 2
Then in the above problem, as = 3 and =  3
dx du u

dy 2 6
we have =  3 x3=  , substituting for u.
du u (3 x  2) 3

dy dy du
Note that we could not directly say that = x as these are not fractions
dx du dx
which can be manipulated. It must be admitted however that the notation is helpful in
suggesting the result achieved.

* This method is also called the function of a function rule


Example 2

Differentiate 3x  5

Solution:

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Take u = 3x + 5 and y = u

Now =x

And = =3

Hence = x 3 =

Now bearing the rule in mind, this result can be obtained directly as follows:

1.3.2 Product Rule

We can now extend our technique in differentiating to deal complicated expressions,


those which are products of two or more expressions and those which are in the form of
a quotient.

Example 3:

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dy
y = (2x -1)(x2 + 3) , is the product of two expressions. How is found from these two
dx
derivatives ?

Solution:

Let y = uv where u and v are each functions of x. ( In the above, u would be (2x – 10 and
v would be (x2 + 3).
Take an increase u in x which will in t)(x2 + 3)urn produce increase u in u and v
in v, finally producing a change y in y

Then y + = (u + )(v + )

= uv +u +v +

= u +v +
And = v+ u +

Now let  0, then  0, 0.

Hence ,  and 

Then in the limit, = v+ u (the third term 0 as 0)

So if y = uv, we have the product rule; dy du dv


=v +u
dx dx dx

du dv
From the example 1, u = (2x -1) = 2, v = (x2 + 3), = 2x
dx dx
dy
= (x2 + 3)(2) + (2x -1)(2x)
dx

= 2 x2 + 6 + 4 x2 – 2x
= 6 x2 – 2x + 6

1.3.3 The Quotient Rule

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A method can also be found to obtain the derivative of a function expressed in the form
u x2 1
of a quotient , such as .
v 3x  3

u
Consider y = where u and v are each functions of x. Let x be an increase in x,
v
thus causing corresponding increase u , v , y in u,v and y respectively

u  u u  u u vu  uv
Then y + y = hence y = - =
v  v v  v v v (v  v )

u v
v u
y x dividing both sides by x .
Therefore  x
x v(v  v)
y
Now to find the limiting value of , let x 0, then u and v each 0,
x

y dy u du v dv
 ,  , and 
x dx x dx x dx

Hence
du dv
v u
dy dx dx
 2
dx v

x2 1 du dv
From example above, y = , here u = x2 + 1 , = 2x , v = 3x – 3 ,  =3
3x  3 dx dx

(3 x  3)(2 x )  ( x 2  1)(3)
dy
Then = (3 x  3) 2
dx

6 x 2  6 x  3 x 2 3
=
(3 x  3) 2

3( x 2  2 x  1)
=
(3 x  3) 2

Exercise 1.3

Differentiate with respect to x;

1. (x + 1) 2 2. (2x – 3) 2

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3. (x – 1)(2x + 1) 4. (3x – 2)(x + 1) 2

5. x 1 x2  5
x 6. x
( x  3) 2
3x 3  x  4
7. 8. 2x
2x

9. 5x3 – 3x2 + 7x – 7 10. x 4+ x2 - 1

11. (2x + 5) 12. 4x  3

1 1
13. 4x  3 14. 3x  5

1 1
15. ( 2 x  3) 2 16. x 6
3

1 1
17. ( 2 x  x  6) 2
2 18. x  x3
2

( x  1) ( 2 x  1)
19. ( x  2) 20. ( x  1)
x2 ( x 2  x  1)
21. ( 2 x  3) 22. ( x  1)
(2 x 2  2) ( x 2  x  1)
23. 24.
( x 3  4) ( x 2  x  1)
x (3 x  1)
25. x2 26. 2x  1

1.4 Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions


1.4.1 Derivative of cos x, sin x and tan x

Let y = cos x ………………….(1)

Let be a small increment in x and y be the corresponding increment in y.


y + y = cos(x + x ) …………………..(2)

Then, (2) - (1): y = cos (x + x ) - cos x

We shall use a formula from advanced Trigonometry to simplify the above.


That is,

X Y X Y
Cos x – cos y = - 2sin sin
2 2

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Taking X = x + x and Y = x, we have


x  x)  x x  x  x
y = -2 sin sin
2 2
x x
= -2 sin (x + ) sin
2 2

x x x
 2 sin( x ) sin sin
Divide by x throughout:
x
=
2 2   sin( x  x ) 2
2 x 2  x
2
x
sin
y dy x 2
When x 0, , sin( x  ) sin x and 1,
x dx 2 x
2

dy y
Hence  lim   sin x
dx x  0 x
d
i.e (cos x)   sin x
dx

*Use that method to find the differentiation sin x and tan x

Basic Differentiation Rules


d d
1. (cos x )   sin x 7. ( a cos bx)  ab(sin bx )
dx dx
d d
2. (sin x)  cos x 8. ( a sin bx)  ab(cos bx)
dx dx
d d
3. (tan x)  sec 2 x 9. ( a tan bx )  ab(sec 2 bx )
dx dx
d d
4. (cos u )  (sin u )u ' 10. cos(ax  b)   a sin(ax  b)
dx dx
d d
5. (sin u )  (cos u )u ' 11. sin( ax  b)  a cos(ax  b)
dx dx
d d
6. (tan u )  (sec 2 u )u ' 12. tan(ax  b)  sec 2 (ax  b)
dx dx

Example 4:

Differentiate the following with respect to x;

(a) sin 5x (b) cos 7x (c) tan 6x

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Solution:
(a) y = sin 5x and u = 5x
du
y = sin u 5
dx
dy
 cos u
du
dy dy du
   cos u  5  cos 5 x  5  5 cos 5 x
dx du dx

(b) y = cos 7x and u = 7x


du
y = cos u 7
dx
dy
  sin u
du
dy dy du
    sin u  7   sin 7 x  7  7 sin 7 x
dx du dx

(c) y = tan 6x and u = 6x


du
y = tan u 6
dx
dy
 sec 2 u
du
dy dy du
   sec 2 u  6  sec 2 6 x  6  6 sin 6 x
dx du dx
1.4.2 Differentiation of sinn x, cosn x and tann x

In general,
d
(sin n x )  n sin n 1 x cos x
dx

d
(cos n x)  n cos n 1 x sin x
dx
d
(tan n x)  n tan n 1 x sec 2 x
dx

Example 5:

Differentiation the following with respect to x;


x
(a) sin4 x (b) 2 cos2 3x (c) 3 tan3
2
Solution:
(a) Let y  sin 4 x with sin x as the main function

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y  (sin x ) 4
dy d
 4  (sin x ) 3  (sin x)
dx dx
dy
 4 sin 3 x cos x
dx

(b) Let y  2 cos 2 3 x with cos 3x as the main function


y  2(cos 3 x ) 2

dy d
 2  2(cos 3 x )1  (cos 3 x )
dx dx
dy
 ( 4 cos 3 x )(3 sin 3 x )
dx
dy
 12 cos 3 x sin 3 x
dx
x x
(c) Let y  3 tan 3 with tan the main function
2 2
x
y  3(tan ) 3
2
dy x d x
 3  3(tan ) 2  (tan )
dx 2 dx 2
dy x 1 x
 (9 tan 2 )( sec 2 )
dx 2 2 2
dy 9 x x
 tan 2 sec 2
dx 2 2 2
Exercise 1.4

1. Differentiate the following with respect to x;

(a) 4 sin 7x – x (b) 3 cos 2x + tan 4x (c) 3 x2 + 4 tan x



(d) cos 7x + sin 3x (e) cos (2x + ) (f) tan (7x + )
4
     x  
(g) sin (3x - ) (h) tan   x  (i) sin   
4 3 2   2 3
 3 
(j) sin   x  (k) sin 5 x  4 cos x (l)
3 2 
sin 2 x  3 cos x
2

(m) sin 5 ( 2 x  3 ) (n) cos 4 2 x  tan 5 5 x

2. Differentiate the following with respect to x;

3 4
(a) cos (b) sin (c) sec x
x x
(d) cosec 2x (e) cot 3x (f) tan x 3

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2
3 5
(g) (h) (i) x
sin(3 x   ) tan (2 x   )
2
cos 3 ( 4 x  )
2

5
(j) tan (k) sec 2 3 x (l) cot 3 5 x
x2

3. Differentiate the following with respect to x;

(a) sin x cos 2x (b) 4 x 3 cos 2 x (c) x 2 cos 2 x


3x sin 3 x
(d) cos 3x tan 4x (e) (f)
tan 2 x 2 cos 2 x
2 x 2 x  sin x sin x
(g) (h) (i)
sin 2 x 3 cos x 2  cos x
sin x  cos x
(j) (k) 3x cos 5x - 5x tan3x (l) 3 x 2 tan 2 ( x   )
sin x  cos x

1.5 Second Degree Differentiation


dy
If the function y = 4x2- 3x + 1 is differentiated with respect to x we obtain= 8x -3.
dx
This means that the rate of change of y as compared with x, (8x-2), is itself dependent
on x is therefore another function of x. We can therefore find its derivatives with respect

dy
to x, i.e. the rate of change of with respect to x.
dx
dy
d()
This second derivatives should be written dx but as it can be interpreted as an
dx
d d dy d2y
operator being used twice ( )y, a less clumsy symbol is . Note that is
dx dx dx dx 2
d2y
a single symbol and also note the difference between the second derivative and
dx 2

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dy d2y d2y
the square of , i.e ( ). Then for the above function, = 8. The second
dx dx 2 dx 2
derivative of y = f(x) is sometimes also written as f”(x).

Example 6

dy d2y
Find and if y = x
dx dx 2

Solution:

1dy 1  12 d2y 1 2
3
y= x  (x) ,2 = x ,  =  x
dx 2 dx 2 4

Exercise 1.5

dy d2y
Find and for the following;
dx dx 2

(a) y = 3x3 (b) y = x 4+ 2x3 – 3x2 + 1

(c) 1 (d) x 1
y= y=
x 1 x 1
(e) 1 (f) y= x
. y=
x

(g) ds d 2s
If s = 4t3 -3t2 + t – 5 , find and
dt dt 2
(h) d s2
1 ds d 2s
If s = 3t 2 - , find and
dt t dt dt 2
(i) dy d2y
If y = axn, where a is a constant, find and
dx dx 2
(j) x dy 2
d y d2y dy
If y = , find and and show that , (1+ x) + 2 =0
1 x dx dx 2 dx 2 dx

1 d2y dy 2
(k) y= , prove that y = 2( )
2 x dx 2 dx

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1.6 Application of Differentiation


1.6.1 (a) The Gradient of a Curve

So far we have only discussed the gradient of a straight line. A man walking up
2
the ramp AB (Fig. 2.1) is climbing a gradient of .
7

2m

C A
7m
Fig. 2.1

Let us now consider a man walking up the slope by the curve CPD (Fig. 2.2).

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Between C and D the gradient is steadily increasing. If when he had reached the
point P, the gradient had stopped increasing, and had remained constant from
the on, he would have climbed up the slope represented by the straight line PT,
the tangent to the curve at P. Thus in walking up the slope CD, when the man is
at the point P (and only at that instant) he is climbing a gradient represented by
the gradient of PT.

P
C

Fig. 2.2

Definition

The gradient of a curve at any point is the gradient of the tangent to the
curve at that point.

Example 1

Find the coordinate of the point on the curve y  x 2 , given by x = 4 and -10,
and find the gradient of the curve at these points.

Solution:
dy
y  x2 the gradient function is;  2x
dx
When x = 4 y = 16
dy
When x = 4 8
dx
Therefore the point is (4,16) and the gradient is 8.

When x = -10 y = 100


dy
When x = -10  20
dx
Therefore the point is (-10,100), and the gradient is -20

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(b) Tangent and Normal

Definition

A normal to a curve at a point is the straight line through the point at right
angles to the tangent at point.(Fig. 2.3)

Tangent

Normal

Fig. 2.3

We are now able to find the equations of tangents and normal.


dy
For the curve given by y = f(x), gives the gradient of the tangent at any
dx
point.
dy
Given the coordinates of a point on the curve and the value of at that
dx
point,
the equation of tangent can be easily obtained.

Example 2

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y  x 3  3x  2 where x = 2.

Solution

dy
= 3x 2  3
dx
When x = 2 the gradient of the tangent = 9
When x = 2, y=4
The equation of the tangent is y – 4 = 9(x – 2) i.e y = 9x – 14

Example 3

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Find the coordinates of the points on curve y  x 3  4 x 2  3x  2 where the


tangent is parallel to the x-axis.

Solution:
dy
The tangent is parallel to the x-axis, must be zero at the point of contact.
dx
dy
= 3x 2  8 x  3x  0
dx
1
We have x   or x = 3
3
These are the only values of x which give points on the curve where the
gradient is 0.
 1 64 
Their coordinates are   ,  and  3,20 
 3 27 

Example 4
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y  ( x 2  x  1)( x  3) at the point
where its cuts the x-axis.

Solution
When y = 0, ( x 2  x  1)( x  3)  0,

But ( x 2  x  1)  0 has no real roots, therefore x = 3


So the curve cuts the x-axis at (3,0).
y  x3  2x 2  2x  3

dy
 3x 2  4 x  2
dx
dy
When x =3,  13
dx

The gradient of the tangent at (3,0) is 13, therefore the gradient of normal at
1
(3,0) is  and its equation is
13
1
y0   ( x  3)
13
13 y   x  3

Therefore the equation of the normal is x  13 y  3  0

Exercise 1.6.1

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Module MT PraPKPG

1. Find the equations of the tangents to the following curves at the points
corresponding to the given values of x:
(i) y  x2, x2
(ii) y  3x  x  1
2
x0
(iii) y  3  4x  2x 2 , x 1
(iv) y  9x  x ,
3
x  -3
(v) y  3 x  2,
2
x4

2. Find the equations of the normal to the curves in No.1 at the given points.

3. Find the equation of the tangent and the normal to the curve
y  x 2 ( x  3)

At the point where it cuts the x-axis. Sketch the curve.

4. Repeat No.3 for the curve y  x ( x  4) 2

5. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y  3 x 3  4 x 2  2 x  10 at


the point of intersection with the y-axis.

6. Repeat N0.5 for the curve y  x 3  4 x  3.

7. Find the value of x for which the gradient function of the curve
y  2 x 3  3 x 2  12 x  3 is zero. Hence find the equations of the tangents
to the curve which are parallel to the x-axis.

8. Repeat No.7 for the curve y  2 x 3  9 x 2  10

9. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve 4 y  x 2 at the point (2,1)

10. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve y  x 3  x 2  2 at the


point where x = 2. Find the coordinates of the point where this tangent
meets the curve again.

1.6.2 Maximum and Minimum Value

(a) Greatest and Least Value

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Module MT PraPKPG

Fig.2.4 represents the path of a stone thrown from O, reaching its greatest height
AB, and striking the ground at C. Between O and A, when the stone is climbing,
the gradient is positive but steadily decreases to zero at A. Past A the stone is
descending, and the path has negative gradient.

+
-
+
-
+

-
O C
B
Fig.2.4

The curve y  x 2 of which we made much use earlier on, is called a parabola. A

more general equation of this type or curve is of the form y  ax 2  bx  c ; when


a is positive we get a curve like a valley, such as DEF in Fig. 2.5, on which y has
a least value (GE); when a is a negative, we get a curve like a mountain top,
such as OAC in Fig. 2.5, on which y has a greatest value (BA).

Y D F

- +

A
- E +
-
+

+ -

X
O B C G
Fig. 2.5

Example 5

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Module MT PraPKPG

Find the greatest or least value of y on the curve y  4 x  x 2 . Sketch the

curve.

Solution:

y  4x  x 2
dy
 4  2x
dx
The gradient is zero when 2 (2 - x) = 0
x = 2 and y = 4(2) – 22 = 4

We must now investigate the sign of the gradient on either side of point (2 , 4) to
discover whether it is a highest or lowest point on the curve.

Just to the left of (2 , 4),


dy
x is just less than 2, and is positive
dx
Just to the right of (2 , 4),
dy
x is just greater than 2, and is negative
dx
Thus the curve like a mountain top and the greatest value of y is 4.

To make a rough sketch of the curve, we find where it cuts the axes.
Then y = 0,
4x  x 2  0
x(4  x)  0
x0 or x4
Therefore the curve passes through (0,0) and (4,0).

From this information we can make the sketch (Fig. 2.6)

X
2 4
O
Fig. 2.6

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Module MT PraPKPG

Example 6
Find the greatest or least value of x 2  4 x  3 and the value of x for which it
occurs

Solution:
y  x 2  4x  3
dy
 2x  4
dx
 2( x  2 )

The gradient is zero when x = -2 and y = -1

x Left -2 Right
dy
dx - 0 +

Outline

When x = -2, the function y  x 2  4 x  3 has the least value -1

Note: The greatest value is maximum value


The least value is minimum value
Exercise 1.6.2(a)

1. Find the coordinates of the points on the following curve where the
gradient is zero:
(i) y  x 2  5x  2

(ii) y  5  9x  7x 2

(iii) y  x (3 x  2)

(iv) y  (2  x )(3  4 x )

2. Find the value of x for which the following derived function are zero, and
determine whether the corresponding graphs have a highest or a lowest
point for these values of x :
dy dy 1
(i)  2x  5 (ii)  x3
dx dx 2
dy 1 1 dy 1
(iii)   x (iv)  5  x
dx 3 4 dx 5

3. Find the greatest or least values of the following functions :


(i) x2  x  2 (ii) x(4  x)

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Module MT PraPKPG

(iii) 15  2 x  x 2 (iv) ( 2 x  3)( x  2)

4. Sketch the graph of the functions in No.3

1.6.2(b) Stationary Points


dy
A point on a curve at which = 0 is called a stationary point and the value of
dx
the function at the point a stationary value.
At such points the tangent is parallel to the x-axis.
dy
To find the stationary points, set = 0 and solve the resulting equation.
dx

Example 7
Find the stationary points of the function 4 x 3  15 x 2  18 x  7
For the function

Solution:

dy
 12 x 2  30 x  18
dx
 6(2x 2  5 x  3)
 6(2x - 1)(x  3)

dy 1
Hence = 0 when x = or x = - 3
dx 2
9
The stationary values of the function at these points are and 88 respectively.
4

Turning points :maximum and minimum points

Fig 2.7 shows a curve passing through a stationary point and reaching a
maximum value at that point.
As x increases (from left to right) the gradient of the curve decreases from a +
value through 0 to a - value.

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Module MT PraPKPG

dy
0
dy dx
 dy
dx 
dx

X
O
Fig. 2.7

Fig 2.8 shows a curve reaching a minimum at a stationary point.


As x increases the gradient increases from a - value through 0 to a + value.
Y
dy

dx
dy

dx
dy
0
dx
X
O
Fig. 2.8

Maximum and minimum points are also referred to as turning points, as the
tangent turns over at such a point.

Points of inflexion
A third type of stationary point is show in fig 2.9, where the curve has neither a
maximum nor a minimum value. This is called a point of inflexion, not a turning
point.

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Module MT PraPKPG

dy
For all stationary points, the necessary condition is that 0
dx

Y dy
0
dx dy

dx
dy

dx
dy dy
 0
dx dx
dy

dx

X
O
Fig 2.9

A maximum or a minimum value is not meant in an absolute sense.


Fig. 2.10 shows a curve which has two maximum and one minimum values
though one of the ‘maximum’ values is greater than the other, and the minimum
value is not the lowest value possible for the function.
dy
For a maximum or minimum,  0 is necessary but by itself is not sufficient to
dx
distinguish between them. A simple test is shown in the next example which is
sufficient for our purpose.

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Module MT PraPKPG

X
O
Fig. 2.10
Example 8
Find the maximum and minimum values of the function
4 x 3  15 x 3  18 x  7.

Solution:
dy 1
Using the working done in Example 3,  0 when x = or -3.
dx 2
dy
 6(2 x  1)( x  3)
dx
dy
To settle the nature of the turning points consider the sign of on each side
dx
of the turning point.

x 1 1 1

2 2 2  3 -3  3
x + 3 is + x + 3 is + x + 3 is - x + 3 is +
2x – 1 is - 2x – 1 is + 2x – 1 is - 2x – 1 is -
dy
dx - 0 + + 0 -
Outline

Minimum Maximum
1 1
Note: means a value of x slightly less than , i.e to the left along the x-axis. Then 2x
2 2

1 1
would be slightly less than 1 and 2x – 1 would be negative. means slightly more than ,
2 2
i.e. to the right along the x-axis. Then 2x would be slightly more than 1 and 2x – 1 would be
positive.
Similarly  3  means slightly less than -3, then x + 3 would be negative and so on.

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Module MT PraPKPG

1 9
Hence at x = the function has a minimum value of and at x =  3 the
2 4
function has a maximum value of 88.

Example 9

Find the stationary points of y  x 3  6 x 2  12 x  3 and distinguish between them.

Solution:
dy
 3 x 2  12 x  12  3( x 2  4 x  4)  3( x  2) 2
dx
dy
The only value of x making = 0 is x = 2 (a double value).
dx
dy
Testing the sign of on either side of x = 2 we have:
dx
x 2 2 2
dy
dx + 0 +

outline

Hence the function has point of inflexion when x = 2.

The important steps;


dy
1. Use = 0, to find coordinate of x for stationary point
dx
2. Find coordinate of y for stationary points with substitute value of x in y = f(x).
d2y
3. Find for stationary point
dx 2
d2y
If > 0, therefore the point is minimum point
dx 2
d2y
If < 0, therefore the point is maximum point
dx 2
d2y
If = 0, to state the properties of stationary point with gradient
dx 2
differentiation for stationary approximate point.
Exercise 1.6.2(b)

1. For each of the following functions find


(a) the position of the stationary points (if any),
(b) the nature of these points(maximum, minimum or point of
inflexion) and
(c) the maximum or minimum values of the function where they occur.
1. x 2  2x 2. 5  4x  x 2

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Module MT PraPKPG

3. x 4. x 3  3x  2
5. 3x  x 2 6. 2 x 3  3x 2  36 x  5
7. x 3  3x 2  3x  2

dy 4 4x 2 1
2. Find for the two curves y  x  and y   2 and prove that the
dx x 3 x
1
curves have the same gradient when x  .
2
4
Find the range of values of x for which the gradient of the curve y  x  is
x
greater than 5. Determine whether the curve has any turning points.
2 x
3. Find the values of x for which the gradient of the curve y  is zero, given
x2 1
your answer in surd form.
4x  3
4. Find the maximum and minimum values of .
x2 1

1.6.2(c) Maximum and Minimum Problems

The method used to find the turning value of a function can be applied in problems
where the maximum value or minimum value of a quantity varying under certain
conditions is required.

Example 10
1000 meter of fencing is to be used to make a rectangular enclosure. Find the greatest
possible area, and the corresponding dimensions.

Solution:
If the length is x meter, the width will be (500 – x) meter, and the area, A sq. meter, is
given by
A = x (500 - x)
Or A = 500x – x2

[This problem could now be solved by drawing accurately the graph of area plotted against length
(Fig. 2.11), and reading off the greatest area (NM) and the corresponding length(ON).]

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Module MT PraPKPG

A
M

Area in sq meter

x
O N Length in meter

Fig. 2.11

In this practice it is, finding the greatest value of 500x – x2 without plotting the graph.

A  x (500  x )
dA
 500  2 x
dx
 2(250 - x).
Which is zero when x = 250
And A = 250(500 – 250) = 62 500
x Left 250 Right
dA
dx + 0 -

Outline

The greatest area is 62 500 sq. meter, when the length is 250 meter and the width is 250
meter.

Example 11
A closed rectangular tank is to be made to contain 9 m3 of water. The length must be
twice the breadth and total surface area must be a minimum. Find the dimensions of
tank.

Solution:
Take a variable x m as the breadth.
The length is then 2x m.
And the second variable for height is h m.

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Module MT PraPKPG

The quantity to be minimized is the surface area (A).


A  2( 2 x 2  2 xh  xh)
 4x 2  6xh

We must now eliminate h. The relation between x and h is given by the condition that
the volume is 9 m3
9  x.2 x.h  2 x 2 h
9
h
2x 2

27
Hence A  4x 2 
x
dA 27
Differentiating wrt. x,  8x  2
dx x
dA
And for a turning point, 0
dx
27 27
This gives 8x  or x3 
x2 8
3
i.e x  1.5 meter
2

Testing this value gives a definite minimum for A when x = 1.5 m


Hence the minimum surface area is obtained when the dimensions are
1.5m X 3m X 2m and surface area is then
27
4.(1.5) 2   27 m 2
1.5

x 1.5  1.5 1.5 


dA
dx - 0 +
Outline

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Module MT PraPKPG

Exercise 1.6.2(c)

1. A stone is thrown up. Its height h units from the ground after t second is
given by h  96t  16t 2 . Find the greatest height the stone reaches.
2. A box is made from thin metal, with no top, and with vertical side. The base is a
rectangle whose length is twice the breadth. If the box can hold 288 cm3, what
are is dimensions if the minimum amount of material is to be used in its
construction?
3. A cylinder is designed to hold 54 cm 3 of liquid but must be made so as to
have minimum surface area. Taking r cm as the radius of the cylinder, find an
expression for the surface area (A) in terms of r and hence find the value of r
required.

4. From the rectangular piece of metal shown in figure below, the shaded
square(each of side x cm) are removed and the remainder folded along the
dotted line to make a tray. Find an expression for the volume contained by the
tray in term of x and hence find the value of x

10

16

which will make this volume a maximum.

5. A farmer has 100 meter of metal railing with which to form to adjacent sides of a
rectangular enclosure, the other two sides being two existing walls o f the yard,
meeting at right angles. What dimensions will give him the maximum possible
area?.
6. A bullet is fired into a mud bank and penetrates (1200t  36000t 2 ) meter in t
second after impact. Calculate the maximum depth of penetration.

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Module MT PraPKPG

1.6.3 Approximations
1.6.4 Small Changes and Error
Suppose y = f(x) and x is changed by a small amount x. There will
consequently be a corresponding change y. in the value of y, and it is desired
to find this change in a simple way. In Fig. 2.12 AD represents a portion of the
graph of the function y = f(x). The point A represents the value of with the given
value of x.
AB = x. and correspondingly BD = y. However if x. is small we may
take BC  y. (  meaning approximately equal to) where C lies on the
tangent at A.

C
A
B

X
O
x

BC dy Fig. 2.12 dy dy
Now  and therefore BC   AB   x
AB dx dx dx

dy
Hence y   x or y  f' (x)  x.
dx

Example 12

54
If P  and x is decreased from 3 to 2.98 what is the approximate
x2
change in the value of P?

Solution:

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Module MT PraPKPG

dP
We have P   x
dx
And when x = 3, x. = -0.02
dP 2  54
Also 
dx x3
2  54
y  ( )  ( 0.02)
Therefore 33
 0.08
i.e. an increase in the value of P.

Example 13

If P  3 6t 2  1 and t is increased by a small amount t , find an


approximation for the corresponding increase in P. Calculate the approximate
percentage increase in P if there is a 3% increase in t when t = 4.

Solution:
dP
We have P   t
dt
2
dP 1 
 (6t 2  1) 3  12t
dt 3
and 4t 4t
 2
 2
P
(6t 2  1) 3
4t
Therefore P   t
P2

When t = 4 and t is increased by 3%,


t  0.03  4  0.12 and P  3 95

The percentage increase in P is


P
 100
P
4t
 3  t  100
P
16
  0.12  100
95
 2.02%

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Module MT PraPKPG

Exercise 1.6.3

1. If k  3 x , find the approximate increase in the value of k if x is increased


from 4 to 4.01

2. If z  2 (9  x 2 ) , find the approximate change in z when x is decreased from


4 to 3.99.

3. Find the approximate change in the area of a circle if the radius is increased from
2 to 2.01 cm.

5
4. If T  , find the change in T when s is increased from 5 to 5.03.
s
4 3
5. If the volume of a sphere of radius r is given by V  r , find an expression
3
for the approximate change in the volume corresponding to a change r , in
the radius.
When the radius is 5 cm, it is increased by 1%. Find the approximate
percentage change in the volume.

6. P  (3 x 2  1) 3 When x = 2, it is decreased by 3%. Find the approximate


percentage change in P

2
7. If y  8ax  3 , find the change in y when x is increased from 8 to 8.3.

1 2
8. If y  ax , where a is a constant, find the approximate percentage
2
change in y when x is increased by 5% from the value x = 3.

9. The surface area (A) of a sphere of radius r is given by the formula

A  4r 2 . When r = 5 cm it is decrease by 2%. Find the approximate


percentage decrease in the surface area.

10. Find the approximate increase in the circumference of a circle when the
radius is increased from 10 cm to 10.03 cm.

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Module MT PraPKPG

1.6.5 Rate of Change

The method of comparing rates of change is quite general. Suppose a quantity y


can be expressed as a function of a single variable x , then the rate of change of

dy dx
y wrt t, , and the rate of change of x wrt t, , are related by the
dt dt

dy dy dx
equation   .
dt dx dt
dy
is found from the function y=f(x).
dx

Example 14

Suppose the radius(r) of circle is 3 cm at a certain instant and is increasing at the


rate of 0.5 cm s-1 . At what rate will the area (A) be increasing at that instant?

Solution:
dr dA
We are given that  0.5. We have to find
dt dt
dA dA dr
We can compare the two rates of change by using the ‘chain’ rule  
dt dr dt
dA
as it is possible to find from the relation A  r 2 . Then
dr
dA dr
 2r 
dt dt
 2  3  0.5
 3  9.42

At this instant therefore the area is increasing at the rate 9.42 cm2 s-1(i.e square
cm per second) approximately.

Example 15

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A hollow right circular cone has base radius 4 cm and vertical height 20 cm. It is
held upside down with its axis vertical, and contains water. Water is being added
at the constant rate of 1.5 cm3s-1 and leaks away through a small hole in the
vertex at the constant rate of 2 cm3s-1. At what rate is the depth of the water
changing when the depth is 12 cm?

Solution:

Fig. 2.13 shows the facts.


When the volume of water in the cone is V let its depth be x and the radius of
its circular face be r. V is to be expressed in terms of x alone.

x r x
By the similar triangles,  or r 
20 4 5
4 1 1 x 2
x 3
Now V  r 2 x   x
3 3 25 75
r dV 3x 2 x 2
and  
dx 75 25
20
Therefore
x dV dV dx
 
dt dx dt
x 2 dx
 
Fig: 2.13 25 dt

dV
But is the rate of increase of the volume of water.
dt
dV
  1.5  2  0.5
dt
  12 2 dx
 0.5   since x  12
25 dt
dx 0.5  25
Therefore   0.027
dt   144

The water level is falling at the rate of 0.027 cms-1.

Exercise 1.6.4

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Module MT PraPKPG

1. At what rate is the area of a circle decreasing when its radius is 4 cm and
decreasing at the rate of 0.2 cm s-1?

2. When the circumference of a circle is 250 mm the radius is increasing at the rate
of 5 mm s-1. Find the rate at which the area of the circle is increasing.

3. An ink blot has radius of 12 mm and its area is increasing at the rate of 3
mm2 s-1. At what rate is the radius increasing?

4. The radius (r) of a sphere is 4 cm and is increasing at the rate of


4 3
0.5 cm s-1. At what rate is the volume (V) increasing? ( V  r )
3

5. A hollow circular cone, radius of base 75 mm and height 250 mm, is held vertex
down with axis vertical and contains water. The water is leaking away through a
small hole in the vertex at the rate of 900 mm3 s-1. Find the rate at which the
water level is falling when it is 100 mm above the vertex.

6. A circular cylinder has a radius of 0.3 m and it is being fill with water at the rate of
0.009 m3 s-1. Find the rate at which the water level is rising.

7. A balloon is being inflated by blowing in 104 cm3 s-1 of air. At what rate is the
radius increasing when the diameter of the balloon is 45 cm?.

8. The length of each side of a cube is expending at the rate of 0.02 ms-1. At what
rate is the volume increasing when each side is 0.25 m long?.

9. The height of a cone remains constant at 30 cm. The radius of the base is
increasing at the rate of 0.1 cms-1. Find the rate at which the surface area of the
cone is increasing, when r = 40 cm
(surface area = r r 2  h 2 where r = radius of base, h = height)

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Module MT PraPKPG

1.6.6 Motion of Particles Along a Straight Line (Velocity and Acceleration)

Rate of change is the speed of a moving object, which is the rate of change of distance
wrt time at a given instant. When the direction of motion is also relevant, we use the term
velocity.
distance traveled
Now the average speed of a body is the rate = .
time taken
If the time taken 0 we obtain the limiting value of the average speed, i.e, the
instantaneous speed or the speed at a given instant.

In calculus term, if s represents distance traveled in time t then the velocity v


ds
at any instant will be given by .
dt
The standard unit on velocity is the meter per second (ms-1)

The rate of change of velocity wrt time, called the acceleration (a)
dv d 2 s
Then a  
dt dt 2

Acceleration is the rate of increase of velocity compared with time, and hence standard
unit of acceleration will be meter per second per second(ms-2).
A negative acceleration is sometimes called a retardation, i.e ‘slowing down’

If s is a known function of t , we can find the velocity and the acceleration at any time.

Example 16

A particle traveling a long a straight line such that t second after the start its distance s
meter from a fixed point O on the line is given by s  8t 2  t 3 .

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Module MT PraPKPG

Find;
(a) distance of traveling of P in the third time
(b) velocity of P after one second
(c) acceleration of P after two second

Solution:
(a) s  8t 2  t 3
When t = 3, s  8(3) 2  (3) 3  45 m
When t = 2, s  8(2) 2  (2) 3  24 m
Therefore the distance of traveling in the third second is 45 – 24 = 21 m.
ds
(b) Velocity, v  16t  3t 2
dt
When t = 1,
v  16(1)  3(1) 2  13 ms -1
dv
(c) Acceleration, a  16  6t
dt
When t = 2, a  16  6( 2)  4 ms -2

Example 17

A particle traveling along a straight line such that t second after the start its distance s
meter from a fixed point O on the line is given by s  t 3  6t 2  5t.
Find;
(i) velocities a particle if its return to O.
(ii) velocity a particle if the acceleration is zero.

Solution:

(i) When a particle at O, s=0


t 3
 6t 2  5t  0
t (t 2  6t  5)  0
t (t  1)(t  5)  0
 t  0, 1 and 5
ds
Velocity, v  3t 2  12t  5
dt
When t = 0, v  3(0) 2  12(0)  5  5 ms -1
t = 1, v  3(1) 2  12(1)  5  3  12  5  4 ms -1
t = 5, v  3(5) 2  12(5)  5  75  60  5  20 ms -1
v  5 ms -1 is velocity at O

Therefore the velocity a particle return to O is  4 ms -1 and 20 ms -1

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dv
(ii) Acceleration, a  6t  12
dt
When a= 0
6t - 12 = 0
t =2

Therefore,
v  3( 2) 2  12( 2)  5
 12 - 24  5
 -7 ms -1

Exercise 1.6.5

1. The motion of a particle on a straight line is given by s  t 2  2t where s is


measured in m from a certain fixed point of the line and t (in s) timed from the
start.
Find the distance of the particle and its velocity after 2, 4, 6, 8 s. its acceleration
and sketch the s-t and v-t graphs.

2. After t sec. the distance s m of a moving body along a straight line is given by
s  t (t  4) . Copy and complete this table:

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
s
v

When and where is the object momentarily at rest? Sketch the s-t and v-t graphs
and describe the motion briefly.

3. The motion of an object in a straight line is given by s  6t  t 2 (s in m and t in s).


Compile a table showing the values of s , v and a for t = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 s
and sketch the s-t and v-t graphs.

4. For a particle moving in a straight line its distance s m is measured from a


certain point of the line and is given by s  t 2  3t  2 where t is timed in s from
the start. When is the particle momentarily at rest?
1
What is its distance from the point at 1, 1 , 2, 3 s?
2

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Module MT PraPKPG

What is its acceleration?


Make a diagrammatic representation of the motion and sketch the s-t and v-t
graph.

5. For the body moving in a straight line its distance s m from a fixed point at time
(in s) is given by s  t 2  5t  6 . Sketch the s-t and v-t graphs.

6. s m is the distance from a certain point O on a straight line at time t s of a body


moving along the line and s  2t 3  9t 2  12t  4 . Analyze the motion, making a

1
table of value of s, v and a for t = 0, 1, 1 , 2, 3 s and sketch the s-t and v-t
2
and a-t graphs.

7. A particle moves in a straight line through O so that at time t s, its distance s m


from O is given by s  t 3  15t 2  63t  49 Calculate the distances from O at
which the velocity of the particle is zero.
Calculate also the accelerations of the particle is zero. Calculate also velocity
also accelerations of the particle at the instants when its velocity is zero.

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Module MT PraPKPG

References

1. Anton H,Bivens I, and Davis. S .2002. Calculus. Seven Edition.

2. A Godman and J.F. Talbert, 1977. Additional Mathematics Pure and Applied.
Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

3. Andy Martin. Kevin Brown. Paul Rigby. Simon Riley, 2000. Pure Mathematics.
Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.

4. J.K. Backhouse and S.P.T Houldsworth, 1968 Pure Mathematics A First Course.
Longmans, Green And Co. Lth. London and Harlow.

5. L.P.Yee, F.L.Huo, T.K.Seng and L.C.Keong, 2001. Additional Mathematics.


Shinglee Publishers Pte. Ltd.

6. Mohd.Ghani Awang . 1987. Rumusan Matematik Tambahan .federal Publication.

7. Ong Beng Sim dan Tan Chong Eng. 1988. Matematik Tabahan. Matematik Tulen
Tingkatan 4 dan 5. Pena Modal sdn. Bhd.

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