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The Performance Evaluation of TCP Over

Routing Protocols in MANETs Using NS2

A Thesis Submitted
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
in
Computer Science Engineering
by
Anurag Singh
(1409010501)

Under the Supervision of

Prof. Rajnesh Singh


I.E.C College of Engineering and Technology
Greater Noida

to the

Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering

Dr. A. P. J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL


UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH LUCKNOW
June, 2018
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that, to the best of our knowledge
and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor
material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or
diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due
acknowledgment has been made in the text.

Signature
Name: Anurag Singh
Roll No. 1409010501
CERTIFICATE

Certified Anurag Singh (Roll no 1409010501) has carried out the research work

presented in this thesis entitled “Evaluating the Performance of TCP Over

Routing Protocols in MANETs Using NS2” for the award of Master of

Technology from Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar

Pradesh, Lucknow under our supervision. The thesis embodies the results of

original work, and studies are carried out by the student himself and the contents

of the thesis do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the

candidate or to anybody else from this or any other University/Institution.

Signature

Prof. Rajnesh Singh


Associate Professor

Date

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ABSTRACT

While MANETs exhibit unique advantages, but at the same time special characteristics of
MANETs such as bandwidth constrained variable capacity links, infrastructure-less, multi-hop
routing, network scalability, dynamic network topology impose many challenges to TCP protocol
which aims at providing coordination to the shared access medium among a number of mobile
nodes. This thesis presents an overview of the TCP protocols over routing protocol. The main
target of our thesis is to measure the performance of TCP protocols over different routing protocol
in MANET. Further performance of TCP protocols is analyzed and compared for varying network
size to find out which protocol is more suitable. We have done the simulation of our work with the
help of Network simulator (NS-2). Node density, mean node-to-node delay, throughput and packet
delivery ratio are employed for performance evaluation and these are computed only in case of
varying network size.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the very outset, I would like to thank Prof. Rajnesh Singh, my supervisor at the
I.E.C College of Engineering and Technology, for his unflagging guidance and
encouragement, without which this work would not have reached the point of fruition.

Also, I would like to thank my friends for their support and active encouragement, and
also for sharing many unforgettable moments with me.

No acknowledgement would be complete without expressing my deepest gratitude


to my parents who have been a source of inspiration to me for years. They instilled in
me a sense of morality, right and wrong, and encouraged me at every step of the way.
Without this, I would never have got to where I have reached on this day. This project is
dedicated to them.

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TABLE OF
CONTENTS
Declaration ii
Certificate iii
Abstract vi
Acknowledgements v
List of Table vi
List of figures vii
List of Abbreviations viii

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1-3


1.1 OVERVIEW 1
1.2 THESIS OUTLINE 2

CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 3-4


2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED WORK 3

CHAPTER 3 : PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND OBJECTIVE 5-7


3.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT 5
3.2 OBJECTIVE 5
3.3 MOTIVATION 6
3.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 7

CHAPTER 4 : MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK (MANET) 8-16


4.1 OVERVIEW OF MANET 8
4.2 TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN MANET 9
4.3 ROUTING PROTOCOL 9
4.3.1 Proactive Routing Protocol (Table Driven) 10
4.3.2 Reactive Routing Protocol (On-Demand) 11
4.3.3 Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol 1
13
4.3.3.1 Route Discovery 13
4.3.3.2 Route Maintenance 13

CHAPTER 5 : INTRODUCTION TO TCP VARIANTS 17-


21
5.1 INTRODUCTION TO TCP VARIANTS 17
5.2 TCPRENO 19
5.3 TCPNEWRENO 19
5.4 TCPSACK 20
5.5 TCPVEGAS 20

CHAPTER 6 : NETWORK DESIGN AND RESULTS 22-


32
6.1 TOOL USED 22
6.2 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT 22
6.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 23

CHAPTER 7 : CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 33

REFERENCES 34-35
CURRICULUM VITAE 36

LIST OF TABLES
Table 5 Comparative analysis of TCP Variants 21

Table 6.1 Simulation parameters during first scenario of varying Speed and 23
Constant Pause Simulation Time of 1s

Table 6.2 Throughput of AODV routing protocol with TCP variants 24

Table 6.3 Throughput of DSDV Routing protocol with TCP variants 24

Table 6.4 Delay of AODV Routing protocol with TCP variants 25

Table 6.5 Delay of DSDV Routing protocol with TCP variants 25

Table 6.6 PDR of AODV Routing protocol with TCP variants 26

Table 6.7 PDR of DSDV Routing protocol with TCP variants 26

Table 6.8 Node density of AODV Routing protocol with TCP variants 27

Table 6.9 Node density of DSDV Routing protocol with TCP variants 27

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LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 3 TCP/IP Layered Architecture 07
Fig. 4.1 Route discovery (a) RREQ broadcast and (b) RREP propagation 12
Fig. 4.2 Link break notification 13
Fig. 4.3 (a) The Hidden Station Problem, (b) The Exposed Station Problem 15
Fig. 5.1 TCP Normal operation 17
Fig. 5.2 TCP Lost Data Operation 18
Fig. 5.3 TCP Lost Ack operation 18
Fig. 6.1 Throughput of AODV with TCP Variants 28
Fig. 6.1 Throughput of DSDV with TCP Variants 28
Fig. 6.2 Delay of AODV with TCP Variants 29
Fig. 6.3 Delay of DSDV with TCP Variants 29
Fig. 6.4 PDR of AODV with TCP Variants 30
Fig. 6.6 PDR of DSDV with TCP Variants 30
Fig. 6.7 Node Density of AODV with TCP Variants 31
Fig. 6.8 Node Density of DSDV with TCP Variants 31

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ACK Acknowledgement
AODV Ad-hoc on-demand Distance Vector
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
WLANs Wireless Local Area Networks
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
AP Access Point
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
MAC Medium Access Control (layer)
MANET Mobile Ad-hoc Network
TORA Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm
DSR Dynamic Source Routing
DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance-Vector), WRP (Wireless Routing Protocol
RREQ Route Request
RREP Route Reply
IP Internet Protocol
RERR Route Error
NS-2 Nework Simulator-2
PDR Packet Delivery Ratio

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