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DRY AND WET HERBARIUM MAKING PROCESS

IN CENTER FOR PLANT CONSERVATION


BOTANIC GARDEN - LIPI

FIELD WORKREPORT

RIZKI AULIA
B1B015024

MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION


UNIVERSITAS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN
FACULTY OF BIOLOGY
PURWOKERTO
2018

i
DRY AND WET HERBARIUM MAKING PROCESS
IN CENTER FOR PLANT CONSERVATION
BOTANIC GARDEN - LIPI

RIZKI AULIA
B1B015024

Submitted to Fullfill The Requirement to Receive The Bachelor Of


Science (Hons) Degree from Faculty Of Biology,
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
Purwokerto

Approved and legalized


On June 2018

Supervisor Field Supervisor

Dr. Pudji Widodo, M.Sc. Dr.agr. Didit Okta Pribadi, S.P., M.Si.
NIP. 196007151986011001 NIP. 197510012005021001

Verified by,
Vice Dean of Academic Affairs of Faculty of Biology
UniversitasJenderalSoedirman

Dr. Hendro Pramono, M.S.


NIP. 19590722 198601 1 001
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PREFACE

Praise Allah SWT who has bestowed the mercy and grace to the writer for
accomplishing the field workreport entitled "Dry and Wet Herbarium Making
Process In Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden - LIPI". This report is
written to fulfill the requirements to obtain Bachelor Degree of Science in Faculty of
Biology. Therefore the writter would like to thank to:
1. Dr. Hendro Pramono, M.S. as Vice Dean of Academic Affairs of Faculty of
Biology, who has granted permission for field work

2. Dr. PudjiWidodo, M.Sc. as a supervisor who has given guidance and directives in
a accomplishing of field work report
3. Dr. agr Didit Okta Pribadi, S.P., M.Si. as a head of Sub Division of Registration
and Breeding also field supervisor of Herbarium Laboratory in Center for Plant
Conservation Botanic Center - LIPI, who has guidance during field work activities
4. Dr. Nuniek Ina Ratnaningtyas, MS. as the academic supervisor, who has provided
advice and support
5. Mrs. Eni Yuhaeni as a field supervisor of Herbarium Laboratory in Center for
Plant Conservation Botanic Center - LIPI, who has guidance during field work
activities
6. Mr. Kusnadi, Mr. Teguh Hasto Priatmo, and Mrs. Sri Novianti as a Herbarium
Laboratory Staff who has who has provided guidance and assistance during the
implementation of the field work practice
7. All those who have helped in the this field work report
The writer realizes that this field work report is still far from perfection,
therefore author is expecting criticism and constructive suggestions for improvement
in the future. The writer hopes the field work report can be useful especially in plant
taxonomy object. The writer hopes this field work report can help the readers to
expand their knowledge about plant taxonomy especially herbarium.

Purwokerto, April 2018

Writer
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TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover Page .................................................................................................................i


Validation Sheet .........................................................................................................ii
Preface ........................................................................................................................iii
Table of Content .........................................................................................................iv
List of Table ...............................................................................................................v
List of Attachment......................................................................................................vi
I. Introduction .............................................................................................................1
A. Background ....................................................................................................1
B. Objective ........................................................................................................2
II. Material and Method .............................................................................................3
A. Tools and Materials ........................................................................................3
B. Location and Time .........................................................................................3
C. Method ...........................................................................................................3
III. Work Evaluation ..................................................................................................11
3.1. General Description of Location ..................................................................11
3.2. Result and Discussion .................................................................................13
IV. Conclusion and Suggestion ..................................................................................19
A. Conclusion .....................................................................................................19
B. Suggestion ......................................................................................................19
References ..................................................................................................................20
Attachment .................................................................................................................21

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LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 Mounting Dry Collection Specimens of Botanical Garden ......................15


Table 3.2 Remounting Dry Collection Specimens of Botanical Garden ..................17
Table 3.3 Spirit Collection Specimens of Botanical Garden ....................................40

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LIST OF ATTACHMENT

Attachment 1. Title, Location, Time, Supervisor and Daily Work Activity. .............23
Attachment 2. Picture of Activity. ............................................................................26
Attachment 3. Herbarium Collection of Botanical Garden on January 2018. ..........27

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I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background

A herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens mainly for scientific


purposes in botany. The Hortus Botanicus Bogoriense Herbarium is a house for
50,000 preserved plant specimens, which are predominantly in dried and pressed
ones. The Herbarium also holds carpological collections, wood collection and spirit
collection from the Garden’s living plants. The collecting information stored with
these specimens provides an important picture of what plant species grew in the
Bogor Botanic Gardens overtime. The Hortus Botanicus Bogoriense Virtual
Herbarium (HBBVH) in Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya - LIPI is an
online resource that provides immediate access to this invaluable information (PKT
Kebun Raya – LIPI, 2014).
Herbarium specimen is a pressed and dried plant or portion of a plant,
accompanied by notes stating at the very least where it grew, when it was collected,
and by whom. It is evidence that a particular plant, exhibiting particular
characteristics, grew in a particular place at a particular time. Incidentally, when
identified, it exemplifies more or less completely the characteristics of the particular
taxon 1 of which it is a member. An herbarium is a collection of pressed and dried
plant specimens arranged in some systematic order that facilitates examination of all
of the material of a particular taxon. The aim of an herbarium is to accumulate in one
place all possible information about the habits, habitats, variations and uses of all the
plants with which it may be concerned. An herbarium may be concerned with a
particular local area, such as a township, county, or state, or it may attempt to cover a
nation, a continent or the world. It may attempt to accumulate all information
available about a single taxon, such as a species, or about a few taxa, such as those
included in a genus or a family, or it may attempt to contain information about all of
the kinds of plants. It may deal with cultivated plants, wild plants, or both. However
big or small it may be, it is a repository of information and a research tool of
considerable value (Dewolf Jr., 1968).
The usefulness of an herbarium or of an isolated herbarium specimen is
determined by, and dependent upon, the completeness of the actual specimen (s) and
the notes which accompany it (them). Making an herbarium is the only economical
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way in which examples of many different kinds of plants, growing naturally in many
different places, differing in their environmental requirements, and going through
their life cycles at different rates, can be brought together at one time and in one
place so that a student can compare simultaneously many different plants at any
given stage of their life cycle. Such a situation is essential for identification of plants
and for the production of written works that will allow subsequent students to
identify other plants without the labor of comparing them with all of the material that
was used for the original identification (Irwanto, 2012).
There are two kinds of herbaria, namely dry herbarium and wet herbarium. Dried
herbarium is a preservation made by drying, but still looks the characteristics of
morphology so that it can still be observed and used as a comparison at the time of
next determination. Herbarium, collection of dried plant specimens mounted on
sheets of paper. The plants are usually collected in situ (e.g., where they were
growing in nature), identified by experts, pressed, and then carefully mounted to
archival paper in such a way that all major morphological characteristics are visible
(i.e., both sides of the leaves and the floral structures). The mounted plants are
labeled with their proper scientific names, the name of the collector, and, usually,
information about where they were collected and how they grew and general
observations. The specimens are commonly filed in cases according to families and
genera and are available for ready reference(Irwanto, 2012).
Wet herbaria is preserved on specimens of fruits or flowers that have a thick
form and are not possible with preservation by dry collection. Wet herbaria is a
preservation of an exploration that has been identified and no longer planted in its
natural habitat. Plant species that have been preserved are stored in a solution made
from various substances with different compositions. A collection like this is a vital
reference when you need to identify a plant and also serves to fix forever the identity
of thousands of plant names.
B. Objective

The objectives of the practice of field work practice are:


1. To know and learn the making process of dry herbarium.
2. To know and learn the making process of wet herbarium.
3. To know the herbarium collection in Herbarium Laboratory of Center for Plant
Conservation Botanic Garden – LIPI.
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II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Tools and Materials

The tools that will be used are knives, scissors, axes, bamboo stick,
newspapers, plastic bags of 100 cm x 75 cm, small plastic bags, 4 cm x 6 cm, labels,
pens, 2B pencils, notebooks, cameras, plaque paper 30 cm x 43 cm , solder, rami
tape, envelope, drawing pen, fox glue, goodyear yarn, tweezers, scalpel, brush, wavy
aluminum, cardboard, wooden sasak, strap, freezer, species folder, genus folder,
storage cabinet, 2000 ml and 500 ml measuring cup, bucket, scoop, funnel, tracing
paper, label, and specimen bottle.
The materials that will be used are Diospyros blancoi, Ixora salicifolia,
Baccaurea macrocarpa, Alchornea rugosa, Dianella ensifolia, Psycotria curviflora
var. forma brevistylis, Ardisia humilis, Chionanthus ramiflorus, Dasymaschalon
blumei, Lepisanthes amoena, Hibiscus sp., Hibiscus vitifolius, hibiscus liliaceus,
Pavonia wisti, Pavonia schimferiana, Thespesia populnea, Thespesia sp., Thespesia
trilobata, Ficus subulata, Ficus stupenda, Ficus variegate, Ficus ulmifolia, Ficus
sapiosa, alcohol 96%, gliserol, and aquades.

2.2 Time and Location

This field work is held for four weeks, starting on 22 January 2018 - 23
February 2018 in the Herbarium Laboratory of Center for Plant Conservation
Botanic Garden - LIPI, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 13, Paledang, Bogor Tengah, Bogor,
Jawa Barat 16122.
2.3 Method

2.3.1 Dry Herbarium


a. Collecting the Material
The material was collected in the area of botanical garden where the plant
has not been recorded in Herbarium database of Center for Plant Conservation
Botanic Garden. Dry herbarium material is selected with a complete condition
consisting of flowers, fruit, twigs, and leaves. Taking using tools such as scissors
and bamboo stick to facilitate when taking the material in the field. The amount
of each minimum pick of 3 twigs of each tree to duplicate the length of the

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herbarium material is about 20 cm. Material taken and put a hanging label to
facilitate in a plant identity, consisting of collector, date of collection, name of
plant, tribe, vak number, and origin of plant using pencil 2B. Then put into
plastic bags that have been provided and then taken to the processing place to be
collected.
b. Preservation
The herbarium material collected in one day should be preserved
immediately, not to be left until the next day, as many plants with leaves and
flowers quickly rot or fall and the leaves are rolled up, if not directly worked,
herbarium material should be moistened with 70% alcohol or spirtus. How to
preservation is done with the following stages:
a) Plant material that has been labeled, arranged in such a way and neat on the
newspaper, then the left side and right side of the newspaper folded cover the
plant material.
b) The folds of newspapers that have contained plant material stacked together,
then tied.
c) Each bond is inserted into a thick and leak-proof plastic bag. Plant material in
plastic bag is given with 70% alcohol or spirtus until wet.
d) Plastic bags sealed with duct tape / masking tape, so the alcohol or spirtus is
not volatile.
c. Pressing and Drying
Plant material that has been moistened with alcohol or spirt is removed and
replaced with a new newspaper, then folded again. The tools and materials used
in the pressing and sterilizing process are, among others, sasak with square
formby wooden 45 cm x 30 cm, wavy alumunium, thick cardboard, newspaper,
non-flammable fastener or some kind of belt, hanging label, and pencil.
c.1 Preparation of Plant Materials
a) The material is placed on top of the newspaper. The top surface of the leaf
and the bottom on one twig should be displayed. Folded leaf tips and leaf
base should be straightened.
b) Long or wide stems, leaves, and flowers can be folded more than once or a
few large leaves can be cut so that all parts of the plant sample do not exceed
the size of the Newspaper at the time of placing the size will fit to the size of
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the plaque paper. For the size of the leaves the size of a piece of newspaper is
placed between the folds of leaves so that the leaves are not attached to each
other.
c) The newspaper folds are placed around the leaves to keep them flat when dry.
If the stems or fruits are thick, then added newspaper folds and cardboard, so
the thickness is the same as the thick part of the plant. The goal is to help the
leaves to dry evenly without damaging or pressing other parts.
d) Small and loose fruit are inserted into the envelope and labeled with its data.
e) Large fruits are generally difficult to press. Preservation of such fruits is by
inserting into the tin box, then in the oven to dry or made wet collections with
70% alcohol and stored in glass bottles equipped with a label description.
c.2 Pressing
After some plant material arranged neatly, then closed with newspaper.
The stages of production are as follows:
a) 1st layer (bottom layer) is wooden sasak.
b) 2nd layer is wavy alumunium and carboard.
c) 3rd layer is newspaper then put the material and closed by newspaper again.
d) 4th layer is wavy alumunium and carboard.
e) 5th layer is returns to 3rd and 4th layer.
f) 6th layer is covered with wooden sasak when the arrangement is high enough
(± 20-25 cm).
c.3 Drying
After arranging the plant material and pressing, then inserted into the
oven at a temperature of 50-70 °C.
a) The position of wooden sasak before put into the oven must be set, when
entering into oven the position must be horizontally (at edge) so that hot oven
is not blocked by wooden sasak, heat from oven will be blocked if the
position is vertical (above and below).
b) Once inserted, the oven is closed and set the temperatureat 50-70 °C for 2-3
days.
c) On the first day od drying, wooden sasak is pressed again because the lack of
moisture in the specimen affects the pressure and rope bonds, after being
pressed again, put back into the oven.
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d. Mounting
a) Preparing the plaque paper.
b) All parts of the material should be on a single page of plaque paper and note
that the material, labels, and envelopes (if any) are arranged on plaque paper
in a balanced position and not exceeds the edge of the plaque paper. The
material should not cover the label. If the paper is not sufficient to attach all
of the material, the material may be attached to other plaque paper (multiple
sheets of material, or multiple sheets or duplicates). The label is placed on
the bottom right sequentially upwards in the order of the year. On other
sheets also paste the photocopies from the original label.
c) Small stems or twigs given ramitape / tape, when sticking ramitape / tape is
pressed near both sides left and right so as not to waver, ramitape / tape cut
off using a scalpel.
d) The material used shall always reveal buds, flowers, fruits, and both leaf
surfaces or important parts of the plant.
e) Try to make the material looksnatural like real shape of a plant, for example
the root position should be placed at the bottom.
f) If the material is very small, do not plaque, but insert it into the specimen
envelope and stick it on the top left of the plaque paper.
g) The pointed end of the plant (such as the end of a truncated stem, thorn or
branch) should be trimmed or cut to avoid damaging the herbarium material.
Other things to consider in the placement of plant material are:
a) Loose materials such as flowers, fruits, leaves, or other, should be stored in
envelopes. In the envelope is written the name of the plant, origin, vak
garden and plaque paper numbers of the material. If the plant exploration
results are written in accordance with the data of the origin of the plant.
b) Parts of fruit and flowers should not be in masking tape.
c) Fruit, stems, or other plant parts having a diameter of less than 3 cm,
preferably attached to plaque paper by sewing with goodyear yarns.
e. Refigeration
The next process is refigeration the herbarium material is inserted into the
freezer. As for how it works as follows:
a) Small plastic adjust to the capacity of plastic bags.
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b) The plastic bag is sealed with duct tape and then insert it into the cardboard
box.
c) Insert into a large plastic bag and close and fasten with a rope and put it in a
cooler or freezer with a temperature of -20 °C for ten days.
d) After ten days, the herbarium material is removed and aerated for three
days, to remove the ice crystals present in the material and afterwards the
material is ready to be storage into the herbarium cabinet.
f. Storage and Arragnment of Herbarium
In the process of arragment herbarium specimens, stored and arranged
alphabetically in storage cabinets so systematically arranged so as to facilitate
the retrieval and rearrangement. The stages are as follows:
a) Herbarium specimens that have been incorporated into species of folders
and genus folders are then grouped alphabetically by families, genera, and
species.
b) The specimen is inserted into a vault (storage cabinet) that has been labeled
the name of the tribe (family) so as not to be easily attacked by pests or
fungi.
c) Storage room shall be provided with air conditioner with a temperature of
20 °C with moisture of 55% in order that the specimen is not damaged and
durable.
g. Maintenance
Herbarium material to stay in good condition and maintained, maintenance
should be done routinely. Maintenance of herbarium can be done by cleaning the
specimen collection from dust and cleaning the storage cabinet and refrigeration
at -20 ° C for ± 10 days for 6 months. In addition there is a repeat or remounting.
Remounting is the activity of moving herbarium material from old plaque paper
to new plaque paper. This activity is often done simultaneously with the
activities of the placement. Remounting is one effort to maintain the collection
of specimens in order to stay awake and intact. Tools used in the same as
mounting activities.The procedure of remounting activities as follows:
a) Release of material that is to release the specimen material from old plaque
paper. There are two kinds of material release, for the first one can use a

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scalpel or scissors to remove the tape, while for the second must cut in
accordance with the shape of the material either using a scalpel or scissors.
b) Arragnment of the material is to re-arrange the material specimen on new
plaque paper. The removed material is reassembled on new plaque paper.
c) If the material from the herbarium leaves off, then arrange with the leaf
surface position looks up and stack the leaf surface also looks the bottom.
d) If the branch is cut into pieces, rearrange as much as possible in accordance
with the position before it is moved.
e) Arragnment of labels done in sequence starting from the bottom right.
f) For fragile labels, then coated with acid free paper before stick it to plaque
paper.
g) Write "REMOUNTED" and its year at the bottom center of the plaque
paper.
2.3.2 Wet Herbarium
a. Collecting the Material
The material was collected in the area of botanical garden where the plant
has not been recorded in Herbarium database of Center for Plant Conservation
Botanic Garden. Dry herbarium material is selected with a complete condition
consisting of flowers, fruit, twigs, and leaves. Taking using tools such as scissors
and bamboo stick to facilitate when taking the material in the field. The amount
of each minimum pick of 3 twigs of each tree to duplicate the length of the
herbarium material is about 20 cm. Material taken and put a hanging label to
facilitate in a plant identity, consisting of collector, date of collection, name of
plant, tribe, vak number, and origin of plant using pencil 2B. Then put into
plastic bags that have been provided and then taken to the processing place to be
collected.
b. Prepare the Tools and Materials
Making wet herbarium using special media that is 70% alcohol, aquades,
and glycerin. The tool used consists of bucket, scoop, funnel, 2000 ml and 500
ml measuring cup, specimen bottle, tracing paper, mask, glove, and herbarium
catalog book.

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c. Making the Medium
c.1 Making the Alcohol Solution 70 % 5000 ml
a) Take 96% alcohol as much as 3650 ml.
b) Dissolved with aquades as much as 1350 ml in a bucket.
c) Homogenized.
c.2 Making the Prepared Solution 5000 ml
a) Take 70% alcohol as much as 3500 ml.
b) Dissolved with aquades as much 1500 ml.
c) Homogenized.
c.3 Making 5000 ml Solution of Zingiberaceae and Orchidaceae Family
a) Take 98% alcohol as much as 3650 ml and 250 ml glycerin.
b) Dissolved with aquades as much 1350 ml.
c) Homogenized.
d. Processing
Processing the wet herbarium with prepared medium is 70% alcohol
solution. Prepare the labels in tracing paper written by species name, family, vak
number, species origin, take date, and storage date using 2B pencil. Specimen
material is prepared, as for the stages as follows:
a) The specimens are washed with clean water, then drained and dried.
b) Bottle of specimen washed with clean water, then dried.
c) After the specimen is dry, insert it into the bottle and insert the label inside
that has already written the specimen information.
d) The 70 % alcohol solution is inserted into the bottle until fully submerged
and then closed tightly.
e. Labeling
Labeling on the wet collection herbarium is done twice, inside and outside
labels. The label in the use of tracing paper specimen information written using a
2B pencil. The external label uses a special label paper whose data has been
printed from the specimen database. Once the specimen is ready, the outside
label is ready to be stick it.

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f. Database Entry
Entries the specimen data into “Form Isian Spesies Herbarium Basah
Kebun Raya Bogor” and Logbook of making, storage, and maintenance of wet
herbarium.
g. Storage
The process of storage the herbarium specimens is stored and arranged
alphabetically in storage cabinets so that they are arranged systematically
making it easier to retrieve and rearrange. Stored in a storage cabinet in a special
room temperature of 20 °C and humidity 15%.
h. Maintenance
Wet herbarium material to stay in good condition and maintained,
maintenance should be done routinely. Maintenance done 2 times a year.
Maintenance is done in the following way:
a) Replace the wet herbarium specimen solution with a new one.
b) Cleaned dust that is in the storage cabinet or outside the storage cabinet.
c) Fumigation is carried out to handle pests that attack wet collections in airtight
space when needed.

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III. WORK EVALUATION

3.1 General Description of Location

The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) is a non-ministerial government


agency of the Republic of Indonesia coordinated by the Ministry of Research,
Technology and Higher Education (KMNRT). The Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(LIPI) is a world-class research institute that is engaged in research, development,
and utilization of science to improve the competitiveness of the nation. LIPI
formation has a long history. After passing through several phases of scientific
activity from the 16th century to In 1956, the Indonesian government established the
Indonesian Council of Sciences (MIPI) through Law No. 6 of 1956. Its task was to
guide the development of science and technology and to give consideration to the
government in terms of scientific wisdom. In 1962, the government formed the
Department of National Research Affairs (DURENAS) and placed MIPI in it with
the additional task of establishing and nurturing several national research institutions.
Until 1966, DURENAS status became National Research Institute (LEMRENAS).
Since August 1967, the government dissolved LEMRENAS and MIPI by letter
Presidential Decree No. RI. 128 Year 1967.
After that, the government based on MPRS Decree no. 18 / B / 1967 formed
LIPI and accommodated all LEMRENAS and MIPI assignments into the institution.
Its main tasks are (1) to guide the development of science and technology rooted in
Indonesia in order to be utilized for the welfare of the Indonesian people in particular
and mankind in general; (2) seeking scientific truths where scientific freedom,
freedom of research and freedom of speech are recognized and guaranteed, to the
extent not in contradiction with Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution; (3) preparing
for the establishment of the Indonesian Academy of Sciences (since 1991, this main
task has been handled by the State Minister for Research and Technology with
Presidential Decree No. 179 of 1991).
Bogor Botanical Garden is part of a slate monument that was founded in the
days of the Padjadjaran kingdom in 1474-1513 which preserves the environment and
maintains rare wooden seeds. In the 1800s, Governor-General Thomas Stamford
Raffles, who had a great interest in botany, was interested in developing the
courtyard of Bogor Palace into a beautiful garden. With the help of experts, one of
11
them W. Kent who took part in building Kew Garden in London, Raffles conjure the
court yard into a classic English style. In the days of colonialism, this botanical
garden was founded on May 18, 1817 by Prof. Dr. C. G. C Reinwardt named Land's
Plantentuite buitenzorg which later became known as Bogor Botanical Garden and
now become Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden (PKT Kebun Raya -
LIPI, 2014).
Main Duties of Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden - LIPI is the
preparation of policy formulation materials, the arranging of guidelines, the
provision of technical guidance, arranging of plans and programs, the
implementation of ex-situ tropical plant conservation research and evaluation and
report preparation. The function Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden -
LIPI is the preparation of the formulation of ex-situ tropical plant conservation
policy. Preparation of guidance, guidance and provision of technical guidance
research on conservation of ex-situ tropical plants. Arranging of plans and programs
as well as the implementation of ex-situ tropical plant conservation research.
Monitoring of the use of research results in the conservation of ex-situ tropical
plants. Scientific and technological services in the ex-situ conservation area of
tropical plants. Evaluation and preparation of research reports on ex-situ tropical
plant conservation (PKT Kebun Raya - LIPI, 2014).

12
3.2 Result and Discussion

3.2.1 Dry Herbarium

a. Collecting The Plant Materials of Botani Garden Collection

In this field work practice the species used were taken from the collection
of Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden with making dry and wet
herbarium. The processing of the herbarium basically ispreservation of a mature
plant specimen in good and complete condition. Herbarium specimens are
defined as data banks that can provide a variety of important information
(Baluran National Park Hall, 2004). The completeness of the specimens, data,
and the origin of the specimen material is very important considering the
herbarium as one of the learning media especially in the process of plant
identification. According to Widhy (2012) the function of herbarium is to help
identify other plants that have similar features of morphology. This relates in the
stages of making the herbarium that requires careful technique of work
according to the procedure that has been determined. These steps are material
collecting, manufacture and processing which is pressing and drying, mounting,
freezing, recording, and data entry, storage and maintenance by way of
remounting (Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
Dry herbarium is made from a species that has grown up, is not attacked
by pests, diseases or other physical damage. Plants throughout the habitus are
included such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit. Dry herbarium only uses
dried parts of plants such as roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. While the wet
herbarium uses a soft part, watery, and difficult to dry like a fruit (Pudjoarinto,
1996). Material collecting can use cutting or scissors if the material condition is
high enough. Collecting the material at Center for Plant Conservation Botanic
Garden is chosen which is complete and good, as far as possible not bitten by
caterpillar or insect on each part of the plant. The length of the herbarium
material is ± 20 cm (smaller than plaque paper) (Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
b. Notes and Labeling The Materials
In addition to herbarium material must be complete, it should be noted also
that at the time of herbarium material collecting should be recorded data of
plants, especially characters that will be lost if preserved. Herbarium material
13
without its plant records is considered very meaningless. Together with the
recording of the plant's identity, it needs to be immediately hanging labeled or
labeling.One hanging label for one specimen. On each label is written the name
of the species, family, plant origin, collection number or on Center for Plant
Conservation Botanical Garden called vak numbers, date of collection, and
collector. It is recommended that label writing using 2B pencil, so the writing
does not easily fade (Onrizal, 2005).
c. Preservation and Temporary Storage
Herbarium material collected in one day should be directly preserved, do
not leave until the next day because many plants with leaves and flowers very
quickly rot, fall, or roll. If not done directly, herbarium material should be
moistened with alcohol or spirtus. Handling of specimens in the field is called
wet-handling even in the sense that it is not the making of a wet collection
herbarium. The advantages of this processing are practical because drying can
take several days to several weeks, but is detrimental because it requires a small
amount of alcohol or spirtus (Wardani et al., 2004).
Dry collection material needs to be duplicated. The process of duplicating
or picking up species of at least 3 twigs in a tree as well as rating or material size
should be sufficient for a single fold of newspaper. Re-checking the collected
collection plant material becomes the next important step to determine and
ensure that the material is suitable for sampling (IAPSD, Samp 400).
d. Pressing and Drying
Preparation of dried herbarium in order to obtain maximum dry or
maximum results can be done drying with oven. But before, the material was
washed with clean water so that no more dirt stuck. The material must first be
done pressing using layers of newspaper, cardboard, wavy aluminum, and
wooden sasak. The material is placed on top of the newspaper, the top and
bottom surfaces of the leaf should be displayed. Stems and leaves of length or
width can be cut or folded.If there is a thick fruit or stem, then added newspaper
folds so that the thickness of the coating can be the same. The goal is that the
specimens can be dried evenly without damaging other parts. After the material
is neatly arranged and then covered with newspaper and arranged in wooden

14
sasak, wavy aluminum, paperboard / cardboard, newspaper, specimen and vice
versa. Then fasten with a heat-resistant belt (Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
The process of drying the material inside the oven with a temperature of
70 °C for 48-72 hours is arranged vertically to make the heating evenly and
optimally. Sasak fastening straps should be tightened to avoid material shrinkage
during drying time. The material should always be checked to re-tighten the belt
bond due to the reduced moisture content of the specimen after the oven
(Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
e. Mounting
Mounting is the attachment of attaching material to plaque paper after the
specimen is dry. The position of the material on the paper should show its
original shape and not exceed the size of the plaque paper. The loose material
part can be inserted into the specimen envelope. Specimen envelope that has
been written vak number, then stick it in upper left. Small leaf and twig parts are
stick it with ramitape while large stems (diameter > 3 cm) can be sewn with
goodyear yarns. The specimen label is stick from bottom right up. The specimen
that has been plaque is then put into the species folder then the genus folder
(Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
Table 3.1. Mounting Specimen of Dry Herbarium on January 2018

No. Species Famili Vak & No.


1 Alchornea rugosa (Lour.) Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae XI.B.XV.215
2 Ardisia humilis Vahl Myristicaceae XI.B.XVI.227
3 Baccaurea macrocarpa Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae XI.B.XVIII.250
4 Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. Phormiaceae XI.B.XI.96
5 Ixora salicifolia (Blume) DC. Rubiaceae XI.B.XVII.144
6 Ixora salicifolia (Blume) DC. Rubiaceae XI.B.XVIII. 243
7 Psychotria curviflora Wall. Var. Rubiaceae XI.B.XVII.254
forma brevistylis
8 Chionanthus ramiflorus Oleaceae XII.C.299
9 Dasymaschalon blumei Finet & Annonaceae XII.B.V.158
Gagnep
10 Lepisanthes amoena (Hask) Leenh Sapindaceae XI.B.VI.153
11 Hibiscus sp. Malvaceae XVI.F.19
12 Hibiscus vitrifolius Malvaceae XV.J.A.XIX.10

15
13 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.G.59
14 Hibiscus sp. Malvaceae XVI.F.18
15 Hibiscus sp. Malvaceae XVI.F.26a
16 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.C.10
17 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.G.6
18 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.G.59a
19 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.G.22
20 Hibiscus sp. Malvaceae X.G.27
21 Pavonia wisti Malvaceae X.B.XVI.33
22 Pavonia schimferiana Malvaceae XVI.J.17
23 Hibiscus sp. Malvaceae XVI.F.20
24 Thespesia populnea Malvaceae XVI.G.18a
25 Thespesia sp. Malvaceae XVI.G.12
26 Thespesia trilobata Malvaceae XVI.G.16a
27 Thespesia trilobata Malvaceae XVI.G.16
28 Thespesia populnea Malvaceae XVI.G.18
29 Ficus stupenda Moraceae VII.F.23
30 Ficus subulata Moraceae XV.B.66a
31 Ficus subulata Moraceae XV.B.68
32 Ficus stupenda Moraceae VII.F.23
33 Hopea celebica Dipterocarpaceae XXV.A.253
34 Rauvolfia serpentina Apocynaceae XXIV.A.291
35 Rauvolfia serpentina Apocynaceae XXIV.A.291a
36 Ficus variegata Moraceae IX.E.67
37 Ficus ulmifolia Moraceae XII.B.VIII.18
38 Ficus subulata Moraceae XV.B.68a
39 Ficus sapiosa Moraceae XI.B.XIX.49
40 Ficus variegata Moraceae VIII.A.7
41 Ficus variegata Moraceae VIII.A.8
42 Ficus variegata Moraceae VIII.D.26

f. Refigeration
The refigeration of the specimens aims to kill the bacteria or pests resistant
to heat when the oven. The material that has been plugged into the plastic bag,

16
arranged by alphabet and tied with rope raffia rapa rope so as not to wet.
Cooling in freezer with temperature -20 °C for 7-10 days. The specimen material
was removed and dried for 3 days to remove ice crystals. This refigeration
process is only done on dry collections (Ramadhanil & Gradstein, 2004). The
process of data entry to facilitate the matching of species in order to avoid
mistakes and evidence that herbarium specimens have included material
collection of Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden. The recording into
the database is computerized to facilitate the search for the herbarium database
which will then be printed in the herbarium catalog book (Sardiwinata et al.,
2008).
g. Storage and Maintenance
The herbarium material is stored in a special collection room for the dry
and wet herbarium material to assure durability. Storage cabinets should be at a
stable temperature of 20 °C with 55% moisture so that durable materials are not
easily contaminated and not overgrown with fungi. The specimens are stored
into storage cabinets alphabetically based on family, genus, and species to
facilitate the search process later. The maintenance process can be done by
cleaning the specimen and cleaning the storage cupboard from the dust. In
addition, there may be remounting or replanting for specimens of plaque paper
and specimen conditions that begin to damaged. Remounting process is not
really different from mounting, in remounting process of opening the rami tape
on specimen using scalpel. The remounting process should be done carefully due
to the fragile condition of the specimen (Onrizal, 2005).
Table3.2. Remounting Specimen of Dry Herbarium on February 2018

No. Species Famili Vak & No.


1 Hibiscus vitrifolius Malvaceae XV.J.A.XIX.10
2 Hibiscus liliaceus Malvaceae XVI.G.59
3 Pavonia wisti Malvaceae X.B.XVI.33
4 Thespesia populnea Malvaceae XVI.G.18a
5 Thespesia populnea Malvaceae XVI.G.18
6 Ficus stupenda Moraceae VII.F.23
7 Ficus subulata Moraceae XV.B.68

17
8 Ficus variegate Moraceae IX.E.67
9 Ficus subulata Moraceae XV.B.66a
10 Ficus variegate Moraceae VIII.D.26

3.2.2 Wet Herbarium


a. Collecting The Plant Materials of Botani Garden Collection
Taking material for made wet herabarium must be material in good
condition, not rotten, not peeled, or attacked by pests. Wet herbaria uses a soft,
watery, and hard to dry as fruit (Pudjoarinto, 1996). Material collecting may use
scissors or bamboo stick if the material condition is high enough. The process of
collecting the material is carried out in an area by means of surroundings
supported by adequate methods, tools, and materials so that the sampling process
can be representative, maintained, adequately, and labeled (IAPSD, Samp
400).Collection of plants is done by doing exploration in the field. Furthermore,
the input of the plant obtained into the vasculum, or just input into the pages of a
thick book take mainly from the flowering and fruiting plant parts. Parts of a
large plant are at least 30-40 cm long and at least one complete leaf, fruit, and
one inflorescentia, unless the specific part is too large. Look at parts of
underground plants and write down the important and special things such as
color, odor, interior part, height of place from sea level, location, and number of
plants (Triharto, 1996).
b. Notes and Labeling
In addition to herbarium material must be complete, it should be noted also
that at the time of herbarium material collecting should be notes the data of
plants, especially characters / properties that will be lost if preserved. Herbarium
material without its plant records is considered very meaningless. Together with
the recording of the plant's identity, it needs to be immediately hanging label or
labeling. One hanging label for one specimen. On each label is written the name
of the species, family, plant origin, collection number or on Bogor Botanical
Gardens called vak numbers, date of collection, and collector. It is recommended
that label writing using 2B pencil, so the writing does not easily fade (Onrizal,
2005).

18
c. Preparing and Medium Making Process
Preparations of wet herbarium making include washing of specimen
bottles to avoid contamination of media, washing of materials with clean water.
After the washing is cleaned then aired so that the remaining water wash
disappears. Labeling using tracing paper that has been named species, family,
origin vak number, collector, collect date, and storage date (Onrizal, 2005).
Media for wet herbarium uses alcohol, aquades, and glycerin. The use of
glycerin is only for families of Orchidaceae and Zingiberaceae, it is because
these two families are so rapidly decaying, the content of glycerin can help this
family to get the nutrients to keep the specimen condition not quickly decayed.
Making media in addition to the family Orchidaceae and Zingiberaceae only use
alcohol with aquades. Preparation of ready-to-use solution by making alcohol
96% to 70% alcohol by mixing 3650 mL of 96% alcohol with 1350 mL of
aquades until homogeneous to 5000 ml. for the preparation of media with
glycerin, 3650 mL of 96% alcohol with 1350 mL of aquades plus 5% glycerin ie
250 mL to homogeneous to 5000 ml (Sardiwinata et al., 2008).
d. Processing and Storage
The specimen material is ready to be inserted into the specimen bottle and
the inner label that has been made, then the media input is homogenized
solution. Data entry can be done by filling the wet collection herbarium form. At
this stage the outer label of the wet collection herbarium can be printed after data
entry. Storage of wet collections in storage cabinets with room temperature 20 °
C always kept stable. The wet herbarium collection is stored in a separate room
separate from the room for dry herbaria. In-room arrangements are arranged as
they do with dry herbarium collections, which are separated by large category
taxis, then in each taxon the categories below are arranged alphabetically (Yos
F. da Lopes, 2014).
Table 3.3. Specimen of Wet herbarium on February 2018

No. Species Famili Vak & No.


1 Diospyros blancoi Ebenaceae XXV.A.38

2 Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. Phormiaceae XI.B.XI.96

19
3 Baccaurea macrocarpa Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae XI.B.XVIII.250

e. Maintenance
Maintenance of wet herbarium by replacing the already smelly and black
looking medium, washing the specimen bottle, and replacing the inner label with
a new one. Maintenance of wet herbarium is done twice in a year, but not all
families can be substituted for twice a year, such as the Fabaceae family,
Araceae (especially Rafflesia), Cycadacae must be replaced when the media
starts to turbid, because the family is rapidly decayed and there is a resin
produced in the fruit body (Sardiwinata et al., 2008).

20
IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion

Based on the results and discussion of field work practices above can be
concluded that:
1. The process of making dry herbarium begins with collecting the plant
material of botanical garden collection , notes and labeling the materials in
the field, pressing and drying using oven, mounting, refrigeration, entries
the database, storage processing, and maintenance the specimen by
remounting.
2. The process of wet herbarium (spirit collection) begins with collecting the
plant material of botanical garden collcetion, notes and labeling in the field,
making the medium for wet herbarium, processing, entries the database,
storage processing, and maintenance the specimen by change the medium
with the new one.
3. Herbarium collection of Center for Plant Conservation Botanical Garden –
LIPI has 51.015 dry herbarium (sheets), 912 wet herbarium (spirit
collection), 5384 seeds collection, and 209 woods collection until January
2018.
B. Suggestion

1. Preferably in the process of mounting and remounting the old collection using
a mask to avoid the toxic effects of preservative sublimate used for dry
preservation.
2. Increased storage cabinets for specimens that are still on open shelves to
avoid damage due to fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
3. Addition of shelves for storage tools and materials for making herbarium
arranged neatly and not just placed in the corner of the room or on top of the
storage cabinet.
4. Provided aspecial temporary shelves to place mounted or remounted
specimens before finally entering into the freezer and re-stored.

21
REFERENCES

Balai Taman Nasional Baluran, 2004. Laporan Kegiatam Pengendali Ekosistem


Hutan-Pembuatan herbarium. Situbondo: Balai Taman Nasional Baluran.

Bridson, Diane & Leonard Forman, eds. 1998. The Herbarium Handbook. 3rd
edition. Great Britain: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XII, 334 p.

DeWolf, Gordon P., Jr. 1968. Notes on Making an Herbarium. Arnoldia. 28(8/9): 69-
111.

IAPSD. Mendapatkan Sampel Representatif Sesuai dengan Rencana Sampling


Elemen I VErsi 3. Samp 400: IAPSD-Laboratoriumatory Operations.

Irwanto, R. 2012. Peningkatan Mutu Koleksi Biji Melalui Manajemen Pengelolaan


dan Penelitian Biji. Malang: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Universitas
Brawijaya.

Onrizal. 2005. Teknik Pembuatan Herbarium. Medan: e-USU Repository.

PKT Kebun Raya - LIPI. 2014. Herbarium Kebun Raya Bogor.


(http://krbogor.lipi.go.id/id/Herbarium-Kebun-Raya-Bogor.html, di akses
pada 19 February 2018).

Pudjoarinto, A. 1996. Teknik Herbarium dan Pengelolaan Herbarium. Makalah pada


Lokakarya TAksonomi Tumbuhan. HEDS PROJECT-FMIPA, Universitas
Bengkulu.

Ramadhanil & Robert Gradstein. 2004. Herbarium Celebense (CEB) dan Peranannya
dalam Menunjang Penelitian Taksonomi Tumbuhan di Sulawesi. Jurnal
Biodiversitas. 5 (1): 38-39.

Sardiwinata, Jajat Surjati, Ridwan Hamzah, & Kusnadi. 2008. Cara Pengumpulan,
Pembuatan, dan Pemeliharaan Koleksi Material Herbarium Pusat
Konserbasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya Bogor. Bogor: LIPI Press.

Triharto, Ahmad. 1996 Dasar-Dasar Perlindungan Tanaman. Yogyakarta: UGM


Press.

Widhy H, Purwanti. 2012. Herbarium. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta.

Yos F. da Lopes, 2014. Pembuatan Herbarium Basah dan Herbarium Kering. Modul.
Jurusan Manajemen Pertanian Lahan Kering, Politeknik Pertanian Negeri
Kupang.

22
Attachment 1. Title, Location, Time, Supervisor, and Daily Work Plan

Title : Dry and Wet Herbarium Making Process In Center for


Plant Conservation Botanic Garden - LIPI
Location :Center for Plant Conservation Botanic Garden - LIPI
Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 13, Paledang, Bogor Tengah, Bogor,
Jawa Barat 16122
Date : 22 January 2018 – 23 February 2018
Supervisor : Dr. Pudji Widodo, M.Sc.
Field Supervisor : Dr.agr. Didit Okta Pribadi, S.P., M.Si.

Table 1.1.Daily Work Plan


No Date Activity
1. Monday  Introduction of Center For Plant Conservation
22 January 2018 Botanic Garden-LIPI
 Introduction the Plant Data (Name of Val,
Number of Seng, and Year)
 Introduction of Plant Area and Vak
2. Tuesday  Giving the material about principle of
23 January 2018 Herbarium
 Take 7 species of Botanical Garden collection
 Pressing and drying the species
 Input database to form F6 and F13
3. Thursday  Giving the material about wet herbarium (spirit
24 January 2018 collection)
 Prepare for wet herbarium making process
 Making a medium/solution
 Washing of specimen bottle
 Making an inner label for wet herbarium using
tracing paper
4. Wednesday  Sorting of wet collection specimens (picking /
25 January 2018 taking decayed specimens from storage)

23
 Taking the specimen that has been dried by
oven
 Washing of decayed specimen bottles
(maintenance)
 Prepare for specimen mounting process
5. Friday  Mounting the specimen
26January 2018  Making a label for dry herbarium (dry
collection)
 Herbarium labeling aand storage
 Attachment of label and put the dry herbarium
into species folder and genus folder
6. Monday  Taking 3 species of botanical garden collection
29 January 2018 for dry and wet herbarium (dry and spirit
collection)
 Pressing and drying the specimen
 Mounting 10 sheets of Malvaceae family
7. Tuesday  Mounting 7 sheets & remounting 2 sheets of
30 January 2018 Malvaceae family
8. Thursday  Mounting 7 sheets of Malvaceae family
31 January 2018
9. Wednesday  Mounting 11 sheets of Malvaceae family
1 February 2018
10. Jumat  Mounting 8 sheets of Malvaceae family
2 February 2018
11. Monday  Mounting 16 sheets & remounting 3 sheets of
5 February 2018 Malvaceae family
12. Tuesday  Mounting 15 sheets & remounting 1 sheets of
6 February 2018 Moraceae family
13. Thursday  Mounting 9 sheets & remounting 2 sheets of
7 February 2018 Moraceae family
14. Wednesday  Labeling and storage16 sheets specimen into
8 February 2018 species folder and genus folder

24
 Mounting 9 sheets & remounting 2 sheets of
Moraceae family
15. Friday  Prepare the yarn for mounting material
9 February 2018  Making an specimen envelope
 Mounting 4 sheets of Moraceae family
16. Monday  Making the medium for wet herbarium (spirit
12 February 2018 collection) of Orchidaceae & Zingiberaceae
family
 Mounting 7 sheets of Moraceae family
17. Tuesday  Mounting 11 sheets of Moraceae family
13 February 2018
18. Thursday  Mounting 14 sheets of Moraceae family
14 February 2018
19. Wednesday  Mounting 8 sheets of Moraceae family
15 February 2018
20. Monday  Keep the specimen into storage alphabetically
19 February 2018  Do the report
21. Tuesday  Do the report
20 February 2018
22. Thursday  Do the report
21 February 2018
23. Wednesday  Submit the report
22 February 2018
24. Friday  Report validation
23 February 2018

25
Attachment 2.Picture of Activity
2.1. Dry Herbarium (Dry Collection)

Table 2.1.1. Collecting The Plant Materials of Botanical Garden Collection


Picture Details
 Take the materials using stek scissors

 Take the materials using pole if the


material too high

 Notes the materials data

 Labeling of materials with hanging


label

26
 Put the materials into plastic for
temporary storage while in the field

Table 2.1.2. Pressing and Drying


Picture Details
 Preparing of pressing and mounting
tools(wavy alumunium, newspaper,
cardboard, wooden sasak, and binding
belt).

 Arraganment of material above the


newespaper, cardboard, and wooden
sasak.

 Binding of material that has been


coated with wooden sasak using
binding belt.

27
 Drying the material into oven placed
vertically.

 The material has been dried by oven.

Table 2.1.3. Mounting and Freezing


Picture Details
 Preparing the tools of mounting
(specimen envelope, needle, goodyear
yarn, glue, rami tape, solder, pencil,
brush, tweezers, scissor, and scalpel).

 Mounting process in plaque paper.

28
 Storaging the specimen into species
folder (white) and genus folder
(yellow).

 Refigerate the specimen into freezer


about 10 days before it is inserted into
storage cabinet.

 Entries the database into form F6 and


F13.

29
Table 2.1.4. Storage Process
Picture Details
 Preparing the storage cabinet.

 Storage process according the family


inserted in alphabetical on genus and
species.

Table 2.1.5. Maintenance


Picture Details
 Checkup the specimen conditions.

30
 The remounting process is one of the
collection (dryherbarium)
maintenance on the plaque paper.

 Write down “REMOUNTED” with


years processing on the bottom side of
plaque paper after remounting process
done.

 Storage process the specimen into new


species folder (white) and genus folder
(yellow).

 Refigerate the specimen into freezer


about 10 days before it is inserted into
storage cabinet.

31
 Database entries.

 Re-storage the specimen that has been


remounting.

2.2. Wet Herbarium (Spirit Collection)


Table 2.2.1 Collecting The Plant Materials of Botanical Garden Collection
Picture Details
 Take the materials using stek scissors

32
 Take the materials using pole if the
material too high

 Notes the materials data

 Labeling of materials with hanging


label

 Put the materials into plastic for


temporary storage while in the field

33
Table 2.2.2 Making the Medium
Picture Details
 Preparing the tools and medium.
(bucket, bailer, funnel, glove,
measuring glass 2000 mL, measuring
glass 500 mL, mask, lab coat, alcohol
96 %, aquades, gliserin).

 Pouring the alcohol and aquades


solution into different bucket to easier
the process of medium making.

 Making the medium (5000 mL of


alcohol 70 % from 96 %).
 3650 mL of alcohol 96 % + 1350 m L
of aquades for Non-Orchidaceae and
Zingiberaceae family.

 Making the medium for Orchidaceae


and Zingiberaceae family (5000 mL of
alcohol + 5 % gliserin).
 3650 mL of alcohol 96 % + 1350 m L
aquades + 250 mL gliserin.

34
 The medium is ready to use.

Table 2.2.3 Processing the Specimen


Picture Details
 Preparing (washing the specimen
bottle).

 Preparing (washing the specimen).

35
 Making the inner label using kalkir
paper.

 Putting the specimen and label into the


bottle specimen.

 Putting the medium (alcohol 70 %)


into specimen bottle.

 Entry the data of specimen into “Form


Isian Species Herbarium Basah Kebun
Raya Bogor”.
 Then the outer label will be printed by
data that has been inserted.

36
 Attachment the outer label on wet
herbarium bottle.

Table 2.2.4 Storage Processing


Picture Details
 Storage processing of specimen
alphanetically into storage cabinet.

Table 2.2.5 Maintenance


Picture Details
 Dispose the medium that has been
turbid and blackened.

37
 Washing the specimen bottle and let it
dry.

 Put back the specimen into washed


bottle.

 Pouring the new medium into


specimen bottle.

38
 Re-storage the specimen
alphabetically.

Attachment 3. Herbarium Collection of Center for Plant Conservation Botanic


Garden on January 2018
Table 3.1. Dry Herbarium Collection (Sheet Specimen)

Species Genus Species


No. Activity Family Genus indet. sp specimen
Folder Folder
1 Mounting 3 14 42 0 5 487 108 127
2 Remounting 3 9 16 0 0 116 29 30
3 Label 3 16 45 0 5 531 118 139
4 Freezing 3 16 45 0 5 531 118 139
5 Inserting 3 16 45 0 5 531 118 139
6 Moving 3 16 45 0 5 531 118 139
7 Generally 3 16 45 0 5 531 118 139
Sheet Herbarium
8
Collection 200 1574 4982 97 1388 51015 0 0

Tabel 3.2. Wet Herbarium Collection (Spirit Collection)

No. Activity Family Genus Species indet. sp Specimen

1 Making the Medium 17 33 54 0 14 72


Preparing the
2
Specimen 17 33 54 0 14 72
3 Bottling 17 33 54 0 14 72
4 Labeling 17 33 54 0 14 72
5 Storage Processing 17 33 54 0 14 72
6 Moving/Insert 17 32 50 0 13 65
7 Generally 17 33 54 0 14 72
Wet Herbarium
8
Collection 90 356 666 1 175 912

39
Table 3.3. Seed Herbarium Collection

No. Activity Family Genus Species indet. sp Specimen

1 Drying Process 12 65 166 2 13 222


2 Freezing 12 65 166 2 13 222
Prepiaring the
3
Bottle 11 77 187 4 17 269
4 Bottling 11 77 187 4 17 269
5 Labeling 10 73 151 4 9 221
6 Storage Processing 11 94 196 5 10 285
7 Database 12 65 166 2 13 222
8 Generally 16 118 269 5 21 385
Seed Museum
9
Collection 226 1480 3676 70 424 5384

40

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