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TNE20002 Network Design and

CASE STUDY REPORT Implementation

Harrison P. Douveas – 101633229


Jordan C. Attwood – 101602805
William A.L. Carter – 100569132
Contents
General Overview ................................................................................................................................... 2
I.P Addressing.......................................................................................................................................... 2
VLSM Design ............................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Routing Configuration ............................................................................................................................. 4
Switch Configuration............................................................................................................................... 4
VLAN Configuration.................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Ether Channelling ..................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
NAT Configuration................................................................................................................................... 7
Access Control ......................................................................................................................................... 7
General Overview
Flat Land Ltd is a company that maintains, leases, buys and sells new and used trucks, bulldozes
mobile cranes, graders etc. The Head Office is at the Karachi site. The other company sites are in
Multan, Quetta and Lahore. The company is implementing a network that should support potential
growth over the next five years. The task is to design, implement and fully document the proposed
Flat Land Company network.

In order to do this, a number of factors and significant planning must be taken into account –
particularly as the company is meant to demonstrate growth over the next half decade. By splitting
each task into its relevant section – as follows – this should allow us to clearly and concisely
demonstrate our intentions when it comes to designing and implementing the network for Flat Land
Limited, in order to fully realise the scope of the task that has been assigned to us.

Below is each network requirement distinctly split to further explain its purpose.

Logical Networking Diagram

I.P Addressing & VLSM/VLAN Design Breakdown


In order to ensure that the network works cohesively, network addressing is an important step
which must be taken in order to ensure that all network addresses are logically allocated to the
relevant devices.

IP Addresses serve to identify a host device’s network interface and provides the location of said
host within a network – Thus, the capability of establishing a path to that host is created. Without
this form of addressing, it would be incredibly difficult to reliably deliver network traffic, as there
would be very little contextualisation for any network hardware, making it difficult to process any
data.

Within I.P Addressing, it is also important to consider the individual subnets that fall within a larger
allocated network. As subnets are logical divisions of this I.P network, it is important to consider how
they are to be implemented both efficiently and effectively.
Using Variable Length Subnet Masking, or VLSM for short, to dynamically sub-divide a network and
vary the size of each subnet to optimally subnet in order to prevent the wastage of addresses and
optimally and allocate addresses for the number of hosts required.

Because of this efficiency and “future-proofing”, we have decided to take this approach to complete
our subnetting. Firstly, the subnets which have been provided to us would need to have a specific
size allocated to them based on the number of hosts required. This size is based on the binary octet
size within an IP Address.

In the situation at hand, considerations for the future are highly important, as Flat Land has asked
for a network implementation that will support potential growth over the next 5 years – specifically
an increase of 80% of I.P addresses being used. For example, the Karachi site will experience a
growth to approximately 953 individuals, and hence this must be accommodated for. In order to
take this calculation further, a formula was devised to ensure that growth could be accurately
predicted. This entailed:

Number of People ÷ Number of Switchports = Number of Switches Required

E.g.

953 Addresses/People ÷ 48 ports per Switch = 19.85 Switches

Based on the above calculation method, 20 switches would be required to cope with the projected
growth of the Flat Land network at the Karachi site over the next 5 years.

It is important to note, however, that the Technical, Vehicle and Security VLANs have extra
addressing space in addition to this future proofing. Each of these three VLANs at the four separate
sites require nine hosts each, making for a total of 36 hosts in combination. As a result, a /27 CIDR
network is not large enough to accommodate and support this many hosts, and in order to meet and
possibly supersede (in future) capacity, a /26 CIDR network is now utilising, providing 62 addresses
further cementing the idea that this design is able to accommodate future growth. In order to
maximise the use of the supplementary addresses, 15 were given to each subset “site” VLAN, rather
than the standard allocation of 9.

Finally, an assumption is being made in the supply of networking hardware and equipment for Flat
Land’s configuration, namely that the availability and use of 48 port switches will be such that they
can be used to fully implement this style of networking.

Included below is our network and ID allocations:

Table A: VLSM Design

VLAN Name Network ID Subnet Mask CIDR Suffix Number of Site


Allocated Hosts Location
K_Business _VLAN 1 66.80.0.0 255.255.254.0 /23 510 Karachi
K_Marketing_VLAN11 66.80.2.0 255.255.254.0 /23 510 Karachi
L_Sales_VLAN21 66.80.4.0 255.255.254.0 /23 510 Lahore
Q_Sales_VLAN31 66.80.6.0 255.255.255.0 /24 254 Quetta
K_Leasing_VLAN41 66.80.7.0 255.255.255.0 /24 254 Karachi
M_Leasing_VLAN51 66.80.8.0 255.255.255.0 /24 254 Multan
Security VLAN 66.80.9.0 255.255.255.192 /26 62
K_Security_VLAN61 66.80.9.1-15 /26 Karachi
M_Security_VLAN63 66.80.9.16-30 /26 Multan
L_Security_VLAN65 66.80.9.31-45 /26 Lahore
Q_Security_VLAN67 66.80.9.46-60 /26 Quetta
Technical VLAN 66.80.9.64 255.255.255.192 /26 62
K_Techinical_VLAN71 66.80.9.65-79 /26 Karachi
M_Techinical_VLAN73 66.80.9.80-94 /26 Multan
L_Techinical_VLAN75 66.80.9.95-109 /26 Lahore
Q_Techinical_VLAN77 66.80.9.110-124 /26 Quetta
Vehicle VLAN 66.80.9.128 255.255.255.192 /26 62
K_Vehicle_VLAN81 66.80.9.129-143 /26 Karachi
M_Vehicle_VLAN83 66.80.9.144-158 /26 Multan
L_Vehicle_VLAN85 66.80.9.159-173 /26 Lahore
Q_Vehicle_VLAN87 66.80.9.174-188 /26 Quetta
K_Management_VLAN91 66.80.9.192 255.255.255.224 /27 30 Karachi
K_Server_VLAN101 66.80.9.224 255.255.255.240 /28 14 Karachi
Printer VLAN 66.80.9.240 255.255.255.240 /28 14
K_Printer_VLAN111 66.80.9.241-243 /28 Karachi
M_Printer_VLAN113 66.80.9.244-246 /28 Multan
L_Printer_VLAN115 66.80.9.247-250 /28 Lahore
Q_Printer_VLAN117 66.80.9.251-253 /28 Quetta
L_Management_VLAN121 66.80.10.0 255.255.255.240 /28 Lahore
Q_Management_VLAN131 66.80.10.16 255.255.255.248 /29 Quetta
M_Management_VLAN141 66.80.10.24 255.255.255.248 /29 Multan
Point-to-Point
Router 1 66.80.10.32 255.255.255.252 /30 2
Router 2 66.80.10.36 255.255.255.252 30 2
Router 3 66.80.10.40 255.255.255.252 30 2

Router 4 66.80.10.44 255.255.255.252 30 2

I.S.P Router 210.1.5.0 255.255.255.252 30 2

Switch Details & STP, EtherChannelling Configuration


In order to fully realise the network requirements – particularly in its speed and redundancy – an
implementation of the EtherChannel technology was deemed necessary. EtherChannelling allows for
the grouping, or aggregation, of multiple physical Ethernet links into one virtual/logical link for
connection between networked devices.

Primarily, this provides two main benefits in our use case. Using multiple physical connections allows
us to scale the available bandwidth as each cable is added, and these numerous connections also
allow for fault tolerance. Should one link fail, as a result of faulty hardware or it may be taken down
for maintenance, EtherChannel will automatically re-distribute any network traffic among the
remaining functioning links.

In order to actually enact this design, however there is also a further consideration to be made. The
protocol to be used to control this bundling within EtherChannelling was the Link Aggregation
Control Protocol, or LACP. Primarily, this was chosen to ensure interoperability between different
systems, as the alternative, Cisco’s own PAgP, is a proprietary aggregation standard. Should any
equipment fail, and it be replaced by equipment from competitors such as Huawei or HP, the links
themselves will not go down as a result of this change.

As per the Case Study Document, LACP EtherChannelling will only be implemented for the Lahore
site, as it is purely in the prototyping stage at this point in time.

In our implementation, we…

VTP = VLAN Trunk Protocol

Table B: Switch Details Table

Name Model # Of Location Management Default Management VTP VTP


Ports VLAN IP Gateway VLAN Mode Domain
Address IP
Address

Routing Configuration & Protocols


Kek

In our implementation, we…

Table C: Router Details Table

Interface/Sub- Description Network/VLAN Network Interface IP Subnet Mask


Interface No. and Purpose Name Address Address

DHCP Configuration
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, or DHCP, is a management protocol whereby a DHCP Server
dynamically allocates and assigns a variety of network configuration parameters to each device on a
network. Implementing DHCP reduces the overhead for a network administrator, as they no longer
need to manually assign an IP address to each individual network device. This is a very desirable trait
for Flat Land Ltd, as they would most certainly want to cut down on any unnecessary processes that
would create extra overhead and cost.

However, as per the Case Documents, in the prototyping stage, DHCP will only be implemented for
the Multan site, and there will be one specific manually configured IP address, which will be the
printer at said site. The other workstation and laptops will be configured as per normal via DHCP. At
the other sites within the Case, devices there will all be directly configured manually with an IP
address.

In our implementation, we…


Table D: Multan DHCP Server Pool IP Host Addresses

VLAN Name IP Address Pool Range Subnet Mask Default Gateway IP


Address

Table E: Statically assigned IP Host Addresses–Servers, Printers etc

Frame Relay and PPP


Frame Relay creates a private network through an external carriers’ network, through the utilisation
of permanent virtual circuits, or PVCs, in order to accommodate for frequent and consistent data
transfers between data terminal equipment across the network. The main benefits for Flat Land
would be the single circuit connection to the frame relay cloud, allowing for access to all other sites
through permanent virtual circuits, and the improved recovery times in the event of an emergency,
as re-linking a single circuit to the cloud and its PVCs in order to regain control and access remote
sites.

In our implementation, we…

Wireless LAN Configuration - Karachi


Kek

Table F: Wireless Access Point Details

Name Model SSID Channel X X

It is important to note here that, as per the prototype specifications, wireless LAN is currently only
implemented at the Karachi site. This is done in the form of

In our implementation, we…


NAT Configuration
Kek

In our implementation, we…

Security & Access Control


Kek

In our implementation, we…

Table G: ACL Testing

System Testing and Verification Strategy