Learning Outcomes
Q(x2, y2)
P(x1, y1)
x
O
1
Fig: 1.1
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Module MT PraPKPG
Consider the curve y = x2 ( Fig.1.2 ), we try to find the slope at the point P(x, x 2) on the
curve y = . Now take a point Q whose xcoordinate is x + h. Then QR = (x + h) 2 – x2 and
Pr = h. The size of h is not fixed and we can vary it as we please, except that it must not
equal 0.
QR
Slope of PQ =
PR
( x h) 2 x 2
h
x 2 xh h 2 x 2
2
h
2 xh h 2
h
2x h
Clearly so long as h is positive, this value will be greater then 2x, but as h 0 the
slope of PQ will tend to 2x. Hence the limiting value will be 2x and this will be the slope
of the tangent at P. When x = 2 for instance, the slope of the tangent will equal 4 and so
on.
Once again take the curve y = x2 and the point ( Fig.1.2 ) . Now consider the neighboring
point Q whose xcoordinate is x x . x ( read delta x) is the increase in the value of x.
Note carefully that x is one symbol. The coordinate of Q will be written x y , where
y is the corresponding increment in y.
Fig 1.2
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y ( x x) 2 x 2
2 xx (x) 2
y
Hence the slope of PQ,
x
2 x x
y
Now as QP, y .0 and the limiting value of will be 2x. To signify that is the
x
y dy
limiting value of we rewrite it in the form ( read dee y by dee x) and we have
x dx
dy
= 2x
dx
Example 1.
If y = 3x2 –x + 5, find the derivative of y using first principles without the graphical
illustration.
Solution:
Then y + y = 3( x x )2 – ( x x ) + 5
y = 3( x x )2 – ( x x ) + 5 – y
= 3( x x )2 – ( x x ) + 5 – (3x2 –x + 5)
= 3x + 6x x + 3( x )2 – x  x + 5  3x2 +x – 5
= 6x x + 3( x )2  x
y
Therefore = 6x + 3 ( x ) – 1
x
y y
If we now consider x 0 the limiting value of would be 6x – 1 and so = 6x –
x x
1.
Exercise 1.1(a)
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Module MT PraPKPG
1. For the curves given by the functions find the slope function by the above limiting
process;
(e) y = x3 (f) y = x3  x2 – 2x
2 (h) y = 2x3
(g) y=
x
2. Find the slope of the tangents to the following curves at the points specified.
Exercise 1.1(b)
1 2
(e) y = x 1
2
2. For each of the above curve, find the slope of tangents where x = 1, 0, 2
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used. If we used the first principles without graphical illustration these result already
obtained;
Function Derivative
X2 2x
X3 3x
3x2 – 2 6x
X2 + x – 1 2x + 1
2x2 – 4 4x
1 1
x2 (i.e.  )
x x2
From these result it would appear that the derivative of x2 is nxn1 . So we can say:
dy
If y = a xn , = nxn1 where a is a constant
dx
(This result will be proved when we have studied the binomial theorem)
Polynomials
dy
Let say that y = ax2 + bx + c, find .
dx
Take an increase x in x and a corresponding increase y in y
Than y + = a(x + ) 2 + b( x + ) + c
= ax2 + 2ax + a()2 + bx + b + c
So, = 2ax + a( ) 2+ b
Hence = 2ax + b
The derivatives of separate terms ax 2, bx , c are 2ax , b and 0 respectively. Hence the
derivatives of y is the sum of the separate terms . This result is true for any polynomial or
collection of term involving powers of a variable. Hence expressions containing brackets
and fractional terms can differentiated only if simplified first
Exercise 1.2
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Module MT PraPKPG
(a) 5 x2 (b) 3 x2
(c) x2+ 5x (d) 10 x4
3 3
(e) 4x  (f) x
x4 x
(g) 8x (h) 8
(i) 4 x5 1
(j) x3
1 1 3
(k) (l) x + 2
x x x
(m) 3
x 5
(n) 9x +
x
1 dy
2. if y = 2t2  , find
t dt
ds
3. If s = 3t3 + 2t2 – 7t + 3, find
dt
1
A function such as y = (3x 2) 2 or y = poses a problem for differentiation. We
(3 x 2 ) 2
cannot express it as polynomial. To find we treat it as composite function, built up with
two stages from a core function (3x – 2) which we call u and then taking y = u2. so we
have u = 3x – 2 and y = u2.
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Module MT PraPKPG
y y u
Now by ordinary fractions, = x as u cancels
x u x
The important point now is that we shall assume that
y y u
lim lim lim
x 0 x
u 0 u x 0 x
dy dy du
i.e, that, = x
dx du dx
du dy 2
Then in the above problem, as = 3 and = 3
dx du u
dy 2 6
we have = 3 x3= , substituting for u.
du u (3 x 2) 3
dy dy du
Note that we could not directly say that = x as these are not fractions
dx du dx
which can be manipulated. It must be admitted however that the notation is helpful in
suggesting the result achieved.
Differentiate 3x 5
Solution:
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Module MT PraPKPG
Take u = 3x + 5 and y = u
Now =x
And = =3
Hence = x 3 =
Now bearing the rule in mind, this result can be obtained directly as follows:
Example 3:
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dy
y = (2x 1)(x2 + 3) , is the product of two expressions. How is found from these two
dx
derivatives ?
Solution:
Let y = uv where u and v are each functions of x. ( In the above, u would be (2x – 10 and
v would be (x2 + 3).
Take an increase u in x which will in t)(x2 + 3)urn produce increase u in u and v
in v, finally producing a change y in y
Then y + = (u + )(v + )
= uv +u +v +
= u +v +
And = v+ u +
Hence , and
du dv
From the example 1, u = (2x 1) = 2, v = (x2 + 3), = 2x
dx dx
dy
= (x2 + 3)(2) + (2x 1)(2x)
dx
= 2 x2 + 6 + 4 x2 – 2x
= 6 x2 – 2x + 6
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Module MT PraPKPG
A method can also be found to obtain the derivative of a function expressed in the form
u x2 1
of a quotient , such as .
v 3x 3
u
Consider y = where u and v are each functions of x. Let x be an increase in x,
v
thus causing corresponding increase u , v , y in u,v and y respectively
u u u u u vu uv
Then y + y = hence y =  =
v v v v v v (v v )
u v
v u
y x dividing both sides by x .
Therefore x
x v(v v)
y
Now to find the limiting value of , let x 0, then u and v each 0,
x
y dy u du v dv
, , and
x dx x dx x dx
Hence
du dv
v u
dy dx dx
2
dx v
x2 1 du dv
From example above, y = , here u = x2 + 1 , = 2x , v = 3x – 3 , =3
3x 3 dx dx
(3 x 3)(2 x ) ( x 2 1)(3)
dy
Then = (3 x 3) 2
dx
6 x 2 6 x 3 x 2 3
=
(3 x 3) 2
3( x 2 2 x 1)
=
(3 x 3) 2
Exercise 1.3
1. (x + 1) 2 2. (2x – 3) 2
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5. x 1 x2 5
x 6. x
( x 3) 2
3x 3 x 4
7. 8. 2x
2x
1 1
13. 4x 3 14. 3x 5
1 1
15. ( 2 x 3) 2 16. x 6
3
1 1
17. ( 2 x x 6) 2
2 18. x x3
2
( x 1) ( 2 x 1)
19. ( x 2) 20. ( x 1)
x2 ( x 2 x 1)
21. ( 2 x 3) 22. ( x 1)
(2 x 2 2) ( x 2 x 1)
23. 24.
( x 3 4) ( x 2 x 1)
x (3 x 1)
25. x2 26. 2x 1
X Y X Y
Cos x – cos y =  2sin sin
2 2
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Module MT PraPKPG
x x x
2 sin( x ) sin sin
Divide by x throughout:
x
=
2 2 sin( x x ) 2
2 x 2 x
2
x
sin
y dy x 2
When x 0, , sin( x ) sin x and 1,
x dx 2 x
2
dy y
Hence lim sin x
dx x 0 x
d
i.e (cos x) sin x
dx
Example 4:
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Solution:
(a) y = sin 5x and u = 5x
du
y = sin u 5
dx
dy
cos u
du
dy dy du
cos u 5 cos 5 x 5 5 cos 5 x
dx du dx
In general,
d
(sin n x ) n sin n 1 x cos x
dx
d
(cos n x) n cos n 1 x sin x
dx
d
(tan n x) n tan n 1 x sec 2 x
dx
Example 5:
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y (sin x ) 4
dy d
4 (sin x ) 3 (sin x)
dx dx
dy
4 sin 3 x cos x
dx
dy d
2 2(cos 3 x )1 (cos 3 x )
dx dx
dy
( 4 cos 3 x )(3 sin 3 x )
dx
dy
12 cos 3 x sin 3 x
dx
x x
(c) Let y 3 tan 3 with tan the main function
2 2
x
y 3(tan ) 3
2
dy x d x
3 3(tan ) 2 (tan )
dx 2 dx 2
dy x 1 x
(9 tan 2 )( sec 2 )
dx 2 2 2
dy 9 x x
tan 2 sec 2
dx 2 2 2
Exercise 1.4
3 4
(a) cos (b) sin (c) sec x
x x
(d) cosec 2x (e) cot 3x (f) tan x 3
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2
3 5
(g) (h) (i) x
sin(3 x ) tan (2 x )
2
cos 3 ( 4 x )
2
5
(j) tan (k) sec 2 3 x (l) cot 3 5 x
x2
dy
to x, i.e. the rate of change of with respect to x.
dx
dy
d()
This second derivatives should be written dx but as it can be interpreted as an
dx
d d dy d2y
operator being used twice ( )y, a less clumsy symbol is . Note that is
dx dx dx dx 2
d2y
a single symbol and also note the difference between the second derivative and
dx 2
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Module MT PraPKPG
dy d2y d2y
the square of , i.e ( ). Then for the above function, = 8. The second
dx dx 2 dx 2
derivative of y = f(x) is sometimes also written as f”(x).
Example 6
dy d2y
Find and if y = x
dx dx 2
Solution:
1dy 1 12 d2y 1 2
3
y= x (x) ,2 = x , = x
dx 2 dx 2 4
Exercise 1.5
dy d2y
Find and for the following;
dx dx 2
(c) 1 (d) x 1
y= y=
x 1 x 1
(e) 1 (f) y= x
. y=
x
(g) ds d 2s
If s = 4t3 3t2 + t – 5 , find and
dt dt 2
(h) d s2
1 ds d 2s
If s = 3t 2  , find and
dt t dt dt 2
(i) dy d2y
If y = axn, where a is a constant, find and
dx dx 2
(j) x dy 2
d y d2y dy
If y = , find and and show that , (1+ x) + 2 =0
1 x dx dx 2 dx 2 dx
1 d2y dy 2
(k) y= , prove that y = 2( )
2 x dx 2 dx
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So far we have only discussed the gradient of a straight line. A man walking up
2
the ramp AB (Fig. 2.1) is climbing a gradient of .
7
2m
C A
7m
Fig. 2.1
Let us now consider a man walking up the slope by the curve CPD (Fig. 2.2).
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Module MT PraPKPG
Between C and D the gradient is steadily increasing. If when he had reached the
point P, the gradient had stopped increasing, and had remained constant from
the on, he would have climbed up the slope represented by the straight line PT,
the tangent to the curve at P. Thus in walking up the slope CD, when the man is
at the point P (and only at that instant) he is climbing a gradient represented by
the gradient of PT.
P
C
Fig. 2.2
Definition
The gradient of a curve at any point is the gradient of the tangent to the
curve at that point.
Example 1
Find the coordinate of the point on the curve y x 2 , given by x = 4 and 10,
and find the gradient of the curve at these points.
Solution:
dy
y x2 the gradient function is; 2x
dx
When x = 4 y = 16
dy
When x = 4 8
dx
Therefore the point is (4,16) and the gradient is 8.
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Definition
A normal to a curve at a point is the straight line through the point at right
angles to the tangent at point.(Fig. 2.3)
Tangent
Normal
Fig. 2.3
Example 2
Solution
dy
= 3x 2 3
dx
When x = 2 the gradient of the tangent = 9
When x = 2, y=4
The equation of the tangent is y – 4 = 9(x – 2) i.e y = 9x – 14
Example 3
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Solution:
dy
The tangent is parallel to the xaxis, must be zero at the point of contact.
dx
dy
= 3x 2 8 x 3x 0
dx
1
We have x or x = 3
3
These are the only values of x which give points on the curve where the
gradient is 0.
1 64
Their coordinates are , and 3,20
3 27
Example 4
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y ( x 2 x 1)( x 3) at the point
where its cuts the xaxis.
Solution
When y = 0, ( x 2 x 1)( x 3) 0,
dy
3x 2 4 x 2
dx
dy
When x =3, 13
dx
The gradient of the tangent at (3,0) is 13, therefore the gradient of normal at
1
(3,0) is and its equation is
13
1
y0 ( x 3)
13
13 y x 3
Exercise 1.6.1
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1. Find the equations of the tangents to the following curves at the points
corresponding to the given values of x:
(i) y x2, x2
(ii) y 3x x 1
2
x0
(iii) y 3 4x 2x 2 , x 1
(iv) y 9x x ,
3
x 3
(v) y 3 x 2,
2
x4
2. Find the equations of the normal to the curves in No.1 at the given points.
3. Find the equation of the tangent and the normal to the curve
y x 2 ( x 3)
7. Find the value of x for which the gradient function of the curve
y 2 x 3 3 x 2 12 x 3 is zero. Hence find the equations of the tangents
to the curve which are parallel to the xaxis.
9. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve 4 y x 2 at the point (2,1)
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Module MT PraPKPG
Fig.2.4 represents the path of a stone thrown from O, reaching its greatest height
AB, and striking the ground at C. Between O and A, when the stone is climbing,
the gradient is positive but steadily decreases to zero at A. Past A the stone is
descending, and the path has negative gradient.
+

+

+

O C
B
Fig.2.4
The curve y x 2 of which we made much use earlier on, is called a parabola. A
Y D F
 +
A
 E +

+
+ 
X
O B C G
Fig. 2.5
Example 5
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curve.
Solution:
y 4x x 2
dy
4 2x
dx
The gradient is zero when 2 (2  x) = 0
x = 2 and y = 4(2) – 22 = 4
We must now investigate the sign of the gradient on either side of point (2 , 4) to
discover whether it is a highest or lowest point on the curve.
To make a rough sketch of the curve, we find where it cuts the axes.
Then y = 0,
4x x 2 0
x(4 x) 0
x0 or x4
Therefore the curve passes through (0,0) and (4,0).
X
2 4
O
Fig. 2.6
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Module MT PraPKPG
Example 6
Find the greatest or least value of x 2 4 x 3 and the value of x for which it
occurs
Solution:
y x 2 4x 3
dy
2x 4
dx
2( x 2 )
x Left 2 Right
dy
dx  0 +
Outline
1. Find the coordinates of the points on the following curve where the
gradient is zero:
(i) y x 2 5x 2
(ii) y 5 9x 7x 2
(iii) y x (3 x 2)
(iv) y (2 x )(3 4 x )
2. Find the value of x for which the following derived function are zero, and
determine whether the corresponding graphs have a highest or a lowest
point for these values of x :
dy dy 1
(i) 2x 5 (ii) x3
dx dx 2
dy 1 1 dy 1
(iii) x (iv) 5 x
dx 3 4 dx 5
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Module MT PraPKPG
Example 7
Find the stationary points of the function 4 x 3 15 x 2 18 x 7
For the function
Solution:
dy
12 x 2 30 x 18
dx
6(2x 2 5 x 3)
6(2x  1)(x 3)
dy 1
Hence = 0 when x = or x =  3
dx 2
9
The stationary values of the function at these points are and 88 respectively.
4
Fig 2.7 shows a curve passing through a stationary point and reaching a
maximum value at that point.
As x increases (from left to right) the gradient of the curve decreases from a +
value through 0 to a  value.
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Module MT PraPKPG
dy
0
dy dx
dy
dx
dx
X
O
Fig. 2.7
Maximum and minimum points are also referred to as turning points, as the
tangent turns over at such a point.
Points of inflexion
A third type of stationary point is show in fig 2.9, where the curve has neither a
maximum nor a minimum value. This is called a point of inflexion, not a turning
point.
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Module MT PraPKPG
dy
For all stationary points, the necessary condition is that 0
dx
Y dy
0
dx dy
dx
dy
dx
dy dy
0
dx dx
dy
dx
X
O
Fig 2.9
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Module MT PraPKPG
X
O
Fig. 2.10
Example 8
Find the maximum and minimum values of the function
4 x 3 15 x 3 18 x 7.
Solution:
dy 1
Using the working done in Example 3, 0 when x = or 3.
dx 2
dy
6(2 x 1)( x 3)
dx
dy
To settle the nature of the turning points consider the sign of on each side
dx
of the turning point.
x 1 1 1
2 2 2 3 3 3
x + 3 is + x + 3 is + x + 3 is  x + 3 is +
2x – 1 is  2x – 1 is + 2x – 1 is  2x – 1 is 
dy
dx  0 + + 0 
Outline
Minimum Maximum
1 1
Note: means a value of x slightly less than , i.e to the left along the xaxis. Then 2x
2 2
1 1
would be slightly less than 1 and 2x – 1 would be negative. means slightly more than ,
2 2
i.e. to the right along the xaxis. Then 2x would be slightly more than 1 and 2x – 1 would be
positive.
Similarly 3 means slightly less than 3, then x + 3 would be negative and so on.
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Module MT PraPKPG
1 9
Hence at x = the function has a minimum value of and at x = 3 the
2 4
function has a maximum value of 88.
Example 9
Solution:
dy
3 x 2 12 x 12 3( x 2 4 x 4) 3( x 2) 2
dx
dy
The only value of x making = 0 is x = 2 (a double value).
dx
dy
Testing the sign of on either side of x = 2 we have:
dx
x 2 2 2
dy
dx + 0 +
outline
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Module MT PraPKPG
3. x 4. x 3 3x 2
5. 3x x 2 6. 2 x 3 3x 2 36 x 5
7. x 3 3x 2 3x 2
dy 4 4x 2 1
2. Find for the two curves y x and y 2 and prove that the
dx x 3 x
1
curves have the same gradient when x .
2
4
Find the range of values of x for which the gradient of the curve y x is
x
greater than 5. Determine whether the curve has any turning points.
2 x
3. Find the values of x for which the gradient of the curve y is zero, given
x2 1
your answer in surd form.
4x 3
4. Find the maximum and minimum values of .
x2 1
The method used to find the turning value of a function can be applied in problems
where the maximum value or minimum value of a quantity varying under certain
conditions is required.
Example 10
1000 meter of fencing is to be used to make a rectangular enclosure. Find the greatest
possible area, and the corresponding dimensions.
Solution:
If the length is x meter, the width will be (500 – x) meter, and the area, A sq. meter, is
given by
A = x (500  x)
Or A = 500x – x2
[This problem could now be solved by drawing accurately the graph of area plotted against length
(Fig. 2.11), and reading off the greatest area (NM) and the corresponding length(ON).]
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Module MT PraPKPG
A
M
Area in sq meter
x
O N Length in meter
Fig. 2.11
In this practice it is, finding the greatest value of 500x – x2 without plotting the graph.
A x (500 x )
dA
500 2 x
dx
2(250  x).
Which is zero when x = 250
And A = 250(500 – 250) = 62 500
x Left 250 Right
dA
dx + 0 
Outline
The greatest area is 62 500 sq. meter, when the length is 250 meter and the width is 250
meter.
Example 11
A closed rectangular tank is to be made to contain 9 m3 of water. The length must be
twice the breadth and total surface area must be a minimum. Find the dimensions of
tank.
Solution:
Take a variable x m as the breadth.
The length is then 2x m.
And the second variable for height is h m.
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Module MT PraPKPG
We must now eliminate h. The relation between x and h is given by the condition that
the volume is 9 m3
9 x.2 x.h 2 x 2 h
9
h
2x 2
27
Hence A 4x 2
x
dA 27
Differentiating wrt. x, 8x 2
dx x
dA
And for a turning point, 0
dx
27 27
This gives 8x or x3
x2 8
3
i.e x 1.5 meter
2
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Module MT PraPKPG
Exercise 1.6.2(c)
1. A stone is thrown up. Its height h units from the ground after t second is
given by h 96t 16t 2 . Find the greatest height the stone reaches.
2. A box is made from thin metal, with no top, and with vertical side. The base is a
rectangle whose length is twice the breadth. If the box can hold 288 cm3, what
are is dimensions if the minimum amount of material is to be used in its
construction?
3. A cylinder is designed to hold 54 cm 3 of liquid but must be made so as to
have minimum surface area. Taking r cm as the radius of the cylinder, find an
expression for the surface area (A) in terms of r and hence find the value of r
required.
4. From the rectangular piece of metal shown in figure below, the shaded
square(each of side x cm) are removed and the remainder folded along the
dotted line to make a tray. Find an expression for the volume contained by the
tray in term of x and hence find the value of x
10
16
5. A farmer has 100 meter of metal railing with which to form to adjacent sides of a
rectangular enclosure, the other two sides being two existing walls o f the yard,
meeting at right angles. What dimensions will give him the maximum possible
area?.
6. A bullet is fired into a mud bank and penetrates (1200t 36000t 2 ) meter in t
second after impact. Calculate the maximum depth of penetration.
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Module MT PraPKPG
1.6.3 Approximations
1.6.4 Small Changes and Error
Suppose y = f(x) and x is changed by a small amount x. There will
consequently be a corresponding change y. in the value of y, and it is desired
to find this change in a simple way. In Fig. 2.12 AD represents a portion of the
graph of the function y = f(x). The point A represents the value of with the given
value of x.
AB = x. and correspondingly BD = y. However if x. is small we may
take BC y. ( meaning approximately equal to) where C lies on the
tangent at A.
C
A
B
X
O
x
BC dy Fig. 2.12 dy dy
Now and therefore BC AB x
AB dx dx dx
dy
Hence y x or y f' (x) x.
dx
Example 12
54
If P and x is decreased from 3 to 2.98 what is the approximate
x2
change in the value of P?
Solution:
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Module MT PraPKPG
dP
We have P x
dx
And when x = 3, x. = 0.02
dP 2 54
Also
dx x3
2 54
y ( ) ( 0.02)
Therefore 33
0.08
i.e. an increase in the value of P.
Example 13
Solution:
dP
We have P t
dt
2
dP 1
(6t 2 1) 3 12t
dt 3
and 4t 4t
2
2
P
(6t 2 1) 3
4t
Therefore P t
P2
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Module MT PraPKPG
Exercise 1.6.3
3. Find the approximate change in the area of a circle if the radius is increased from
2 to 2.01 cm.
5
4. If T , find the change in T when s is increased from 5 to 5.03.
s
4 3
5. If the volume of a sphere of radius r is given by V r , find an expression
3
for the approximate change in the volume corresponding to a change r , in
the radius.
When the radius is 5 cm, it is increased by 1%. Find the approximate
percentage change in the volume.
2
7. If y 8ax 3 , find the change in y when x is increased from 8 to 8.3.
1 2
8. If y ax , where a is a constant, find the approximate percentage
2
change in y when x is increased by 5% from the value x = 3.
10. Find the approximate increase in the circumference of a circle when the
radius is increased from 10 cm to 10.03 cm.
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Module MT PraPKPG
dy dx
y wrt t, , and the rate of change of x wrt t, , are related by the
dt dt
dy dy dx
equation .
dt dx dt
dy
is found from the function y=f(x).
dx
Example 14
Solution:
dr dA
We are given that 0.5. We have to find
dt dt
dA dA dr
We can compare the two rates of change by using the ‘chain’ rule
dt dr dt
dA
as it is possible to find from the relation A r 2 . Then
dr
dA dr
2r
dt dt
2 3 0.5
3 9.42
At this instant therefore the area is increasing at the rate 9.42 cm2 s1(i.e square
cm per second) approximately.
Example 15
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Module MT PraPKPG
A hollow right circular cone has base radius 4 cm and vertical height 20 cm. It is
held upside down with its axis vertical, and contains water. Water is being added
at the constant rate of 1.5 cm3s1 and leaks away through a small hole in the
vertex at the constant rate of 2 cm3s1. At what rate is the depth of the water
changing when the depth is 12 cm?
Solution:
x r x
By the similar triangles, or r
20 4 5
4 1 1 x 2
x 3
Now V r 2 x x
3 3 25 75
r dV 3x 2 x 2
and
dx 75 25
20
Therefore
x dV dV dx
dt dx dt
x 2 dx
Fig: 2.13 25 dt
dV
But is the rate of increase of the volume of water.
dt
dV
1.5 2 0.5
dt
12 2 dx
0.5 since x 12
25 dt
dx 0.5 25
Therefore 0.027
dt 144
Exercise 1.6.4
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Module MT PraPKPG
1. At what rate is the area of a circle decreasing when its radius is 4 cm and
decreasing at the rate of 0.2 cm s1?
2. When the circumference of a circle is 250 mm the radius is increasing at the rate
of 5 mm s1. Find the rate at which the area of the circle is increasing.
3. An ink blot has radius of 12 mm and its area is increasing at the rate of 3
mm2 s1. At what rate is the radius increasing?
5. A hollow circular cone, radius of base 75 mm and height 250 mm, is held vertex
down with axis vertical and contains water. The water is leaking away through a
small hole in the vertex at the rate of 900 mm3 s1. Find the rate at which the
water level is falling when it is 100 mm above the vertex.
6. A circular cylinder has a radius of 0.3 m and it is being fill with water at the rate of
0.009 m3 s1. Find the rate at which the water level is rising.
7. A balloon is being inflated by blowing in 104 cm3 s1 of air. At what rate is the
radius increasing when the diameter of the balloon is 45 cm?.
8. The length of each side of a cube is expending at the rate of 0.02 ms1. At what
rate is the volume increasing when each side is 0.25 m long?.
9. The height of a cone remains constant at 30 cm. The radius of the base is
increasing at the rate of 0.1 cms1. Find the rate at which the surface area of the
cone is increasing, when r = 40 cm
(surface area = r r 2 h 2 where r = radius of base, h = height)
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Module MT PraPKPG
Rate of change is the speed of a moving object, which is the rate of change of distance
wrt time at a given instant. When the direction of motion is also relevant, we use the term
velocity.
distance traveled
Now the average speed of a body is the rate = .
time taken
If the time taken 0 we obtain the limiting value of the average speed, i.e, the
instantaneous speed or the speed at a given instant.
The rate of change of velocity wrt time, called the acceleration (a)
dv d 2 s
Then a
dt dt 2
Acceleration is the rate of increase of velocity compared with time, and hence standard
unit of acceleration will be meter per second per second(ms2).
A negative acceleration is sometimes called a retardation, i.e ‘slowing down’
If s is a known function of t , we can find the velocity and the acceleration at any time.
Example 16
A particle traveling a long a straight line such that t second after the start its distance s
meter from a fixed point O on the line is given by s 8t 2 t 3 .
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Module MT PraPKPG
Find;
(a) distance of traveling of P in the third time
(b) velocity of P after one second
(c) acceleration of P after two second
Solution:
(a) s 8t 2 t 3
When t = 3, s 8(3) 2 (3) 3 45 m
When t = 2, s 8(2) 2 (2) 3 24 m
Therefore the distance of traveling in the third second is 45 – 24 = 21 m.
ds
(b) Velocity, v 16t 3t 2
dt
When t = 1,
v 16(1) 3(1) 2 13 ms 1
dv
(c) Acceleration, a 16 6t
dt
When t = 2, a 16 6( 2) 4 ms 2
Example 17
A particle traveling along a straight line such that t second after the start its distance s
meter from a fixed point O on the line is given by s t 3 6t 2 5t.
Find;
(i) velocities a particle if its return to O.
(ii) velocity a particle if the acceleration is zero.
Solution:
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Module MT PraPKPG
dv
(ii) Acceleration, a 6t 12
dt
When a= 0
6t  12 = 0
t =2
Therefore,
v 3( 2) 2 12( 2) 5
12  24 5
7 ms 1
Exercise 1.6.5
2. After t sec. the distance s m of a moving body along a straight line is given by
s t (t 4) . Copy and complete this table:
t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
s
v
When and where is the object momentarily at rest? Sketch the st and vt graphs
and describe the motion briefly.
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Module MT PraPKPG
5. For the body moving in a straight line its distance s m from a fixed point at time
(in s) is given by s t 2 5t 6 . Sketch the st and vt graphs.
1
table of value of s, v and a for t = 0, 1, 1 , 2, 3 s and sketch the st and vt
2
and at graphs.
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Module MT PraPKPG
References
2. A Godman and J.F. Talbert, 1977. Additional Mathematics Pure and Applied.
Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.
3. Andy Martin. Kevin Brown. Paul Rigby. Simon Riley, 2000. Pure Mathematics.
Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.
4. J.K. Backhouse and S.P.T Houldsworth, 1968 Pure Mathematics A First Course.
Longmans, Green And Co. Lth. London and Harlow.
7. Ong Beng Sim dan Tan Chong Eng. 1988. Matematik Tabahan. Matematik Tulen
Tingkatan 4 dan 5. Pena Modal sdn. Bhd.
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