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PREPOSITIONS IN

in or close to an area
The building was in darkness and there was no one

ENGLISH about.
c.
ABOARD LITERARY surrounding or enclosing someone or
1 something
in or on a ship, bus, train, or plane
Rasula wore a garland of flowers about her neck.
It’s time to get aboard. 5
2 how someone is spending their time BRITISH
into an organization, group, company etc a.
I’d like to welcome three new employees aboard. spending time in a place and not leaving it or
ABOUT not doing much
1 They’ve kept us waiting about all morning.
concerning a particular subject b.
a. wasting time and behaving in a stupid way
used for stating who or what you Stop messing about. We’ve got a job to do.
are discussing, considering, describing, forgetting etc 6
Think about what I’ve told you. searching, looking, or trying to find
b. someone/something
used for stating who or what a.
your feelings and attitudes are directedtowards BRITISH used for saying that
I’m worried about Dad. someone looks in different places to find someone or
c. something
SPOKEN used for introducing a subject that George was groping about in the dark, trying to find
you want to discuss the light switch.
About that money I owe you – I can pay you back b.
next week. MAINLY LITERARY used for saying that
2 someone looks in all directionsto see who or what is
not exactly a particular amount or number there
a. Looking about me, I could see no sign of the others.
used for showing that you are guessing at an amount 7
or number used when you are making an extreme statement that
About 250 people were killed in the explosion. you think is almost completely true or is probably true
b. Pam’s about the only person that I can trust.
used for referring to a time that is not exact 8
I woke up at about 3 am. used when referring to qualities that someone or
3 something has
used for showing movement One thing I like about Tony, he always says exactly what
a. he thinks.
moving to many different parts or areas, or
9
in different directions BRITISH MAINLY SPOKEN used for saying that
The girls were dancing about the room in high spirits. a particular type of personor thing exists or
b. is available at this time
LITERARY moving so that you face in There’s a lot of illness about.
the opposite direction ABOVE
Diana turned about and marched out of the room. 1
4 used for saying where someone/something is
used for saying where someone/something is a.
a. at a higher level than something or directly over it
used for saying that things are in
We lived in the room above the shop.
many different parts or areas, especially because they
b.
have been left there carelessly
in an earlier part of a piece of writing or higher up
Don’t leave important papers lying about on your desk. a page
b.
Many of the documents mentioned above are 2
on the opposite side of a road, river, line etc
now available on the Internet.
2 There’s a bus stop just across the road.
higher in amount or standard 3
a. in a large part of an area or surface
more than a particular number, amount, or level a.
in many parts of an area or country
The company’s profits were 23% above
an insurance company that has over 120 offices across
the previous year’s.
b. Europe
better than a particular standard b.
used for saying that
In most subjects the students scored well above average.
something hits or affects a large area of a part of your
3
body
used for saying that something
is considered more valuable or more important than Julia felt a burning pain across her forehead.
other things c.
used for saying that something spreads until
In their society, honesty was prized above all
it covers the whole of an area or surface
other virtues.
There is a danger of the conflict spreading across the
4
used for saying that someone’s rank is higher or whole of Central Africa.
their job is more important than someone else’s 4
used for saying that something includes or affects a
As a major, Stuart was a rank above me, but
whole range of people or things
we remained good friends.
We need to test students’ ability across
5
if you can hear one sound above other sounds, it a wide range of subjects.
is louder or higher than the other sounds AFTER
1
Carl shouted, but it
at a later time
was impossible to make himself heard above all a.
the noise. when a particular time has passed, or when
6 an event or action has ended
if you are above a particular type of behaviour, you are After the war, I went back to work on the farm.
such a morallygood person that you would b.
not behave in that way used for showing how much later something happens
Jack was cheating? I thought he was above that sort of minutes/days/years etc after:
thing. His birthday is two days after mine.
ACROSS c.
AMERICAN used in telling the time,
1 for giving the number of minutespast the hour
from one side to the other It’s ten after nine (=9.10).
a. 2
moving or looking from one side of a place, space, at a later position in a list or piece of writing
or line to the other a.
Over 70 airlines fly across the Atlantic between Europe following someone or something else in a list or order
and NorthAmerica. N comes after M in the alphabet.
b. b.
reaching from one side of a space or surface to the following something else in a piece of writing
other You don’t need to put a full stop after ‘Mr’.
Max’s body lay across the doorway where he had fallen. 3
c. further along a road, railway etc
used for showing the width of something You turn right just after the pub.
one mile/two metres etc across: 4
The channel is less than half a mile across in when someone leaves or has left
some places. a.
if you call or shout after someone, you call or shout to England’s World Cup game against Argentina
them as they are leaving 2
‘And don’t come back!’ they yelled after him. directed towards or affecting someone/something in a
b. negative way
if you clean up after someone, you clean up a.
a mess they have made when they have left or after used for stating who is harmed or affected by
they have finished something
You can put those toys away because I’m not clearing up The dictator is charged with crimes against humanity.
after you. b.
c. used for stating who
if you close a door or gate after you, you close it as someone dislikes or feels angry towards
you leave a place There was growing resentment among
She walked out, closing the door gently after her. the people against their foreign rulers.
5 c.
considering what happened in the past used for saying who
a. is accused of doing something wrong
used for saying that someone accusation/charge/allegation against someone:
is influenced by past events Accusations of bribery had been made against the vice-
After what happened last time, I was careful not president.
to make the same mistake again. 3
b. touching or hitting someone/something
used when there has been a.
a surprising or disappointing resultdespite everything touching or hitting the surface of something
that was done in the past He leaned over and his lips brushed against her hair.
After all that I’d done for her, she didn’t b.
even say thank you. very close to and touching something, especially so
6 that it is usedas a support
trying to catch, find, or get someone/something We left Ron’s bicycle propped against a tree.
a. 4
trying to catch someone or something if there is a law against doing something, it is illegal
The police are after him for burglary. The state has a law against cruelty to animals.
b. 5
INFORMAL trying to find something used for stating what
is causing harm or affecting someone or something
A really good French dictionary, that’s what I’m after.
c. The plants must
INFORMAL wanting to get something that belongs to be protected against frost until late spring.
someone else 6
Watch out, he’s only after your money. if someone or something moves against the wind,
7 the current etc, they face it and move in
if you name a person or thing after someone, you give the opposite direction
them the same name We were sailing against a strong easterly wind.
She’s called Diana, after Princess Diana. 7
AGAINST if something appears against a background, it
1 is seen with the background behind it
in opposition to someone/something The dark ruins of the castle stood out against
a.
the evening sky.
used for stating which plan, idea,
8
or action someone opposes and thinks is wrong
used for comparing one thing or amount with another
Amnesty International has campaigned publicly against
This year’s profits amounted to only £35 million, against
the deathpenalty.
£52 million last year.
b.
ALONG
used for stating who or what you
1
are trying to defeat in a game, race, or fight
moving on or beside a line
a. used when you are mentioning a particular person or
moving forwards on a line, road, path etc towards thing in relation to the rest of the group they belong to
one end of it Robert was the only one among them who had
Mrs Barnes was hurrying along the path towards us. ever ridden a horse.
b. 2
moving from one place to another within a group
while staying near the side or edge of something a.
They were sailing along the southern coast of Australia.used for saying what happens within
2 a particular group of people
used for showing where someone or something is The suicide rate among young male prisoners is high.
a. b.
continuing in a line on or beside a road, river, wall etc
used for saying that many people in a group have
The shops along Oxford Street were brightly lit for a particularopinion or feeling
Christmas. News of the invasion spread panic among the citizens.
b. 3
at a place on or beside a road, river etc used for stating which people receive parts of
The sound of gunfire was coming from somewhere along something when it is divided up and shared out
share/divide/distribute something among:
the road.
3 The money has to be shared out among several projects.
coming here or going there 4
a. in the middle of other people or things
coming to the place where someone is, or going to a.
the place where something is happening in a place surrounded by people or things
Finally a taxi came along, and we jumped in. Robin’s house was hidden among the trees.
b. b.
used for saying that you take someone or something moving through a place where there
with you when you go somewhere are people or things around you
Do you mind if I come along too? It was pleasant strolling among the olive trees.
AMID c.
1 searching through things
if I found Michelle rummaging among the papers in
something happens amid particular feelings or events, my drawer.
it happenswhile people have these feelings or while 5
these events are happening with a group of people of a particular type
Banks and shops closed yesterday amid growing fears of I was never happier than when I was among
violence. these familiar faces.
2 ANTI
if opposed to someone or something
something happens amid noise, shouting, laughter etc,
We’re very anti smoking in this office.
it happenswhile there is a lot of noise etc all around
AROUND
Norman stepped on to 1
the stage amid tumultuous applause. used for showing movement
3 a.
LITERARY surrounded by things or people moving in a circular way
AMONG The Earth goes around the Sun.
1 b.
included in a larger group moving to many different parts or areas
a.
We drove around looking for a hotel.
used for saying that someone or something
c.
is included in a particular group of people or things
moving so that you face in the opposite direction
His family connections helped ensure his position among
Martha heard a noise and spun around to see what it
the elite.
was.
b.
d.
moving so that you get to the other side of something There are some really good new video games around.
At that moment a truck came rushing around 7
the corner. about a particular subject
2 There is a lot of anxiety around the
used for showing where someone/something is whole process of globalization.
a. AS
surrounding or enclosing something 1
Arrange the chairs around the table. used for showing comparison
b. a.
in many different parts or areas used for comparing one person, thing,
They have about 15 offices scattered around or situation with another
as...as:
the country.
c. Simon isn’t as tall as his brother.
in or close to a place or area b.
used in particular expressions for emphasizing a qualit
the quiet country roads around Chester
y in someone or something
d.
in a place with other people, because you live there Her skin was white as snow.
or spend a lotof time there See also less
2
She said her husband hadn’t been around when
SPOKEN used for mentioning that something is
she really neededhim. already known or has already been talked about
3
As I was saying, we expect next year to be a good year.
searching, looking, or trying to find something
3
a.
used for saying that something happens or is done in
used for saying that
the same way
someone looks in different places because
they want to find something I invested the money as you suggested.
4
She walked in, glanced around the hall, and went out.
used for referring to what someone or
b.
something does or how they appear
used for saying that
someone asks many people in order to find something As managing director, I
I’ll ask around and see if anyone has his address. am expected to provide effective leadership.
4 5
not exact used for saying that someone or something
a. is considered or describedin a particular way
used for showing that you are guessing a number or Van Dyck was regarded as the greatest painter of his
amount time.
There must have been around 500 people there. 6
b. used for saying that something happens at the same
used for referring to a time that is not exact time as something else
It was around that time As we were sitting down to dinner, the phone rang.
that people started worrying about the ozone layer. 7
5 used for giving the reason for something
used for showing how someone is spending their time As it was getting late, we decided to go home.
a. 8
spending time in a place not doing much used after an adjective or adverb to mean that
We got tired of waiting around. something is true despitewhat you are saying
b. Strange as it may seem, I never really wanted to be rich.
wasting time and behaving in a stupid way AT
A bunch of kids was messing around outside the school. 1
6 used for stating where someone or something is
used for saying that a.
a certain type of person, product etc exists or in a particular place
is available at this time There’s a telephone box at the crossroads.
b. used for stating what someone is trying to catch, hold,
used for saying where you stop on a journey or hit
Does this train stop at Newport? He grabbed at my sleeve, but I pulled away.
c. 8
sitting or standing close to used for showing that you repeat an action many times
something, especially in order to do something with smallmovements but without doing it completely
Lambert was seated at the piano. I muttered to myself, sipping at my coffee.
d. 9
in a particular part of a process, activity, programme, used for stating the activity or subject that someone
or book is skilful or not skilful in
At some point in the process things started to go wrong. Brownstein is an expert at cooking.
2 10
used for stating what someone is doing AMERICAN used for stating the phone number where
a. someone can be reached. The British word is on
used for saying that someone is doing something You can reach us at 555–3964.
or taking part in an activity somewhere BEHIND
at a party/concert/meeting etc: 1
We were at a party last night when you called. at someone/something’s back or opposite side
b. a.
used for stating what state or situation someone or at the back of someone or something
something is in The teacher was standing behind me, looking over
at rest/war/peace etc:
my shoulder.
The country was at war and life was difficultfor b.
everyone. following someone or something
3 You walk ahead and we’ll follow along behind.
used for stating when something happens c.
a. on the other side of something from where you are
used for stating the exact time when
The manager was sitting behind an enormous desk.
something happens
2
The match starts at 3 o’clock. used for saying what causes something or who
b. is responsible for makingit happen, especially when
used for saying when a particular situation exists this is not obvious
at present/at the moment (=now):
Police believe that a racist group is behind the attacks.
Everyone’s busy with exams at present. 3
c. late or too slow in doing things that you have to do
during a particular period
The project is already a month behind schedule.
What are you doing at the weekend? 4
d. remaining in a place after people have left
when someone is a particular age
A few people stayed behind to clear up.
Mozart was already composing music at the age of five. 5
4 achieving less progress or success
used for stating what makes someone react in a.
a particular way used for saying that someone or something is
Audiences still laugh at his jokes. less successful or has made less progress than others
5 I’ve been ill – that’s why I’m behind everyone else
used for showing the level of prices, temperatures, spe
in maths and French.
eds etc
b.
Tickets are now on sale at £12 each. used for saying that one person or team has
6 a lower score or is less likely to win than
used for stating the direction in which you look, point, their opponent
or aim something
Davis is still behind in recent opinion polls.
Armed gangs were shooting at police cars. 6
7
used for saying that for someone to consider or watch
someone supports a person, action, or idea a.
You’re doing a great job, and I want you FORMAL used for saying that something or someone
is judged or considered by a group of people
to know we’re right behind you.
7 The case went before a grand jury on December 17th.
used for stating hidden facts b.
a. FORMAL used for saying that something
used for saying that is happening where peoplecan watch it
someone’s appearance or behaviour hides their real ch The team scored an impressive victory before
aracter or feelings 76,000 fans at Arrowhead Stadium.
Behind her quiet shy manner there is a passionate spirit. 5
b. in front of or earlier than someone/something
used for talking about the real facts of a.
a situation that people do not know if one place is before another place on your journey,
Parents are demanding to know the truth behind you come to it first
these disturbingrumours. A few miles before the border we were stopped at
8 an armycheckpoint.
happening in the past b.
a. FORMAL in front of someone or something
if a bad experience or unpleasant situation is behind Lawrence knelt before the king.
you, it no longer affects you or makes you unhappy c.
With the trauma of the divorce behind her, Sandra used for saying that something is placed earlier than
could lookforward to a better life. something else in a list or series
b. The names are in alphabetical order, so ‘Barnes’ should
if you have useful experience behind you, it gives you come before ‘Brown’.
an advantagebecause you 6
have gained skills and knowledge from it FORMAL used when saying what will happen in
Robinson entered politics with someone’s future
20 years’ business experiencebehind him. A promising career stretched out before him.
BEFORE BELOW
1 1
earlier than something in a lower place or position
a. Someone was having a party in the flat below.
earlier than a particular time, event, or action a.
I went for a run before breakfast. in a later part of a piece of writing
b. This suggestion is discussed in more detail below.
at a time in the past b.
Haven’t we met before somewhere? in or into the lower part of a ship
c. He went below to speak to the engineer.
used for saying how much time passes until 2
something happens less than a certain number, amount, or level
Several years went by before I realized that David had During the night, temperatures dropped below zero.
lied to me. a.
2 not as good as a particular standard
used for saying that Students were sent home if their behaviour fell below
something happens which prevents someone
an acceptablestandard.
from doing what they intended
3
Before I could think of a reply she walked away. used for saying that someone’s rank is lower or
3 their job is less important than someone else’s
SPOKEN used for warning someone that
Officers below
something bad may happenunless they do something
the rank of captain receive no special privileges.
Clean up that mess before your father sees it.
BENEATH
4
1 2
MAINLY LITERARY directly under something or at in the period after one time or event and before the
a lower level next
We took shelter beneath a huge oak tree. The office will be closed between Christmas
a. and New Year.
under the surface of the ground or water 3
the waters of the Timor Sea and within a range of numbers, amounts, ages etc
the coral reefs that lie beneath Choose a number between 1 and 10.
b. 4
covered by something involving people or things
His frail body lay beneath the blankets. a.
2 used for showing which people or groups are involved
FORMAL used for saying that in an agreement, discussion, competition, fight etc
someone’s appearance and behaviour do not show a conversation between the Prime Minister and
their real character or feelings the President
Beneath his quiet unassuming manner there lies conside b.
rable strength. used for showing that
3 two things, people, organizations,
if a particular action or activity is beneath you, or ideasare related or connected
you think that you are of There has been
a higher social class than people who do this a steady improvement in relations between Chinaand
Burke regarded it as beneath him to trade with the rest of the world.
such people. See also among
BESIDE 5
1 used for stating which
at the side of someone or something and close to them two people or things are similar or different
Who’s that standing beside Jeff? Does a five-year-
2 old know the difference between right and wrong?
used for comparing two people or things 6
Their efforts were puny beside Frederick’s. used for showing how a total is divided
BESIDES a.
1 used for showing how something is shared or divided
in addition to someone or something else that is We agreed to split the profits between us on a fifty-
being mentioned fifty basis.
A lot of them are studying other things besides Italian. b.
2 used for showing that the total amount of something
used when you is owned, given, or produced by two or more people
are adding another stronger reason to support what Between us, we managed to collect over £2,000.
you are saying 7
It’s too late to invite any more people. Besides, used for showing that you can choose one out of two
you know how Tim hatesparties. or more things
BETWEEN They’re both beautiful designs –
1 it’s hard to choose between them.
with someone/something on each side or end BEYOND
a. 1
if someone or something is between two past a place or outside an area
other people or things, the two people or things are on a.
each side of them further away than something else
Hold the needle between your finger and thumb. He could see a line of cypress trees and, beyond it,
b.
connecting two places a landscape of red hills.
b.
Trains running between Liverpool outside a particular area
and Manchester were delayed.
By now Dr FORMAL only
Barnard’s fame had spread far beyond South Africa. We can but guess at the extent of the problem.
2 6
outside the range or limits of a subject, quality, SPOKEN used when you are replying to someone
or activity and expressingsurprise, disagreement, or annoyance
Our knowledge does not extend much beyond these ‘I’ve decided to resign.’ ‘But why?’
7
few facts.
FORMAL used after negative statements for saying that
3
something doesnot happen without something
used in negative sentences to mean ‘except’
else happening or being true
I know nothing about him beyond the fact that
I never take a bath but the phone rings or
he used to work for the government.
someone knocks at the door.
4
BY
after a time or age, or above an amount
1
a.
used for saying who or what does something
continuing after a particular time or date
a.
We aren’t attempting to plan ahead beyond the next used, especially with passive verbs,
two years. for showing who doessomething or
b. what causes something
more than a particular amount or higher than Injured refugees were treated by a Red Cross doctor.
a particular level b.
Inflation had risen beyond 10%. used for saying who wrote a book or a piece of music,
5 who painteda picture etc
used for saying that something cannot be done a novel by Graham Greene
The situation is already beyond our control. 2
BUT used for saying how something is done
1 a.
used for joining two ideas or statements when using a particular method to achieve something
the second one is different from the first one, or Reading is taught by traditional methods here.
seems surprising after the first one b.
We’re making good progress, but we’ve still got a long using a particular method of transport
way to go. by car/train/bus/air etc:
a. Sophie’s parents arrived by taxi.
used after a negative for introducing what c.
is true instead using a particular road, path, door etc
His death was not a tragedy, but We returned home by a different route.
a release from pain and suffering. d.
2 using a particular name or title
MAINLY SPOKEN used when you are saying that you Staff generally address each other by their first name.
should not talk any more about a subject that you e.
have just mentioned used for saying how you start or finish something
It was a very complicated operation. But I I’m going to start off by explaining the purpose of
don’t want to bore you with all the details. our campaign.
3 3
SPOKEN used after expressions such as ‘I’m sorry’ and before or until
‘excuse me’ to introduce a polite question, request, a.
or statement not later than a particular time or date
Excuse me, but is there a post office around here? The meeting should have finished by 4.30.
4 b.
used especially after words such as ‘nothing’, during the period until a particular time or date
‘everyone’, or ‘anything’ to mean ‘except’ By mid afternoon over
She does nothing but grumble all day long. 5,000 people had visited the exhibition.
5 4
used when saying that something happens in a way used for showing a gradual process
that was not planned or intended a.
Take care that you don’t shoot one of us by mistake. used when saying that
5 something happens or changes gradually
used for saying that time passes, or how it passes The company grew by degrees until it controlled over
As time went by, people’s attitudes changed. 20% of the telecommunications market.
6 b.
used for showing how much something has changed, used when things or people do something or
or how much difference there is between things are dealt with one after the other
House prices rose by an average 23% last year. one by one/stage by stage:
See also far One by one
7 the men came forward to receive their medals.
used for saying that someone or CONCERNING
something goes past you about a particular subject
She walked right by me without saying a word. a newspaper article concerning
8
beside or close to someone or something the problems of overcrowded cities
CONSIDERING
She was sitting over there by the window.
used for showing that your opinion about something
9
is affected by a particular fact
according to rules or laws
Casinos are forbidden by law to contribute to political c They’ve made remarkable progress, considering they
ampaigns. only started last week.
10 DESPITE
used for showing that something used for saying that something happens even though
is judged according to certainstandards of behaviour, q something else might have prevented it
uality etc Three
It’s no use trying to judge 18th- more nuclear power stations were built despite widespr
century morality by modern standards. eadopposition.
11 DOWN
used for saying that someone stops somewhere for 1
a short time, especially while going to another place to or towards a lower place
drop/stop/come by: a.
Why don’t you stop by on your way home from work? moving towards a lower place or position
12 Someone pushed him and he fell down the stairs.
used for saying which part of a person’s body or thing b.
you take in your hand when you hold them looking, pointing, or leading to a lower place
Taking me by the arm, she led me into the next room. We paused for a moment, gazing down into
13 the valley below.
used for referring to someone’s character, job, origin, c.
name etc from a higher place to the ground
by nature/profession/birth/name etc:
Their plane came down in a field beside the motorway.
She was, by nature, a cheerfuland friendly sort of person. d.
14 used for saying that you put something you
used in calculations and measurements MATHS are carrying onto a lower surface
a.
used for saying what units of measurement are used Put the box down on the table.
2
Floor coverings are priced by the square metre. in a lower place or at a lower level
b.
used for giving the size of an area, object, It was dark and cold down in the cellar.
or space by stating its length, width, height etc 3
into or in a sitting or lying position
The house has a.
a spacious dining room, measuring 18 feet by 15. moving your body into a sitting, bending,
15 or lying position
Why don’t you sit down and rest your legs? 9
b. used for saying that you write something on
remaining in a sitting, lying, or bending position a piece of paper or in a book
The headache was so bad she spent the rest of I copied down his address and phone number.
10
the day lying down.
used for saying that something is fastened or stuck to
4
a surface
in a direction away from you
a. The lid of the box was screwed down tight.
moving or looking along a road, track, path etc 11
used for saying that the whole of
I was walking down the street with a couple of friends.
a large object is cleaned from top to bottom
b.
moving or looking along a river in the We need to wash down the walls before we
same direction as the current can start painting.
We sailed down the Yellow River towards the open sea. 12
c. when food or drink goes down, it goes from
at a point somewhere on a road, path etc in your mouth to your stomach
a direction away from you He gulped down his tea and got up from the table.
They live somewhere down Park Avenue. 13
d. used for saying that someone has an illness
at a point further along a river in the direction of be/go/come down with something:
the current Poor Susan went down with flu justbefore Christmas.
There’s another bridge further down the river. 14
5 used for saying that something is given to the
SPOKEN at or to a place that is near you next generation (=peoplewho are alive after you die)
hand/pass down:
Sandra’s just gone down to the shops.
Usage note: down The ancient Gaelic songs have been handed down
In informal British spoken English down is sometimes from generation to generation.
used without the preposition ‘to’ or ‘at’ when talking 15
about a place that is near you: He’s down the pub with INFORMAL unhappy or sad
his mates. But many people think this is not correct. be/feel down:
6 He’s been feeling very down since his wife went away.
south 16
a. if you are down for a particular job, it has
going towards the south been arranged that you will do it
Thousands of Scottish fans will be travelling down to down for:
London for the big match. I think I’m down for babysitting on Monday night.
b. 17
in a place that is to the south of where you are if a player or team is a certain number of points down,
Newhaven is down on the south coast. that is
7 the numberof points they need in order to reach their
when something is reduced opponent’s score
a. At half-time our team were two goals down.
at or to a smaller amount, lower level etc than before 18
The government is determined to bring down unemploy if a computer system is down, it is not working
19
ment.
used for saying how many things you have dealt with
b.
and how many more still need to be dealt with
used for saying that something becomes less strong,
one/two etc down and one/two etc to go:
less violent, or less loud
Well, that’s another examover. Two down and four to
The storm had died down by evening.
8 go.
used for saying that something 20
is damaged or destroyed and falls to the ground used for saying that you pay an amount
of money immediately when you buy something and
The opera house was burnt down in 1990.
will pay the rest later
Own a brand new Fiat Bravo for only £99 cash down 1
intended to help or benefit someone/something
and £31.68 a week.
a.
DURING
used for saying who or what
is intended to receive something or get the benefit of it
1
at one point within a period of time or a process I’ve brought a cup of tea for you.
b.
During his visit to South Africa, used for saying that someone does something so that
the president met Archbishop Tutu. someone else does not have to do it
2 Betty will take care of things for us while we’re away.
through the whole of a period of time c.
During the summer season, all the hotels are full. in order to protect someone or something
EXCEPT We are here today to honour those who died for
1
their country.
used for introducing the only person, thing, or fact that
2
is not included in your main statement
used for stating the purpose of an object or action
All the team were there except Eddie Stratton, who was
We use the basement for storage.
ill. 3
2 used for saying a length of time or a distance
MAINLY a.
SPOKEN used for introducing a statement that makes used for saying how long something lasts or continues
what you have just said seem less true or less possible
There have been drought conditions for the last
except (that):
two summers.
I ought to have told the police, except they’d never
b.
have believed me. used for saying how far something reaches, or
EXCEPTING how far someone goes
used for saying that you are not including a person or
The desert stretched for hundreds of miles in
thing in what you are saying
EXCLUDING all directions.
4
used for saying that you are not including someone or
used for saying the particular time or date that
something in what you are saying
something is planned to happen
The average cost, excluding insurance, is around £600
The meeting was planned for 10 o’clock.
a year. 5
FOLLOWING used for saying the person or organization that
1 someone is employed by
after something happens, or as a result of something
She works for a firm of accountants.
that happens
6
The team blossomed following the appointment of used for saying how much money is paid
the new manager. a.
2 used for saying the cost of a product or a service
[ONLY BEFORE NOUN] the I sold my car for £900.
following day, month, page etc is the next one b.
Sadly, Pietro died the following year. used for saying how much someone earns
3 Some labourers were working for less than £3 a day.
used for referring to something that you 7
are going to say or mentionnext, especially a list of peo used for saying who or what you support or prefer
ple or things a.
Combine the following ingredients: brown sugar, flour, used for saying which person or thing
and butter. someone supports or agreeswith
4 Everyone says they are for equal opportunities.
a following wind blows behind a boat, plane, or b.
other vehicle and makesit travel faster if you are for a particular plan or activity, you want to
FOR take part in it
I’m for a picnic by the river. What’s the Italian word for ‘Goodbye’?
8 19
relating to or concerning someone or something INFORMAL used for saying which person a particular t
Living conditions for most of the citizens are very bad. hing, activity, or person would be suitable for
9 I just know this girl will be the one for you.
used for talking about reasons or causes FROM
a. 1
as a result of something used for stating who gives or sends you something
He was sick for lack of food. or provides you with something
b. You’ll have to borrow the money from someone else.
MAINLY LITERARY because 2
She began to grow nervous, for he used for stating someone’s/something’s origin
a.
had promised to meet her at dawn.
used for stating the place where
c.
someone lives or used to live, or
used after nouns such as ‘reason’ or ‘cause’
their general situation in life
Did he give any reason for arriving so late?
I’m originally from Northern Ireland.
10
b.
used for showing that
used for stating the place where something was made
your feelings are directed towards
a particularperson or thing red wine from California
c.
I’m so happy for you!
used for stating what something was originally a part
11
of
used for saying who you represent when you say or do
something the music from Offenbach’s opera
3
I’m speaking for all of us when I say how sorry we are.
starting at a particular point and moving away
12
a.
used for saying the place you are going to when
starting at a particular place and moving away
you leave another place
He’s on the 3 o’clock flight from Chicago.
What time are you leaving for home?
b.
13
starting at a particular time and continuing
used after some adjectives, nouns,
from...to:
and verbs for saying who or what does the action of
the following verb He’s usually in his office from around 9.00 to 6.00.
for someone/something to do something: c.
starting at a particular age and continuing
It was difficult for me to understand what he was saying.
14 I lived with him from the age of twenty.
in order to celebrate a holiday or special occasion d.
starting at one amount and increasing or becoming
John gave me a tie for Christmas, as usual.
less
15
from...to:
used for saying what a particular amount of
time, money, space etc makes possible The price of bottled water rose from 20 pence to
We haven’t got the money for a new car right now. 45 pence a litre.
16 4
used for saying who has used for stating where someone or something is
a particular feeling or opinion about something removed from
a.
For me personally, it was a complete disaster.
used for stating where someone or something was
17
before leaving or being removed
used for saying that a particular fact about someone or
something is surprising when you consider who or Frank snatched the pen from Rachel.
what they are b.
used for stating an amount that
She sings amazingly well for a child.
is reduced by having part of it takenaway
18
used for saying what something means or represents Several points were taken from the total.
5
used for saying how far away something is a.
in relation to something else inside a container, room, building, vehicle etc
We live a few miles from the city. He had left his passport in his coat pocket.
6 b.
because of something within an area, city, or country
a. The books are printed in Hong Kong.
as a result of something c.
Her hair was still damp from her walk in the rain. at home, or at your office
b. Most evenings we stay in and watch television.
used for giving the reason for a judgment or opinion d.
I can tell from your eyes you’re a good man. within an object, space, or substance
7 We noticed a crack in the wall.
used for stating one end of a range of things e.
from...to: at a specific part of something
A good camera can cost anything from £150 upwards. Further details can be found in Section 25.
8 f.
belonging to a particular organization held or enclosed by something
a team of experts from the Farm Business Consultancy What’s that you’ve got in your hand?
9 g.
used for stating where someone was or what they a ball that is in during a game such
were doing before they came back as tennis or basketball is within the area of play
We hardly recognized him when he came back from the 2
war. into something
10 a.
used for stating where someone is when they see, hear, into your home, room, or place of work
or do something I invited her in for a drink.
He works from home three days a week. b.
11 moving into a place or a space
used for stating what substance has The door was open so I just walked in.
been used for making something c.
The toys are made from a very durable plastic. looking or pointing into something
12 Look in the top drawer of my desk.
used for stating what something is hanging off 3
or sticking out of arriving somewhere
The room was divided by a blanket hanging from a.
used for saying that a train, bus, plane,
the ceiling.
or ship arrives somewhere
13
used for stating what someone or something was What time does your flight get in?
before changing to something else b.
arriving at your home or place of work
Colesville has changed from a sleepy little town to
What time did you get in last night?
a bustling city.
4
14
used for showing when something happens
used for stating what has
a.
been prevented or protected against
during a particular period, year, month, or season, or
Reporters were prevented from visiting the scene of during a part of the day
the accident. Mel Gibson was born in 1956.
15 b.
used for talking about differences between two or at the end of a period of time in the future
more people or things
The exams are in six weeks’ time.
This recipe is different from the one I usually use. c.
IN within a period of time
1 Unemployment has risen by over 15% in the past year.
used for showing where someone or something is
d. used for describing the state or condition of someone
used for saying how long it is since something or something
last happened I’m sorry my room’s in such a mess.
I haven’t laughed so much in years. b.
e. used for saying what the situation is for someone or
during the time that someone is involved in something, something
or is experiencing something Kevin is in trouble again.
Owen’s brother died in the war. c.
5 used for describing the relationship between people an
used for talking about numbers and amounts d organizations
a. We wanted to get married because we were very much
used for saying how
in love.
many units of money, weight, measurement etc make u
8
p a larger unit
used for saying what someone is wearing
There are 1000 kilograms in a tonne.
She looked so beautiful in her wedding dress.
b.
9
used for saying how big groups of people or things are
used for saying what things change, increase, improve
when they do something
etc
Lions often hunt in pairs.
There’s going to be a change in the weather.
c.
10
used for saying how common something is
used for talking about the way something is done
by showing it as a number in relation to
a.
the total number
using a particular method or style
One in twelve of the adult population suffers from stress.
We are trying to teach mathematics in a
d.
used for saying that a number is within more interesting way.
a particular range, especiallya temperature, a score, or b.
someone’s age used for describing a particular type of behaviour or
in the twenties/fifties/seventies etc: way of speaking
a hot summer’s day with temperatures in the upper 20s We all sat in silence.
e. c.
BRITISH used for showing something such as using a particular language
a rate of tax in English/Spanish etc:
Income tax now stands at 22 pence in the pound. Go on, say something in French.
6 11
used for saying areas of activity used for describing ways of writing, drawing, or
a. painting
used for saying what organized activity someone does a.
with other people used for stating what you use for writing, drawing,
or painting
Bailey was in the long-distance cycle race.
in ink/pencil/chalk/oils etc:
b.
used for saying what type of work someone does a short note written in pencil
b.
She’s a teacher and her husband works in publishing.
using a particular type or style of writing
c.
used for saying what area of work or activity you Write your name and address in capital letters.
are talking about 12
used for saying what group someone or something is
There have been amazing advances in medical science.
part of
d.
used for saying what subject someone studies Kenny’s been in the Boy Scouts since he was eight.
13
a university degree in economics
used for describing how things are arranged
7
a.
used for describing a particular state, situation, or
arranged in a way
relationship
that forms a particular shape or pattern
a.
We all sat round in a circle. used for saying the person or thing that has
b. the qualities needed for a particular job or situation
arranged according to a particular order In Nelson Mandela the people had a leader that they
The names are listed in alphabetical order. could respect and admire.
14 25
used for saying what colour decorations, clothes etc if a politician or a political party is in, they have
are been elected
The girls were all dressed in white. We hope things will get better now the Tories are in.
15 26
affected by a particular type of weather something that is in is fashionable
Have you been waiting outside in the rain? Pale colours are definitely in this summer.
16 27
used for mentioning the book, film etc where if the tide is in or comes in, the sea has reached or
someone/something appears is reaching its highest level on the land
a. 28
used for mentioning a story, play, film etc where used for saying that something breaks or falls inwards
a character or event appears or happens They kicked the door in and charged through.
Mr Micawber is one of the best-loved characters in INSIDE
English literature. 1
b. within the inner part or area of something
used for mentioning a film or play where a.
an actor appears used for saying that someone or something is in
a room or building, especially when you are outside
Debbie Reynolds co-starred with Gene Kelly in Singin’ in
There were lights on inside and I could hear voices.
the Rain.
b.
c.
enclosed in a container or space
used for mentioning a book, newspaper etc where you
can read or see something I always keep important papers locked inside my desk.
c.
I saw the house advertised in the local paper.
on the inner side of something
17
used for saying what aspect of someone or something She was standing just inside the door.
you are referringto d.
within an area or country
She’s so selfish in her attitude to other people.
18 Draw a triangle inside the circle.
written or drawn where something is needed e.
in the inner part of something
Fill in your name and address at the top of the form.
19 The photographs were on the inside pages of several
used for describing someone’s feelings when they do Sunday newspapers.
something 2
She spoke more in disappointment than in anger. moving or looking into something
20 a.
given or sent to someone or received by someone into a building
Homework must be handed in tomorrow morning. Come inside, out of the rain.
21 b.
used for saying what product, food, into an enclosed container or empty space
or drink contains a particularsubstance She reached inside her handbag and pulled out
There is a lot of fat in cheese and butter. an envelope.
22 3
used for saying that something is available in a shop within an organization
Smoked salmon? We’ll have some in on Thursday. a.
23 within an organization or group
BRITISH a player or team that is in during There is a battle being fought inside
a game of cricket is batting the Conservative Party.
24 b.
[ONLY BEFORE used for stating the direction in which someone or
NOUN] only known by people who belong to something looks, faces, or points
a particular organization or group She was gazing into the mirror.
the inside story: 4
the inside story of how a trade union destroyeditself used for stating the result of a change
4 a.
in someone’s mind, but not always shown or expressed used for stating what someone or something becomes
He was silent, but Elizabeth after a change
could sense the anger burning inside him. Jemma had grown into a beautiful woman.
5 b.
in your stomach used for stating what physical or emotional state some
a. one starts to be in
already drunk or eaten She fell into a deep sleep.
With half a bottle of brandy inside me, I c.
used for stating what language something
was beginning to feelunsteady.
is translated to
b.
used for talking about a feeling that you have in Her stories have been translated into more than
your stomach 30 languages.
I suddenly felt sick inside. 5
6 starting to be involved in something
done in less than a particular amount of time a.
used for stating what bad situation someone starts to
All the remaining business could
become involved in
be completed inside half an hour.
Many students have fallen into debt by the time
7
INFORMAL spending time in a prison they graduate.
b.
The poor guy did three years inside for a crime he
starting to take part in an activity or type of work
never committed.
Amy threw herself into the work with great enthusiasm.
INTO
6
1 used for stating what you are trying to find out about
used for showing movement
a. I promise to look into the matter.
entering a place, building, or vehicle 7
used for stating what clothes you put on
Hundreds of athletes marched into the stadium for
You’d better change into some warm clothes.
the openingceremony. 8
b. used for stating what
going inside a container or an empty space someone persuades or forces you to do
Slipping his hand into his coat pocket, he felt for his keys. He talked us into buying a new washing machine.
c. 9
going through the surface towards the deeper part of used for stating what substance another substance get
something s mixed with
They marched wearily, their boots sinking into the mud. How did mercury get into the water supply?
d. 10
moving towards something and hitting it used for stating what group or organization someone
Their car had crashed into a tree. becomes a member of
e. She should never have married into the Royal Family.
arriving somewhere 11
Our flight gets into Boston at around 7.30. used for saying that something continues for a long
2 time and ends part of the way through a later period
used for stating what place a road, path, entrance etc le They went on working late into the night.
ads to 12
Is there another way into the building? INFORMAL used for stating what activity or subject so
3 meone is interestedin and enjoys
Suddenly she’s into yoga and things like that. SPOKEN used when asking someone to do something
13 that they might not want to do
used for stating how something is divided I was wondering if I could,
The 32 teams will be split into eight groups of four. like, borrow the car this evening.
a. 8
used when dividing one number by another SPOKEN used when you are reporting what someone
4 into 8 gives you 2. has said or thought
LIKE And I’m like, give me a chance, Simon.
1 9
similar or in a similar way SPOKEN used for showing that the information you
a. are giving is not exactor that you
similar to someone or something else, or in are describing something in a way that makes it
a similar way to someone or something else seem better, worse, larger etc than it really is
It was a small animal like a rat. It was, like, the best meal I’d ever had.
b. MINUS
used for emphasizing a quality in the way that 1
someone doessomething or in the way that MATHS used in mathematics for showing that you
something happens are taking one numberfrom another.
The news spread like wildfire. This word is usually represented by the symbol -
c. 72 minus 5 equals 67.
in the same way as usual or as before 2
Why don’t you play with the other children, like MATHS used before a number to show that
a number or temperature is less than zero
you used to?
d. The temperature fell to minus 15 degrees last night.
used when the same statement applies to each of 3
two things INFORMAL without something that you had in
the past or usually have
Other people’s children, like other people’s dogs, have
Anthony returned to work minus his beard.
never interested me.
4
2
[ONLY BEFORE
used for introducing an example of something or
NOUN] used for describing a disadvantage or negative
someone that you have just mentioned
quality of something
It eats small animals like birds and mice. a minus point/factor:
3
One of the minus points was the risk of gettingcaught.
used for saying that a type of behaviour is typical of
NEAR
a particular person
it’s just like someone: 1
close to someone or something
He didn’t show up again. That’s just like him.
4 A group of students were standing near the entrance.
SPOKEN used when saying that something appears to a.
be true but may not be used for referring to the side of something that is
the closest to where you are
He sounded like he’d only just woken up.
5 I got into the near side of the bed.
SPOKEN used when you pause while you See also nearside
are thinking what to say next, or because of a habit in 2
the way that you speak getting close to a particular state or situation
near to:
He hasn’t phoned me in, like, three weeks.
6 Julian was near to panic as he suddenly realized that he
SPOKEN used for drawing someone’s attention to what was trapped.
you are going to say, either because it 3
is new information or because it is important not long before a particular time or event
They were, like, so rude! It was nearer three than two o’clock when
7 he finally arrived.
4
very similar to something used for saying what group a particular person or
What he’s saying now is near the truth, but it’s still thing is from
not accurate. She’s one of my best friends.
5 8
only a little less than a particular amount or number used after names and titles for talking about
the relationship between a person and
The temperature that day was near 30 degrees.
a place or organization
OF
1 He listed the kings and queens of England.
used for saying who or what has 9
a particular feature, aspect, or quality used for saying what substance is used for making som
ething
We were impressed by the size of the building.
2 a suit of lightweight wool
saying which specific thing 10
a. used for giving dates and periods of time
used for saying which specific thing belonging to a the 27th of November
more generaltype you are referring to 11
I had a feeling of duty towards him. used after some adjectives for saying a person or thing
b. that a feeling is directed towards
used for giving a specific age, amount, value etc You should be ashamed of yourself!
She met Charles at the age of 20. 12
3 used for saying what type of person or thing has
saying who or what does something been described by another noun
a. He was an angel of a child.
used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or 13
what doesthe action used for saying which person behaves in
the shouts of excited children a particular way in a situation
b. it was nice/sweet/stupid etc of someone:
used after nouns that refer to actions for saying who or It was nice of you to helpme.
what is affected by the action 14
the baptism of children used for saying what causes something
4 the beneficial effects of red wine
used for saying who something belongs to 15
the property of the residents used for mentioning a quality that someone or
5 something has
concerning or showing someone or something He was a man of great charm.
She had a photograph of him beside her bed. 16
6 used for saying who wrote a book or play, produced a
used for saying what something is part of work of art etc
He moved to the far side of the bed. the wonderful paintings of Picasso
7 17
containing or consisting of something used for describing when
a. something happens in relation to something else
used for saying what something contains She didn’t invite him till the evening of the party.
He handed her a glass of water. 18
b. AMERICAN used in saying the time to mean
used for saying what type of thing is in a particular number of minutes before the hour
a particular quantity or group It’s twenty of two (=1.40).
a kilo of rice 19
c. used for saying who has a particular relationship with
used for talking about individual pieces of a substance someone else
a grain of sugar/sand Lori is the daughter of my father’s sister.
d. 20
used for saying what type of activity or situation lasts f
or a particularperiod of time
We had weeks of problems with the new computer used for saying that an event is no longer going to
take place as planned
system.
21 Sorry, but the meeting’s off.
used for saying the period of time for which someone 11
or something is the biggest, best, most important etc no longer eating, using, or doing something
a.
Reynolds was named businessman of the year in 1998.
no longer taking drugs or other harmful substances
From our crowdsourced Open Dictionary
22 I’ve been off alcohol now for three weeks.
of a used after an adjective and before a noun as a way b.
of saying that something is or is not no longer eating or drinking something, or
very big, good, important, etc. no longer doing an activity because you do not like it
any more
How big of a deal is it?
OFF I’m off sweet things at the moment.
1 12
leaving a place, or going away from something used for saying that a price has been reduced by
a particular amount
With only $150 in his pocket, he set off for New Mexico.
2 There’s now 30% off all swimsuits.
leaving a plane, train, bus etc 13
get off: a particular time or distance away
a.
Ask the driver to stop the bus so we can get off. used for saying how much time there is between
3 the present and a time or event in the future
not on the top or surface of something, especially after
being on it Christmas is only three weeks off.
b.
The wind blew a flowerpot off the balcony. a particular distance away
4
no longer connected to someone or something Their farm is only twenty miles off.
14
They cut a branch off the tree. food that is off is no longer fresh and is not good to eat
5
close to something This cream is slightly off.
a. 15
near a particular street, road etc, but not directly on it BRITISH used for saying that something is
not available in a restaurant
The restaurant is just off the main road. be off:
b.
connected to a particular room or space I’m sorry, sir, the roast lamb is off.
16
You’ll find a bathroom just off the master bedroom. SPOKEN used for saying which person or thing
c. something is taken from. Many people consider this to
in a part of the sea that is near the land be incorrect
Two miles off the coast, we sailed right into the storm. Let’s see if we can get some money off my Dad.
6 17
a machine or piece of electrical equipment that is off is BRITISH used for saying that
not switched on or is not being used a machine or piece of equipment works by using a type
The lights were off in the big house. of fuel or electricity
7 Most modern cars run off unleaded petrol.
used for saying that clothes or shoes are removed 18
We told the children to take off their wet clothes. not within a particular area
8 People were warned to stay off the streets.
not at school or work, for example because you are not 19
well or because it is not a normal working day strange, or unusual
I’m considering taking quite a bit of time off work. Something about the way he talked was a little off.
9 20
not talking about a particular subject in a good or bad situation
We were told to keep off the subject of babies. a.
10 be well/badly off to be rich/poor
The local farmers all looked pretty badly off. I cut my hand on a piece of glass from
b. the broken window.
be well/badly off for something INFORMAL to have 7
a large/smallamount of something used for saying that you
Most of the colleges are pretty well off for computers. are wearing a piece of clothing, jewellery etc, or
c. for saying which part of your body it covers
be better/worse off MAINLY SPOKEN to be in Come on, put your socks on, you’ll be late for school.
a situation that is better/worse for you than another 8
one if your eyes are on someone or something, you
I’m starting to think I’d be better off without him. are looking at them
ON Hannah fixed her grey eyes on me once again.
1 9
touching a surface or an object happening, or being broadcast
a. a.
touching and supported by the top surface of being broadcast by radio or television
something
Eastenders is on TV tonight.
Chad was asleep on the floor in a heap of blankets. b.
b. taking place or happening somewhere
onto a surface
There’s a wedding on in the church.
Alanis dropped her books on the desk. 10
c. concerning a particular subject
touching, sticking to, or hanging from
I have to write a report on the Civil War for homework.
a surface or object
11
There were several interesting posters on the wall. continuing
2 a.
used for saying the day or date when used for saying that someone is continuing to do
something happens something
He’s coming home on Wednesday. They talked on through the night.
3 b.
used for saying which part of your body continuing to move forwards
is supporting you
They walked on beside the river to a cafe they knew.
He propped himself up on an elbow and looked me in 12
the eye. in or into a bus, train, plane etc
4 We got on the train at Bournville.
in a particular place 13
a. using a particular type of machine or equipment
in a particular area, or on a particular type of land a.
The house was built on a beautiful piece of land. used for saying which type of machine or equipment is
b. used for doing something
in a particular road or street Much of the work is done on computer.
Gordie’s grandparents live on Crescent Drive. b.
c. used for saying in what
at the side of a river or area of water form music, films, information etc are recorded
a small village on the east coast of Scotland The film was released on DVD last month.
5 14
included in a list if a machine or piece of electrical equipment is on, it is
The future of the charity will be one of the items on in use or working
the agenda. Is the heating on? I’m freezing.
6 15
used for saying which thing a part of your used for saying that someone takes part in
body accidentally hits or touches causing you to an activity in which they travel or see something
be hurt He has been going on expeditions since he was
eleven years old.
16 to an area that you think of as a surface
using a particular drug A spectator ran onto the field and attacked the referee.
She’s on antibiotics for a mild eye infection. b.
17 into a bus, train, ship, or aircraft etc
if someone is on a team, committee etc, they are Slater was arrested for trying to carry a gun onto
a member of it
the plane.
There are only three directors on the board. c.
18 into a position in which you
FORMAL used for saying that are resting or supporting yourself on a particular part
an event is followed immediately by another event or of your body
that the two events happen at the same time
She rolled over onto her back and gazed at the ceiling.
On being made aware of complaints, 2
he informed the committee. used for saying that something is added to
19 a list, statement, word etc
using something to live or work Somehow Donovan’s name had got onto
a.
the list of candidates.
eating or drinking only
3
a particular type of food or drink in order to stay alive
used for saying in
Using a cave as shelter, the which direction a building, room, door,
two men survived on wild berries and raw fish. or windowfaces, or where it leads to
b. The kitchen looks out onto a long narrow garden.
using a particular type of fuel or electrical power in or OUTSIDE
der to operate 1
run on something: used for saying where someone/something is
Why can’t they make a car that runs on water? a.
c. not inside a building
used for saying how much money you have Outside the sun was shining.
to buy the things that you need in order to live b.
He was just managing to survive on close to a place, building, or room but not in it
a small student grant. Three police cars were parked outside their house.
20 c.
used for saying who or what is affected by something away from a particular country, area, or town
The rough weather had little effect on the ship. The postal service is better outside London.
21 2
BRITISH used for giving the phone number which you moving or looking out of somewhere
can use to talk to someone. The American word is at a.
Call us on 0800 0900017. moving or looking out of a building or room
22 Let’s go outside and sit in the sun.
compared with someone or something b.
Subscriptions are down by 66,000 on last year and that moving out of a country, area, or town
is a serious situation. Emily Brontë had never travelled outside Yorkshire.
23 3
SPOKEN used for saying who will pay for something used for referring to the outer part or surface of
something
Drink up! The next round’s on me.
outside wall/surface/shell etc:
24
used for saying that an actor or performer can The outside walls were painted grey.
be seen appearing on the stage or screen 4
not within the limits of something
Wait! She’ll be on in a couple of seconds.
a.
ONTO
not within the limits of a particular time, range,
1
or situation
into a position on an object or surface
classes held outside normal school hours
He climbed onto the roof to get a better view.
b.
a.
not within the limits of a particular subject or activity used for saying that something moves into
George’s passion outside business is rugby. a position in which the side that was facing down
5 now faces up
not within a particular group or organization He turned the card over and saw that it was
a. the ace of spades.
used for saying what is done or known by people who 6
are not in a particular group or organization in or to many parts of something
Observers outside a.
the government believe the programme is in or to many different parts of an area
a waste of money. The drought has spread over much of the southern US.
b. b.
used for referring to people who do not belong to visiting or looking at many different parts of
a particular groupor organization something
from outside: A senior manager showed us over the factory.
The company brought in advisers from outside. 7
6 towards the side
except a particular thing or person The main entrance is further over on the left.
outside of: 8
I seldom meet anyone outside of the people I work with. in or to a particular place, for example a town or
OVER someone’s home
1 Why don’t you come over and have dinner with us
above someone/something sometime?
a. 9
in a higher position above someone or something, downwards
without touchingthem a.
Perry glanced at the clock over the door. falling or bending down from an upright position
b. I bent over to tie my shoe.
moving across the space above someone or something b.
Government troops fired a few shots over their heads. falling, hanging, or looking down from the edge of
2 something
on someone or something and covering them Lava flowed over the rim of the volcano.
She put her hands over her ears. 10
3 used for saying what people disagree about or what
from one side of something to the other they feel worried, sad, happy etc about
a. There are worries over the future of the steel industry.
going or looking across from one side of something to 11
the other when something has ended
Several bridges over the River Danube were destroyed. a.
b. used for saying that a particular event, situation,
crossing something high such as a wall or mountain or period of time has ended
Three prisoners had escaped by climbing over a six- Moore’s fourth marriage was over after only 18 months.
metre highfence. b.
4 if you are over an illness, a shock, or a bad experience,
on the opposite side of an area, line, road, river etc it has ended and you are no longer affected by it
Sandra’s brother lives just over the road from our house. Losing her brother was a terrible shock and she isn’t
5 over it yet.
into the opposite position 12
a. used for saying who or what
from one lying position into another so that you face in is controlled or influenced by someone or something
a differentdirection Kitchener demanded total control over the army.
He turned over and went to sleep. 13
b. MAINLY AMERICAN if you do something over, you do
it again
We’re going to scrap the whole plan and start over. right past:
14 I tried to catch his eye, but he stared right past me.
changing from one thing to another 5
over to: used for saying that someone or something
We went over to Internet banking because it saved time has passed a particularstage or point
and money. He was past his prime as a player by then.
15 6
during used for saying that a period of time passes
a. The months went past, and still no word from her.
during a period of time 7
Over the last few years we used for saying that
your attitudes or feelings have changed in such a way
have seen a sudden increase in
that you no longer think about something
the number of cases of food poisoning.
I used to worry about him coming home late, but now
b.
while having a meal or a drink I’m past caring.
PER
Over coffee our host told us a little about the history of
used for stating the rate or cost for each unit of
the house. time, quantity, distanceetc
16
He is paid £10 per hour for the job.
used when referring to the part of an amount
PLUS
that remains after some of it has been used
left over: 1
used when adding something
There was a lot of food left over after the party. a.
17 MATHS used for showing that one number or amount
more than a particular amount, number, or age is added to another.
Yeltsin was elected by a large majority with over This word is usually represented in mathematics by +
45 million votes. 36 plus 5 is 41.
18 b.
SPOKEN used at the end of your turn in used when mentioning an additional thing or fact
a radio conversation to show that you He came along with his five children, plus their partners,
have finished speaking and the other person can speak
PAST and his grandchildren.
1 2
after a particular time used before
a. a number for giving temperatures above zero
used for saying what time it is when it is not more The weather improved a little and temperatures rose to
than thirtyminutes after one, two etc o’clock plus 5 degrees.
I’ll meet you at half past five. 3
b. used for describing an advantage or positive quality th
later than a particular time at something has
It was past midnight by the time we arrived. plus point/factor:
2 One of the hotels has its own heated pool –
going near someone or something while you are on a majorplus point!
your way to another place 4
I walked past several hotels on my way to used after you mention a number or quantity to show
the petrol station. that the actualnumber or quantity may be larger
3 Ray Charles’ 40-year plus career began in 1954.
further than a particular place along REGARDING
a road, path, river etc concerning a particular subject
Turn right a mile past the graveyard and you’ll see EU regulations regarding the labelling of food
the church. ROUND
4 1
looking towards a place behind someone or used for showing movement
something instead of directly at them a.
moving in a circular way They spend all their time sitting round drinking coffee.
The children were dancing round in a circle. SAVE
b. except
moving to many different parts or areas No one, save perhaps his wife, knows where he is.
He wandered round the town, looking in shop windows. save for:
c. The room was completely dark, save for
moving so that you face in the opposite direction
one candle burning in the corner.
Katharine spun round to face him. save that:
d.
moving so that you can get to the opposite side of We know little about his childhood, save that
something his family was poor.
A number 26 bus was just coming round SINCE
1
the corner into StationRoad.
starting at a particular point in
e.
the past and continuing until now or until
going by a road that is not the most direct way
another point in the past
round by:
I’ve known Joanna since she was born.
We can go round by the shops on our
a.
way home and buy something for supper. at some time after a particular point in the past
f.
Since arriving in New York, Thomas has had over
INFORMAL going to visit someone’s house
15 job interviews.
Why don’t you invite him round for dinner?
b.
2
before now, or before a particular point in the past
used for showing where someone or something is
long since (=a long time ago):
a.
surrounding or enclosing something The people who built the templehave long
He tied one end of the rope round his waist. since vanished.
b. 2
in many different parts or areas used when explaining why someone does something
or why a situationexists
Books and papers were scattered round the room.
c. Since Barbara is no longer my wife, I’m
in or close to a particular place or area no longer responsible for her debts.
She loved the countryside round Oxford. THAN
d. 1
at someone’s house used when making comparisons
I’m not sure where he is, but he may be round at Nylon is considerably stronger than cotton.
2
Patrick’s.
used when you are saying that a particular number or
3
amount is above or below a certain level
when someone is searching for something
more/less than:
a.
used for saying that No one should have to wait more than 24 hours to see
someone looks in different places because a doctor.
they want to find something 3
She looked round the room for Leo, but he was nowhere used for saying that
one description or possibility is preferred to another
to be seen.
b. It was more a friendly warning than a threat.
used for saying that THROUGH
someone asks many different people in order to find 1
something from one end or side of something to the other
I’ve phoned round the local pubs and restaurants – a.
into one end of a passage, tube, pipe etc and along it
they’re all fullybooked. towards the other end
4
spending time in a place and not doing much The railway runs through a tunnel.
b.
from one side of a window, door, gate etc to the other affecting every part of someone or something
side of it A rumour spread through the camp.
She was watching him through the kitchen window. 9
c. if you get through an examination or test,
making a hole in something, or cutting it into pieces you succeed in passing it
A workman was drilling through the concrete wall. I’m no good at languages, so I’d never get through
d. the exam.
across an area or space, or between a group of things 10
Maynard spent a year travelling through Europe and if a proposal goes through a parliament, it
Asia, givinglectures. is accepted by it and becomes law
2 An anti-terrorism bill was rushed through parliament.
during the whole of a period of time until the end of it 11
Only one hotel remained open through the year. reading or looking at every part of something, from
3 the beginning to the end of it
happening because of someone or something You’d better read through the instructions carefully.
In 1986 Professor Lowe retired through ill health. 12
4 as far as a place, stage, or level
by means of something a.
a. if a train, bus etc goes through to a particular town,
by means of a particular method or experience it goes as far as that town
through to:
Through hard work and determination the team has ach
Does this train go through to Glasgow?
ievedremarkable success.
b.
b.
as far as a particular stage or level
using a particular system, service, or person
through to:
Concert tickets are being sold through the Internet.
The course takes students through
c.
if you know or hear of something through to university degreelevel.
another person, they toldyou about it after hearing it c.
from someone else successfully reaching a person or place
I heard through a friend of Caroline’s that there’s In spite of the terrible weather one plane managed to
been trouble in the family. get through.
5 13
to the end of a bad or difficult experience used for saying that a large amount of something
a. is used during a periodof time
experiencing an unpleasant situation until it ends go/work/get through:
I’ve been going through hell these last We seem to be getting through two or
six months, waiting for the trial. three boxes of tissues a day.
b. TO
successfully reaching the end of 1
a difficult situation or period used as part of an infinitive
a.
We have come through the struggle stronger and
used for forming an infinitive that is the subject, object,
more united than we were before. or complement of a verb, or is the complement of
6 an adjective, noun, or pronoun
having finished an activity or piece of work
I hope to see you next week.
I’m not sure what time he’ll be through with his meeting. b.
7 used for showing the purpose of an action
used for saying that you are connected to someone
Nobody came to help me.
by phone
c.
be/get through:
used instead of
I tried to phone the mayor’s office, but I couldn’t get an infinitive in order to avoid repeating the verb
through. You don’t need to come if you don’t want to.
8 2
going somewhere as far as a particular point or limit
a. The cancer had spread to his lungs.
used for saying the place where someone or 11
something goes until
She rushed to the phone. a.
b. until a particular time or date
used for showing that someone goes somewhere for To the end of her life, she was
a particularevent or activity
a tireless campaigner for peace.
Robert hates going to parties. b.
3 used for saying how much time passes before
used for saying who is told, given, or shown something a particular date, time, or event
Prizes were presented to the winners. Sales increased during the 13 weeks to September 30th.
4 12
used for saying in which direction someone or used when telling the time, for saying how
something is facing or pointing many minutes it is before the hour
Henry was standing with his back to me. It’s twenty-five to twelve.
5 13
used for saying where someone or something is used for saying whose opinion, attitude,
in relation to the position of another person or thing or knowledge is being referredto
There was a large bookcase to the left of the fireplace. To most of us, work is an unpleasant necessity.
6 14
when someone is affected by something used for saying what your reaction is when
a. something happens
used for saying who or what is treated in to someone’s surprise/delight/horror etc:
a particular way
To her surprise, she sawthat he was crying.
They were very kind to my mother when she was ill. 15
b. used for showing how numbers are related
used for saying who or what is affected by a situation a.
industries that are harmful to the environment used for showing the relationship between
7 two numbers or amounts
in a particular relationship with someone/something The new model will do 60 miles to the gallon in town.
a. b.
used for explaining a relationship between people or t used for showing that
hings a number of smaller units is equal to a largerunit
Linda has been a good friend to my mother for There are 10,000 square centimetres to a square metre.
many years. 16
b. used for saying what the score is in a game
used for saying which person or organization someone Our team won by five goals to three.
does a particular job for 17
She is personal assistant to the Managing Director. if you push or pull a door to, you close it or
8 almost close it
used for saying where something is fastened or where The door swung to behind her as she went out.
a connection is 18
The carpet had been nailed to the floor. used for showing a possible range
9 a.
when something changes or develops used when showing the
a. whole range of numbers between and including the
used for saying what condition or state someone or two that you mention
something is in after a change a toy suitable for children aged three to five
He saw that the lights had changed to green. b.
b. used when showing how large a range of people or thi
used for saying what stage of development is reached ngs is
When will all this suffering come to an end? from...to:
10
I’ve written articles about everything 2
used when saying how you feel about someone or
from sexual moralityto gardening.
something or how you treat them
c.
used when you say that a number is within He’s not feeling very friendly towards you at
a particular rangebecause you are not sure of the moment.
the exact number 3
Only about 20 to 25 per cent of the population voted for used for showing how a process is developing in a way
that will producea particular result
this government.
19 progress towards European unity
used for showing that something is 4
an important or necessary part of something else near a time or place
a.
the answer to an important question
a little before a particular time
20
used for saying the particular sound that can I’ll phone you some time towards the end of the week.
be heard at the same time that something happens b.
not far from a particular place or position
I awoke to the sound of birds singing.
21 Caroline’s name appeared towards the bottom of
used for saying what something else the list.
is touching or pressing against 5
Clasping the child to her breast, she began to weep. in order to help to pay for something
TOWARDS I would be happy to contribute towards the cost of
1 the petrol.
used for saying in which direction someone or UNDER
something is going, facing, or looking 1
a stream of traffic speeding towards West London below or covered by something
2 a.
used when saying how you feel about someone or directly below or at a lower level than something
something or how you treat them We took shelter under an oak tree.
He’s not feeling very friendly towards you at b.
the moment. covered by something
3 She was wearing a money belt under her sweater.
used for showing how a process is developing in a way c.
that will producea particular result moving to a place that is below something or that
progress towards European unity is covered by it
4 I think the ball rolled under the sofa.
near a time or place d.
a. passing below something from one side to the other
a little before a particular time We drove under the bridge and came out into
I’ll phone you some time towards the end of the week. the High Street.
b. e.
not far from a particular place or position below the surface of water
Caroline’s name appeared towards the bottom of The ducks kept diving under the water to catch fish.
the list. 2
5 less than a particular amount, or younger than
in order to help to pay for something a particular age
I would be happy to contribute towards the cost of There is a working holiday scheme for British citizens,
the petrol. but you have to be under 26.
See also underage
1 3
used for saying in which direction someone or in the process of being affected or controlled by
something is going, facing, or looking a particular action, situation, or state
a stream of traffic speeding towards West London The ship came under attack from enemy aircraft.
4
used for saying that 3
something happens when particular conditions exist used for describing what someone or something
His older brother was forced to leave Hong Kong is really like, despitehow they may seem
the year before under similar circumstances. Underneath her calm exterior, she was
5 a deeply troubled woman.
according to a particular law, agreement, or system UNLIKE
Under the terms of the agreement, 1
different from someone or something else
our company will receive 40% of the profits.
6 The show was unlike anything we’d ever seen before.
used for stating that something happens when a.
a particular person or government is in power used for introducing a sentence or phrase
The book describes life in Russia under Unlike most actors, Harris is a rather shy man.
2
the Soviet regime.
not typical of a particular person or thing
7
using a particular name in official situations, often a It’s so unlike Mary to go off somewhere
name that is not your own without telling someone.
Carson had been travelling under a false name. UNTIL
8 1
if you work or study under a particular person, they happening or done up to a particular point in time, and
are your employer or teacher then stopping
I’ve worked under a few managers in my time, and Mr Baker is expected to be here until the end of the week.
Laurie is undoubtedly the best. 2
9 continuing as far as a particular place
if something is under Stay on the bus until the big supermarket, then get off
a particular section, word, letter etc, this is where it and turn left.
can be found UP
Look under Section Q and you’ll find all the details. 1
10 in or towards a higher position
unconscious after being given a drug to prevent you a.
from feeling pain from a lower place to a higher place
The nurse was still speaking as I felt myself going under. Could you help me carry this old trunk up to the attic?
11 b.
believing that something is happening or in a high place, or in a higher place than you,
is true, especially when you are wrong about this for example near the top of a hill or in the top part of
be under the impression/delusion: a house
I was under the impression that Faye had paid for She’s up in the bathroom.
the trip herself – but it seems I was wrong. c.
12 looking, turning, or pointing away from the ground or
receiving some type of medical treatment towards a higher position
Several players are under treatment for injuries. We rolled on our backs and looked up at the sky.
13 2
during a particular period of the Zodiac upright, or moving towards an upright position
I was born under the sign of Taurus, the bull. He stood up and pulled a chair out for me to sit on.
UNDERNEATH 3
1 in or towards the north of a region or country
in, to, or through a place directly below something I go up to Scotland about once a month.
or directly covered by it 4
I’ll leave the key underneath the mat. moving near to someone or something and
2 then stopping
used for describing the lower surface of something One of the salespeople came up and asked if she
that faces down could help.
The pancakes should be golden underneath. 5
along a river, road etc
a. He’ll be up at the school talking to parents.
moving along a road, street, path etc, or at UPON
a point along it in a direction away from you 1
Further up the road was a little country pub. LITERARY on or onto something
b. Shadows were flickering upon the studio floor.
moving along a river in the opposite direction that 2
the water is flowing, or at a point along it in FORMAL used after some verbs with the
this direction same meaning as ‘on’
We went on a long trip up the Amazon. A police patrol happened upon a robbery in
6
a bank yesterday.
increased in amount/level
3
a.
FORMAL immediately after doing something or after
at or towards an increased number, level, or amount
something happens
Total new car sales were up £3 million over last year.
Barry
b.
becoming louder, stronger, or more active had joined the army immediately upon leaving school.
4
Billy, will you turn the volume on the TV up – I
if an event or time is upon you, it
can’t hear anything. is going to happen very soon
7
Christmas is almost upon us again.
awake and out of bed
5
We were up bright and early the next morning. used between two nouns that are the same
8 for emphasizing that there is a large number of the
used for saying that a period of time has ended thing that you are mentioning
Come along now, please! Time’s up! I’ve written to you, year upon year, and
9
never heard from you.
divided or broken into small pieces or equal parts
VERSUS
The prize money will be divided up among 1
the team members. used for stating that two things are
10 being compared in order to show that they
completely done or used so that there is nothing left are different or that one is better than the other
Eat up all your dinner. the grades of male versus female students at
11 the university
fastened or closed completely 2
She kept Albert’s letters in a bundle tied up with ribbon. used for showing that two people, groups,
12 or teams are competingagainst each other in
collected, added, or brought together in one place a sports event or a court case
She was busy gathering up her papers. the South Africa versus New Zealand Davis Cup match
13 VIA
INFORMAL above a particular amount, or older than 1
a particular age going through one place on the way to another place
Women of sixty and up get a free bus pass for off- They flew from New York to New Delhi via Frankfurt.
peak journeys. 2
14 using a particular method or person to send or deliver
a computer system that is up is working properly something
By ten o’clock we had the computers up again. Blake spoke to the audience live via satellite from San
15 Diego.
BRITISH a road that is up is being repaired and cannot WITH
be used 1
We had to take a different route because if one person or thing is with another
Bristol Road was up. or does something with them, they are together or
16 they do it together
in a place that is near where you are Hannah lives with her parents.
2
having or holding something With all this uncertainty about jobs,
a.
it’s difficult to make plans.
used for saying what possessions, qualities,
b.
or features someone or something has
in spite of the problems that exist
a girl with red hair
With all its faults, democracy is still the best system we
b.
used for saying what someone is holding or carrying have.
10
We saw Moore coming back with a drink in his hand.
used for saying what is in or on something,
3
for example what fills or covers it
used for saying what is used for doing something
Fill the jug with boiling water.
Stir the mixture with a spoon.
11
4
used for saying that people share or exchange things
used for saying what person or thing you have
a particular feelingtowards She shares her food with all the family.
12
Why are you angry with me?
moving in the same direction as the wind, current etc
5
what causes a particular reaction or state Their boat was drifting with the current.
a. 13
used for saying what feeling causes someone happening, developing, or changing because of
to react in a particularway something
a.
His face was red with embarrassment.
developing or improving as a result of something
b.
used for saying what causes someone or something to Every player’s performance will tend to improve with ex
be in a particular state perienceand training.
The children were already weak with exhaustion. b.
6 changing as time passes
used for showing who you compete, fight, The risk of developing cancer increases with age.
or argue against c.
Don’t argue with me. used for saying what event makes something possible
7 With the arrival of scientific advances, we
in a particular way have discovered the causes of most diseases.
a. 14
used for saying the qualities that someone shows or used for saying what
the feelingsthat they have when they do something a particular action or problem is related to
He spoke with great confidence and charm. There’s nothing wrong with my eyesight.
b. 15
used for saying what sound or expression someone or used for saying what kind of illness, injury,
something makes when they do something or problem is affecting you
The car roared down the drive with a screech of tyres. A number of people were taken to hospital with minor in
c.
used for saying what position someone’s body is in juries.
when they do something 16
used for saying what people, countries etc
Gordon was standing with his back to the window. someone behaves towards in a particular way
d.
used for saying how something starts, continues, I was very friendly with the manager’s secretary.
or ends WITHIN
1
The story ends with the death of Jezebel.
inside a period of time
8
a.
used for saying who you support
before the end of a period of time
Are you with us or against us?
We expect an announcement within the next 24 hours.
9
b.
while a particular situation exists
during a particular period of time
a.
because of the situation that exists
Within the past few weeks, 215 people have used for saying what does not happen or has
not happened when something else happens
been arrested.
c. The operation proceeded without any major problems.
used for saying how soon one thing happens after 4
another used for saying that you do not have
a particular feeling, or you do not show
We arrived within two minutes of each other.
a particular quality when you do something
2
FORMAL inside an area, building, room, or space We began our search, but without
The ticket gives students unlimited free travel within the much hope of finding anything.
5
UK.
an old word meaning ‘outside’
3
included in the range of things that
are possible, reasonable, or allowed
The government was doing everything within
its power to help the victims.
4
used when saying what happens in
a group or organization
Mr Potter complained about
the lack of leadership within the healthservice.
5
not more than a particular distance or amount
a.
not more than a particular distance away
A shell exploded within 50 metres of
the Allied headquarters.
b.
used for showing that a number is
almost correct or accuratebecause the difference is not
more than a particular amount
thermometers capable of measuring temperature to
within 3°C
6
FORMAL used when referring to the qualities, feelings,
or thoughts that are in someone’s character or mind
I feel a lot more confident within myself.
WITHOUT
1
used for saying what someone or something does not
have
the ability to do mathematics without a calculator
2
used for saying that you do not have someone with you
I can’t live without you – I want to marry you.
3
not doing something or not happening
a.
used for saying what you do not do when you do
something else
Normally I would accept your offer without hesitation.
b.

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