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UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS AMÉRICAS

Facultad de Educación

The Use of Universal Design for Learning as a Strategy to Teach Simple


Past Tense in EFL classes to 9th Graders.

Karla Silva Vargas

Alejandro Cortés Herrera

2018
UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS AMÉRICAS
Facultad de Educación

The Use of Universal Design for Learning as a Strategy to Teach Simple


Past Tense in EFL classes to 9th Graders.

Seminario de grado presentado en conformidad a los requisitos para obtener grado


académico de Licenciado en Educación

Michelle Paulet Riquelme

Karla Silva Vargas

Alejandro Cortés Herrera

2018
AKNOWLEDGMENTS

First of all, we want to thank to our guide teacher miss Michelle Paulet for her support
during this process, as she has guided us to develop a thesis based on a topic that for us has
been a new concept in education and also, she has encouraged us to be better professionals
and Human Beings.

Obviously, the support of our families has been crucial during all of this process.

Finally, we also want to acknowledge to all of those teachers who somehow guided our
academic development.
ABSTRACT

The purpose of the following project is to improve the performance of students when learning
simple past tense through the use of UDL as a strategy. The main reason to choose this
strategy was focused on: attending the needs of each student considering different styles of
learning and at the same time bearing in mind that every learning process has a unique form
to each individual.

This research consists in applying UDL as a methodology for young learners of 9th grade N
at Liceo de Aplicación School through didactic lessons and diverse digital resources. This
study was applied on an experimental group of 26 students without a control group. The
knowledge of students was tested through a pre and post - test which results revealed
important improvement between previous knowledge of students and the final performance
after using this methodology.

RESEÑA

El propósito del siguiente proyecto es mejorar el rendimiento de los estudiantes cuando


aprenden el pasado simple mediante el uso del Diseño Universal de Aprendizaje como
estrategia metodológica. La razón principal para elegir esta metodología se centró en: atender
las necesidades de cada estudiante considerando diferentes estilos de aprendizaje, y al mismo
tiempo, teniendo en cuenta que cada proceso de aprendizaje tiene una forma única para cada
individuo. Esta investigación consiste en aplicar el DUA como una metodología para jóvenes
estudiantes del 1ro medio N en el Liceo de Aplicación a través de lecciones didácticas y
diversos recursos digitales. Este estudio se aplicó a un grupo experimental de 26 estudiantes
sin grupo control. El conocimiento de los estudiantes se probó mediante una prueba previa y
posterior, cuyos resultados revelaron una mejora importante entre el conocimiento previo de
los estudiantes y el rendimiento final después de usar esta estrategia metodológica.
LIST OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………….…..4
RESEÑA………………………………………………………………………………....4
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….…7
CHAPTER I……………………………………………………………………………...8
1. PROBLEM STATEMENT………………………………………………………9
1.2 General Objective………………………………………………………….…9
1.2.1 Specific Objectives…………………………………………………………9
1.2.2 Research Questions……………………………………………………..….9
1.3 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………10
CHAPTER II……………………………………………………………….………11
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK……………………………………………….12
2.1 Universal Design for Learning (UDL)……………………………………….12
2.1.1 UDL Definition and Characteristics………………………………….12
2.1.2 UDL Origin…………………………………………………………...13
2.1.3 UDL Principles…………………………………………………....…..14
2.1.4 UDL And Learning Styles…………………………………………….14
2.1.5 UDL And Multiple Intelligences…………...…………………………15
2.1.6 Diverse EFL Learners and UDL Context………...……...……………17
2.1.7 Using ICT’s to support diverse learning needs……….…………….....17
2.1.8 How to plan UDL lessons………………………………….………….23
2.1.9 English grammar: Past simple tense……………………….....…...…..24
2.1.10 Grammar Structure of Past Simple tense……………………………...25
CHAPTER III……………………………………………………………………...29
3. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK…………………………………………..30
3.1 Research Methodology………………………………………………………...30
3.1.1 Research Design……………………………………………………...30
3.1.2 Setting………………………………………………………………..30
3.1.3 Sampling……………………………………………………………..31
3.1.4 Methodological Steps………………………………………………..31
3.1.5 Intervention Plan…………………………………………………….33
Timetable
3.1.6 Intervention Plan - Teaching Period…………………………………33
3.1.7 Data Collection Instrument: Pre-Test And Post-Test………………..36
Pre and Post Test Design
3.1.8 Validity Of The Instrument………………………………………….36
CHAPTER IV……………………………………...………………………..42
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION………………………………...43
4.1 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….43
Data Analysis Techniques
4.1.1 Pre-Test Data Analysis…………………………………………………43
4.1.2 9th Grade N Pre-Test Data Analysis…………………………………….44
4.1.3 Post-Test Data Analysis………………………………………………...55
4.1.4 9th Grade N Post-Test Data Analysis…………………………………...55
4.1.5 Discussion: Pre-Test and Post-Test Results…………………………….65
5. CHAPTER V……………………………………………………………….75
5.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………………….76
5.2 References……………………………………………………….………..79
5.3 Appendix………………………………………………………………….81
INTRODUCTION

Human beings are the only specie that has the sense of tense expressed through language and
when learning English as foreign language, most of students at any level show a lack of
master the simple past tense not only in form but also in function. This is the main reason
that inspired our research, looking for some strategy that is not only challenging and
motivational, but also a helping hand for students learning needs. There, we focused our
investigation project on the concept of the use of universal design for learning as a strategy
to teach simple past tense to ninth graders at Liceo de Aplicacion school.

Our research is quantitative, divided into five chapters, where we developed a theoretical
framework based on scientific information collected from scholars and experts on brain
development, learning and digital media.

Then, on the methodological framework, we applied an instrument to measure previous


knowledge of students and their final performance after using universal design for learning
as a strategy to teach simple past tense.

After that, one chapter shows data analysis and discussion of results where we compared the
data obtained using charts and scales to clarify the process. In the final chapter the
conclusions, appendix and the respective references are included.
CHAPTER I

PROBLEM STATEMENT
1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

The students from 8th grade C at Liceo de Aplicación school are not able to use simple past
in context as they do not know how to use it, they are able to use some structures in an isolated
way, but they are not able to use the tense in meaningful context.

The students are exposed to traditional classes based on textbooks and the use of whiteboard.
The use of the four skills are not integrated in the class as most of the strategies used in
classes are directed to just one kind of learner the ones who are visual and learn in a very
traditional way. The class itself is very teacher-centred, although students have the
opportunity to be active.

1.2 General Objective

- To prove the effectiveness of UDL as a strategy to teach simple past tense in context to
ninth graders at Liceo de Aplicación school.

1.2.1 Specific Objectives


- To use the principles of Universal design for learning as a strategy to teach past simple
in a meaningful context.
- To expose students to a teaching period based on the principles of the UDL to teach past
simple tense.
- To evaluate by means of a pre and a post test the students ‘performance before and after
the teaching period.

1.2.2 Research Questions

- Is UDL as a methodology an effective way to teach past simple tense in context?


- What are the main advantages and disadvantages when using UDL as a strategy to teach
simple past?
1.3 Hypothesis

- The use of UDL as a strategy will improve students’ performance when using past simple
tense in context.
- The use of UDL as a strategy will not improve students’ performance when using past
simple tense in context.
CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

In the early 1990s a new approach in education is developed by David Rose at CAST
(center of applied special technology), considering the barriers that students had to face when
learning any subject, not only students with disabilities but also focused on all kind of
learners and their differences. The original idea was to transform more than reform the
currently educational system, addressing to the disabilities from schools more than the
student’s ones. (Rose, 1997).

2.1.1 UDL Definition and Characteristics

UDL is a framework that guides the shift from designing learning environments and lessons
with potential barriers to designing barrier-free, instructionally rich learning settings and
lessons that provide access to all students. A rich learning environment (i.e., the location
where learning is taking place) is designed around the needs of all students, not just those
with an identified need (e.g., students with disabilities, students who are English language
learners, students who are gifted). As students experience learning environment and lessons
designed using the UDL framework, they become more independent and resourceful learners
(Meyer, Rose, & Gordon, 2013). UDL makes people consider the classroom as an ecosystem
where there is constant interplay between students, the resources, the teacher and the
expectations of the environment. This framework is designed with all those needs in mind.

UDL is based on neuroscience and educational research as well as in the flexibility of digital
technology to develop learning environments to diverse students’ needs. (Etall, 2011)

2.1.2 UDL Origin


Created more than 30 years ago, CAST is founded by individuals in a clinical setting who
began working directly with students with significant learning needs. Until 2002 the
organization was known as the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). Now, they
are simply known as CAST, Inc., or CAST. While neuropsychologists, university professors,
former K–12 educators, and trainers saw significant gains in the students when they were in
that clinical setting, they knew that these students would not have these same opportunities
in traditional settings. In their minds, the challenges students were facing had little to do with
the students’ abilities because the students demonstrated their ability to be successful when
provided with the tools, resources, and strategies that met their needs (Nelson, 2013).

Up to this point, educators and researchers alike believed that the challenges of learning
stemmed from the students. With issues ranging from significant cognitive disabilities to the
inability to identify words on a page, the barrier to learning was seen as the learner’s
problem. Upon reflection, CAST asked the following:

What if educators removed barriers at the insert when designing a learning environment,
curriculum or lesson?

 What if teachers were provided with the latest information on brain research in a way
that they could apply that information within the classroom?

At that point, the founders of CAST began their work identifying universal structures that
would support the learning of all students in any learning environment.

As it was observed previously, UDL is a framework. It is neither a curriculum nor a


checklist. If it were either one of those things, it would oversimplify the act and
professionalism of teaching. As an educator, we have taken courses in pedagogy, classroom
management, and theory. We have a collection of tools, resources, and strategies either
learned recently or over the years. The structure of UDL guides us to actively, attentively,
and purposefully pull from that collection. It also asks teachers to possibly think differently
(Nelson, 2013).

2.1.3 UDL Principles


According to CAST (Rose, 1997) there are three core principles of universal design for
learning (UDL) framework:

1) Provide multiple means of engagement (the “why” of learning) has to do with


affective networks. How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are
challenged, excited or interested. These are affective dimensions. The idea of this
principle is to stimulate interest and motivation for learning.

2) Provide multiple means of representation (the “what” of learning) has to do with


recognition networks. How we gather facts and categorize what we see, hear and read.
Identifying letters, words or an author’s style are recognition tasks. The idea of this
principle is to present information and content in different ways.

3) Provide multiple means of action and expression (the “how” of learning) has to do
with strategic networks. Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and
express ideas. The idea of this principle is to differentiate the ways that students can
express what they know.
2.1.4 UDL And Learning Styles

Nowadays, many of students have different styles to identify and understand the information
about the teaching processes of learning. In education, this continues to expand since our
country has become in a multi-cultural space to accept different ethnics, cultures, ways of
learning, and a lot of them come with different learning programs or come from different
institutions differing in their learning styles (Romanelli, 2009).

In Badenoch's (1986) study into personality type, learning style preference and instructional
strategies, the author notes that theories of personality, learning, and learning style focus on
individual behavior resulting from interaction with the environment. Badenoch differentiates
between personality theories which examine individual behavior in an environment and
learning which centers on individual behavior as influenced by the environment. Learning
style theory, proposes the author, investigates the process and product of learning to
understand the interactions within the learning environment. Cognitive personality type,
therefore, is a classification of learning style theory. (Cognitive Versus Learning Style)

Learning styles are considered a higher success on education because they are potential tools
for learners. Most of the time learning styles are considered as a methodology in teaching.
Furthermore, learning styles are focused on environmental preferences, sensory modalities,
personality types, and/or cognitive styles. (Cook DA, 2006)
2.1.5 UDL And Multiple Intelligences

In education there is a theory related to different intelligences that students have. Gardner,
(1983) explains that many educators have had experience to teaching to different learners
representing them the learning process in a different way providing options to support in their
expressions.

According to Gardner (1983), there are nine multiple intelligences, and as theory explains
that we as people don’t have unique IQ that work as a computer in our minds, so these
intelligences represent different ways of processing information.

According to MI Theory, identifying each student’s intelligences has strong ramifications in


the classroom. If a child's intelligence can be identified, then teachers can accommodate
different children more successfully according to their orientation to learning. As it is
observed, Teachers in traditional classrooms primarily teach to the verbal/linguistic and
mathematical/logical intelligences. The nine intelligences are:

 Verbal-linguistic intelligence: Refers to an individual's ability to analyse


information and produce work that involves oral and written language, such as
speeches, books, and emails.

 Logical-mathematical intelligence: Describes the ability to develop equations and


proofs, make calculations, and solve abstract problems.

 Visual-spatial intelligence: Allows people to comprehend maps and other types of


graphical information.

 Musical intelligence: Enables individuals to produce and make meaning of


different types of sound.

 Naturalistic intelligence: Refers to the ability to identify and distinguish among


different types of plants, animals, and weather formations found in the natural
world.
 Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence: Entails using one's own body to create products
or solve problems.

 Interpersonal intelligence: Reflects an ability to recognize and understand other


people's moods, desires, motivations, and intentions.

 Intrapersonal intelligence: Refers to people's ability to recognize and assess those


same characteristics within themselves.

 Existentialist: Children who learn in the context of where humankind stands in the
"big picture" of existence. They ask, "Why are we here?" and "What is our role in
the world?" This intelligence is seen in the discipline of philosophy.

(Gardner, 1983)
2.1.6 Diverse EFL Learners and UDL Context

Teachers in today's classrooms face a significant challenge in trying to raise academic


standards and improve outcomes for increasingly diverse populations of students, often in
terms of strict accountability pressures (Nicole Strangman, 2005). In addition, changes to
special-education law during the past decade now mandate that all students, including those
with disabilities, be given access to the same general education curriculum. Opportunities to
learn are recognized as a civil right of all citizens. New approaches to planning and executing
instruction are needed to ensure that all students have such opportunities. A single classroom
may have students with very different backgrounds, skills, knowledge, and interests.
Teachers know each student is unique and they want their students to succeed. They want to
respond to individual differences by providing flexible and supportive learning
environments. The question is how.

2.1.7 Using ICT’s to support diverse learning needs

The purpose of UDL curricula is not only to help students including those with special needs
master a specific body of knowledge or a specific set of skills, but also to help them to become
expert learners. Expert learners have developed three broad characteristics. They are: a),
skillful and goal directed; b) knowledgeable, and c) purposeful and motivated to learn more.
Designing curricula using UDL allows teachers to remove potential barriers that could
prevent learners from meeting this important goal (Sarkar, 2015). However, UDL framework
mainly focuses on three aspects in order to serve its purposes. These three aspects are; the
means by which information is presented to the student, the means by which the learner is
required to express what they know, and the means by which the learners are engaged in
learning. In this context ICT serves as the best tool to facilitate teaching learning setting by
providing multiple means of representation, action & expression and engagement, as per the
needs and capabilities of each individual pupil and by providing tailored feedback. This is
the way that ICT integration in education helps to promote UDL (Sarkar, R.2015)
I) ICT and multiple means of representation (to support all students to comprehend and
perception)

 Visual support

 Graphics

 Movies

 Animation

 Text

 Physical objects and movement

Supports visual learners as well as students with cognitive impairment and students with
learning disabilities (Sharma,2003; Sanyal,2001)

 Auditory support

 Digital recorder

 Wav or MP3 files

 Text-to -speech

Supports auditory learners as well as students with cognitive impairment, students with
learning disabilities and students with speech and language disorder (Pajo&Wallace,2001)

Signs support

 Pictorial signs support students with intellectual disabilities

 Signed English supports students with hearing impairment

 Supports visual learners as well as students with hearing impairment, students with
cognition deficits, and students with processing disorders.
Caption support

 Video captions support students with hearing impairment

II) Multiple means of action and expression (to enable all students to express what
they know and learn)

Communication Modes

 Speech, Sign, Alternative and argumentative (AAC) including speech generating


devices, test-to-speech

Writing modes

 pencil and paper

 computer

Visual modes

 sculpture

 photos

 movies

 drama

Auditory Modes

 sounds

 music

III) Multiple means of Engagement (to support all learners)

Multiple means of engagements include those tools that assist students to actively engage
with learning setting (both input and output). The most successfully of these for UDL are
those that can engage a diversity of students within the one device or system (Plomp Etall
1996; Voogt,2003) Many of these devices will have hidden benefits. These tools may include
hardware, software or any kinds of equipment that assist a learner to engage in the learning
setting such as:

 Hardware

 Various configurations of keyboards

 Range of pointing devices

o Trackballs

o Joystick

o Alternative mouse system

o Gild point

o Touch screens

 Digital pens

o Smart pen

o Intellipen

 Alternative computer systems

o Micro laptops

o Ipads

system

(Plomp Etall 1996; Voogt,2003)

IV)Research evidences about using ICT to support student with special needs in inclusive
settings ensuring UDL

General benefits

3 Enables greater learner autonomy

4 Unlocks hidden potential for those with communication difficulties


5 Enables students to demonstrate achievements in ways which might not be possible with
traditional methods

6 Enables tasks to be tailored to suit individual skills and abilities

Benefits for students

7 Computers can improve independent access for students to education (Moore and
Taylor,2000; Waddell, 2000)

8 Students with special educational needs are able to accomplish tasks working at their own
pace (ACE Centre Advisory Trust, 1999)

9 Visually impaired students using the internet can access information alongside their
sighted peers (Waddell, 2000)

10 Students with profound and multiple learning difficulties can communicate more easily
(Detheridge, 1999)

11 Students using voice communication aids gain confidence and socially credibility at
school and in their communities (Worth, 2001)

12 Increased ICT confidence amongst students motivates them to use the internet at home
for schoolwork and leisure interests (Waddell, 2000)

Benefits for teachers and non-teaching staff

13 Reduces isolation for teachers working in special educational needs by enabling them to
communicate electronically with colleagues (Abbott and Crib,2001)

14 Supports reflection on professional practice via online communication (Perceval- Price,


2002)

15 Improved skills for staff and a greater understanding of access technology used by
students (Waddell, 2000)

16 Enhances professional development and the effectiveness of the use of ICT with students
through collaboration with peers (Detheridge, 1997)

17 Material already in electronic form (for example, from the internet) are more easily
adapted into accessibility resources such as large print or Braille (Waddell, 2000)
2.1.8 How to plan UDL lessons

When teachers plan a lesson, traditionally consider level of students, age, background
knowledge and obviously the goals according to MINEDUC. On the other hand, the universal
design for learning (UDL) principles provide a blueprint for designing a curriculum that
addresses the diverse needs for all students applying the planning for all learners (PAL)
procedures. PAL is a 4-step process for designing and implementing a curriculum (goals,
methods, materials and assessments) that is accessible and effective for all learners.

If a typical classroom is observed, pencils, textbooks and copybooks are the common
elements used by students, meanwhile, teachers use whiteboards and markers to produce a
teacher centered lesson, which is an inflexible setting to an effective learning process and
vaguely students will have the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learnt. For that
reason, the UDL framework addresses the whole curriculum (goals, materials, methods and
assessments) to make it more accessible not only physically but also intellectually and
emotionally (Hitchcock, Meyer, Rose, & Jackson, 2002; Jackson & Harper, 2005). In specific
application, then UDL calls for:

1) Defining goals that provide appropriate challenges for all students, ensuring that the
means is not a part of the goal.

2) Using methods that are flexible and diverse enough to support and challenge all
learners.

3) Using materials that are flexible and varied and take advantage of the digital media,
such as digitized text, multimedia software, video recorders, tape recorders, and the
internet.

4) Using assessment techniques that are sufficiently flexible to provide ongoing,


accurate information to inform instruction and determine student understanding and
knowledge (Rose & Meyer 2002).

When teaching English as a second language, there is no need to introduce grammar rules
because ESL means acquisition, an unconscious process where the learners are exposed to a
natural setting to the target language and grammar rules are acquired, not learned (Krashen,
1981-1982) but on the other, EFL means a process where the students learn in a conscious
way every aspect of the target language (Mella,1998). That is the reason why the next
paragraph introduces all the aspects necessary to learn simple past tense

2.1.9 English grammar: Past simple tense

When teaching English, one of the most difficult subjects is learning simple past tense, not
only for students at elementary or secondary school, but also for students from institutes and
universities. As we have observed in our practicum experience, problems related to this
matter are:

1. Students are not able to differentiate regular and irregular verbs

2. The final pronunciation of regular verbs

3. Reading comprehension of texts in simple past

4. How and when using simple past in dialogues and short stories produced by students

At the moment of teaching any language, even their mother tongue, it is necessary to clarify
that simple past tense is used to talk about something which started in the past and finished
in the past. So, the past simple tense tells only about THE PAST. At the same time simple
past tense is used to talk about a complete action or habits (Longman English grammar, 1998,
p.133)

When teaching grammar, it is necessary mention 3 points; time, tense and aspect (Celse-
Murcia,1999)

Time

Even time plays a significant role in grammar, it is sometimes confusing for students to
differentiate terms like time and tense, because many of them consider these terms as two
different expressions with the same meaning. By using this explanations learner should be
aware that there exist present, past and future tenses instead of present, past and future time.
Tense

When studying English, it is possible to observe there are different verb-forms, which show
differences in time from the speaker’s point of view, e.g. HE SPEAKS ENGLISH WELL
– HE SPOKE ENGLISH WELL

“The verb-forms which show differences in time are called tenses.” (Swan 1992: 605) “Tense
is any of the forms of a verb that show the time, continuance, or completion of an action or
state that is expressed by the verb. “ (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 2000:
1709)

In Student’s Grammar of the English language it is read that “tense is a grammatical category
that is realized by verb inflection. Since English has no future inflected form of the verb, the
threefold semantic opposition is reduced to two tenses: the present tense and the past tense,
which typically refer to present and past time respectively.” (Greenbaum and Quirk 1990:
47 – 48).).

Aspect

When it is desired to express whether the action is continuing, or repeats, or that a


pastsituation is connected with the present moment, we speak about changes in verb-
forms.“Changes of this kind are often called changes of aspect. “(Swan 1992: 605) “Aspect
is a grammatical category that reflects the way which the action of a verb is viewed with
respect to time. “(Greenbaum and Quirk 1990: 51)

2.1.10 Grammar Structure of Past Simple tense


(Nettle&Hopkins,1998)

The form of the past simple is the same for all people. Most verbs in the past simple are
“regular “., only some verbs are “irregular “.
Regular verbs are formed by adding – ed to the infinitive e.g. work – worked.
Irregular verbs have different affirmative simple past forms and must therefore be learnt e.g.
speak – spoke.
The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed by did not (didn’t) + infinitive.
The question of regular and irregular verbs is formed by did + subject + infinitive.
(Murphy,2012)

Spelling
Most verbs not ending in –e add –ed as in work – worked
Verbs ending in – e add - d as in phone – phoned
bore – bored
 Verbs spelt with a single vowel letter followed by a single consonant double the
consonant as in stop – stopped, plan-planned, jog-jogged

 In two-syllable verbs the final consonant is doubled when a single vowel is followed
by a single consonant letter and is stressed as in occur – occurred
refer – referred
 When the preceding vowel is unstressed (verbs are stressed on their first syllable) or
is written with two letters there is usually no doubling as in visit – visited
dread – dreaded
Note: American English follows the rule whereas in Britain English the rule is broken by
doubling final consonants (-l, -m, -p).
travel – traveled label – labeled (AmE)
travel – travelled label – labelled (BrE)
 Verbs ending in – y following a consonant change the y into the i before adding -ed
cry – cried
carry – carried
In verbs, which have a vowel before –y there is no change as in
play – played
obey – obeyed

Use
Past simple is used to talk about:

 Single past actions and events; I went to a fashion shop and bought a necklace
 Repeated past actions and events; I always went shopping on Saturdays
 Past states (long-lasting situations or feelings): My father knew the Prime Minister
Often time expressions are used with the past simple:
I went to the supermarket last Thursday/at lunchtime/in the evening
Often the time is understood but not mentioned:
Oh yes, we had a great time! (we had a great time at the party last night)
(Nettle&Hopkins,1998)

 Pronunciation
The -ed ending has three pronunciations:
 After /t/ and /d/ it is pronounced /Id/: wanted
 After unvoiced consonants it is pronounced /t/: missed /mIst/:
kicked /kIkt/
 After voiced consonants it is pronounced /d/
Other points
 The past simple of verb to be is: I/she/he/it was: you/we/they were. Did
is not used in negatives and questions;
she wasn’t happy
were you at home this morning?
 The past of can is could:
I couldn’t understand

 Simple past is used to talk about the order of actions and events and
linking words and phrases:
First of all I went to s fashion shop and bought a necklace with a heart.
Then I went to a body shop and bought shower gel and bubble bath.
(Clarke, 2007)
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
3 METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

3.1 Research Methodology

This chapter is based on the research methodology by means of instruments used to collect
data analysis about ‘’the use of universal design for learning as a methodology to teach
simple past tense’’ that seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of applying UDL as a methodology
of learning to students from 9th grade through simple past tense applying a pre - test and a
post - test evaluation, with the purpose of comprehend the impact of UDL on the learning of
English as a methodology.

3.1.1 Research Design

This research seeks concrete, objective and statistic results. The current study is based on a
quantitative approach which deals with numeric data analysis and the process of the students.
Our research is focused on the application of a proposed methodology in one group that will
be an experimental group already determined by the context of the group and the time.
According to that, this project fits the quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test design,
measuring students’ knowledge before and after the implementation of the UDL
methodology in Unit 3: wild world applying the use of simple past tense.

3.1.2 Setting

Liceo de aplicacion is an all men public and emblematic school with a great trajectory located
in Cumming 21 -29, Santiago Centro. It has 2007 students who attend from elementary to
high school. The students’ majority belong to middle-low class and come from different
communes in Santiago. The number of students per class ranges from 20 to 28 depending on
the level and the class they are in. The teaching methods are very traditional, and teacher
centered and teachers hardly ever use ICT’S in their classes.
3.1.3 Sampling

Students are from different parts of Santiago. In this group there are 26 students around 14
– 15 years old and the level of English is not what is expected as students know the language
and understand it, but they don’t know how to produce it, in terms of speaking. Their average
performance in English is around 5.0 – 5.3 and the level as we mentioned before, is
elementary. They have 3 hours of English per week, on Mondays they have 1 hour and
Tuesdays 2 hours. The course book that they use in class is “Move beyond 3” which is a very
instructional book with different exercises. The methodology used in class is teacher-
centered as she gives them the instructions about the activity and students are doing exercises
without interactive resources or interesting material.

3.1.4 Methodological Steps

The methodological steps for our piece of research can be described as follows:

Step 1: To establish the problem statement, general and specific objectives, research
questions and one possible hypothesis.

Step 2: To choose the samples of our research; in our case, only one group as an experimental
group 9th gradeN

Step 3: To start the literature review and look for information about Universal Design for
Learning to build the Theoretical framework.

Step 4: To go through contents and Unit topics from 9th grade with the purpose of finding the
right information to start the implementation of UDL.

Step 5: To choose the Unit in which the methodology will be applied (Unit 3: wild world),
besides specific contents and vocabulary about simple past tense.

Step 6: To design the Pre-test and Post-test instrument according to the new content that
students will have to learn during the implementation of UDL.
Step 7: To take the Pre-test on 9th grade.

Step 8: To plan the lessons based on UDL strategy to be applied on the experimental group.

Step 9: To analyse the Pre-test results of the experimental group, to obtain information about
the previous knowledge of the students before the implementation of UDL.

Step 10: To start the application of UDL on the experimental group 9th grade N along 7
weeks.

Step 11: To take the Post-test.

Step 12: To analyse the Post-test results to obtain final information about students’ learning
by the end of the implementation of UDL.

Step 13: To compare results of Pre-test and Post-test in the experimental group to determine
how effective UDL strategy was during the learning process.

Step 14: To prove and validate the proposed hypothesis.

Step 15: To discuss the results and conclusions to determine how useful UDL as a strategy
was to improve English learning on 9th graders through simple past tense.
3.1.5 Intervention Plan

Timetable
The following chart summarizes day and time of our intervention with the experimental
group.

DAYS

HOURS MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY

9th Grade N
14:10 - 14:55
9th Grade N 9th Grade N
14:55 -15:40
17:25 -18:05 9th Grade N

18:05 – 18:45 9th Grade N


3.1.6 Intervention Plan - Teaching Period

The intervention plan was designed to be developed in 7 lessons along 4 weeks. It included
Pre-test and Post-test instruments, lesson plans, and instructional material for students,
resources for teachers to lead the lessons, and activities to review, practice, and enhance
contents. It should be noticed that all the lessons were adapted considering the original lesson
plans to keep the same contents and only vary the way in which the proposed strategy was
applied on the experimental group.

WEEK I
 LESSON 1  Introduction of work plan.
October 11th, 2018  Pre-Test application.

 LESSON 2
October 18th, 2018
 Students identify past simple tense in
affirmative, negative, and interrogative form.
 Students learn regular and irregular verbs.
 Students practice and apply the contents by
doing different exercises.
WEEK II
 LESSON 3
October 25th, 2018  Students remember past simple tense
through some examples
 Students practice past simple tense through
a bingo with regular and irregular verbs

WEEK III
 LESSON 4
October 29th, 2018  Students work on quizzes and picklers app
 Students will have to identify verbs (regular
and irregular).

WEEK IV
 LESSON 5
November 5th – 6th, 2018  Students watch a video related to natural
wonders
 Students relate thematic vocabulary to
actions in past simple tense.
 Students practice vocabulary and develop
writing skills by creating a poster of a place
chosen at random.

 LESSON 6  Last UDL intervention.


November 8th, 2018
 Students review past simple structure and
vocabulary from the unit.
 Practice of vocabulary and past pimple tense
Oral presentation about their favorite place.

 LESSON 7  Conclusions of work plan.


November 12th, 2018  Post-test application.
3.1.7 Data Collection Instrument: Pre-Test and Post-Test

Pre and Post Test Design

This test was designed just for one experimental group of students (9th grade N). Students
from this experimental group were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of that process
by means of a pre-test and a post-test before and after the intervention based on UDL.

To evaluate this experimental group and determine possible changes in terms of the level of
accuracy in the use of grammar, specifically the use of past simple, the test results will be
compared to discuss results and draw conclusions.

3.1.8 Validity of The Instrument

The pre - test as an instrument of evaluation was validated by teacher Michelle Paulet as a
thesis guide at Universidad de las Americas and the practicum guide teacher Sandra Véliz to
evaluate students’ previous knowledge about past simple test before applying UDL as a
strategy. This instrument is composed by four items which consider: grammar structure
related to simple past tense, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and written production.

In the following part, items are explained one by one describing in detail the activities that
students have to perform.
At the beginning of the instrument information is required such as: name, date, course, and
age. The following box of the test describes the general purpose, expected learning, content,
and general instructions. This instrument consists of 48 points as a maximum score.
The first item contains ten sentences where students have to complete them by choosing
among three alternatives the right form of the verb according to the simple past tense.
Students have to complete sentences considering positive, negative, and interrogative
statements related to the tense. The score of this item is 10 points
The second item of the test is about text completion that contains a box with ten verbs in
infinitive form. The students have to choose the right verb and to transform that verb into
past according if the verb is regular by adding –ed ending or if the verb is irregular. This part
of the article contains 10 points.
In the third item the students have to read a daily routine of a girl in simple present tense and
then they have to complete ten sentences by using the positive and negative form of the verb
in past tense. A sentence is given as a model to guide students.

In the second part of this item students have to put the words in the correct order to make
sentences in interrogative form of the past simple tense. The total score of this item is 13
points.
In the fourth item students have to read a biography and fill in the gaps with the right form
of the verb (the infinitive form of the verb is given in brackets). This item contains 16
sentences where students have to transform the verbs in brackets into past (positive or
negative statement). A sentence is given as a model. The total score of this item is 15 points.
CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


4 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Data Analysis

Data Analysis Techniques


All the information and data collected refer to students’ names, gender, and age obtained
scores and marks were processed by excel system. All of this personal information of students
will not be revealed considering the privacy of each student.

4.1.1 Pre-Test Data Analysis

The pre - test data analysis was an instrument designed to evaluate student’s previous
knowledge which was applied on the experimental group. The pre-test was applied on
October 11th, 2018 at 2:10 pm to 26 students with full attendance.

The objective for this instrument was to evaluate students’ performance related to the content
from Unit 3: Wild world. During the pre-test, students were required to write down some
personal information such as their names and age, and some formal instructions. Names and
ages were required as a register and as an evidence of student’s participation during the data
collection process.
4.1.2 9th Grade N Pre-Test Data Analysis

Once the pre- test was reviewed on the experimental group, students obtained the following
results:
STUDENTS OBTAINED SCORE MARK
Student 1 15 2,5
Student 2 11 2,1
Student 3 9 1,9
Student 4 8 1,8
Student 5 7 1,7
Student 6 7 1,7
Student 7 7 1,7
Student 8 6 1,6
Student 9 6 1,6
Student 10 5 1,5
Student 11 5 1,5
Student 12 4 1,4
Student 13 3 1,3
Student 14 3 1,3
Student 15 3 1,3
Student 16 3 1,3
Student 17 3 1,3
Student 18 3 1,3
Student 19 2 1,2
Student 20 2 1,2
Student 21 2 1,2
Student 22 2 1,2
Student 23 1 1,1
Student 24 1 1,1
Student 25 0 1,0
Student 26 0 1,0
AVERAGE MARK 1,5
AGE OF STUDENTS

4%
15%

14
42%
15
16
17

39%

In terms of the age of students, 11 of them were 14 years old (42% of the sample), 10 students
were 15 years old (39% of the sample), 4 students were 16 years old (15% of the sample),
and just 1 student was 17 years old, who corresponds to the 4% of the sample for this part of
the research.
MARKS
7
7%
6

5
6%
Students

4
9%
3
5% 6% 8% 8%
2
7% 10% 10% 11% 13%
1

0
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.5

MARKS

The following graphic shows the marks that students obtained after taking the pre-test. We
have to mention that marks were put in order from the lowest to the highest one. As the
graphic shows, the marks obtained by students vary between 1,0 which belongs to the
minimum and 2,5 that belongs to the maximum mark obtained among 26 students who were
tested. According to the results, 2 students got de lowest mark 1,0 (5% of the sample), and 1
student got the maximum of the mark 2,5 (13% of the sample). Nevertheless, the most
recurring mark was 1,3 (6 students and 7% of the sample). The second recurring mark was
1.2 (4 students and 6% of the sample) then 3 students got 1,7 (9% of the sample), 2 students
got 1,5 (8% of the sample), 2 students got 1,6 (8% of the sample) and 1,4, 1,8, 1,9 (1 student
and 27% of the sample each).

According to this information, we can observe that all of students did not show knowledge
of the content of the pre - test related to past simple tense.

To obtain more specific information about pre- test, we are going to analyze item by item.
Item I

0%

38%
Achieved
Unachieved
62%

The graphic reveals that 62% of students did not know or did not remember how to identify
the regular and irregular verbs in past, and 38% of students had a previous knowledge about
verbs in simple past tense.
Scores Item I
8
7
6
5
Points

4
3
2
1
0
Student 7

Student 15
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5
Student 6

Student 9

Student 11

Student 13
Student 14

Student 16
Student 17

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 8

Student 10

Student 12

Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

The total score in the first item was 10 points. The maximum score was achieved by any
student. This graphic shows that a group of twenty -six students, three of them obtained 0
points, and only one student obtained 7 points that was the maximum score of the item. The
most repeated score was 5 points from six students. This item was the best achieved by
students, according to the points obtained they were able to identify and fill in the gaps the
sentences given.
Item II

0% 8%

Achieved
Unachieved

92%

This graphic shows that 92% of students were not able to use verbs in context and to
transform the verbs into the past. 8% of students had a previous knowledge of how to perform
the activity.
Scores Item II
2.5

1.5
Points

0.5

0
Student 4
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3

Student 6
Student 7

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 5

Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

As it is observed, the maximum score was achieved by any student. This item consisted of
10 points. From twenty – six students only two students obtained 1 and 2 points respectively.
We can observe that this item was the most difficult to perform by students. This item
obtained the first place according to its rank of difficulty because students were not able to
use verbs in context and to transform into the past. Therefore, they did not have the minimum
knowledge to perform the item.
Item III

0%

35%
Achieved
unachieved

65%

By observing this graphic, the orange part shows that 65% of students were not able to read
and comprehend a text in simple present tense, therefore they did not know how to complete
the sentences using the correct form of the verb in simple past. In addition, they were not
able to re order the sentences in interrogative form.
Scores Item III
3.5

2.5

2
Points

1.5

0.5

0
Student 2
Student 3

Student 5
Student 6
Student 7

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 4
Student 1

Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Score

This item consists of 13 points as a total score. As it is observed in this graphic three students
obtained 3 points as maximum score of the item. Then two students obtained 2 points and
four students obtained 1 point as a minimum score. The rest of students were not able to
perform the activity. Therefore, the scores of this item are located between item II and IV
according to its rank of difficulty.
Item IV

0% 12%

Achieved
unachieved

88%

This graphic shows that 12% of students had a previous knowledge of the subject, and 88%
of students did not know how to perform the activity by using the verbs in the correct past
simple form.
Scores Item IV
6

4
Points

0
Student 3
Student 1
Student 2

Student 4
Student 5
Student 6
Student 7

Student 10
Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 8
Student 9

Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

By observing this graphic, we can see that only two students obtained 5 points as a maximum
score, and one student obtained only 1 point. The rest of the students obtained 0 points
showing a total lack of knowledge of how to transform the verbs given.

According to the results of the pre – test we can conclude that the most difficult activity for
students was to use verbs in context, and to transform them into the past form. On the other
hand, the item where students obtained the best results was item I, showing a better
performance to identify the verbs in past form, and to fill in the gaps to complete the
sentences.
4.1.3 Post-Test Data Analysis

The post - test data analysis was an instrument designed to evaluate student’s knowledge
after using UDL as a methodology which was applied on the experimental group. The post-
test was applied on November 12th, 2018 at 17:25 pm to 26 students with full attendance.

The objective for this instrument was to evaluate students’ performance about the use of
simple past tense after using UDL as a methodology. During the post - test, students were
required to write down some personal information such as their names and age, and some
formal instructions. Names and ages were required as a register and as an evidence of
student’s participation during the data collection process.

4.1.4 9th Grade N Post-Test Data Analysis

Once the post - test was reviewed on the experimental group, students obtained the following
results:
STUDENTS OBTAINED SCORE MARK
Student 1 42 6,1
Student 2 40 5,8
Student 3 40 5,8
Student 4 39 5,6
Student 5 39 5,6
Student 6 39 5,6
Student 7 38 5,4
Student 8 37 5,3
Student 9 37 5,3
Student 10 37 5,3
Student 11 36 5,1
Student 12 36 5,1
Student 13 35 5,0
Student 14 35 5,0
Student 15 34 4,8
Student 16 33 4,7
Student 17 32 4,5
Student 18 32 4,5
Student 19 31 4,3
Student 20 30 4,2
Student 21 29 4,0
Student 22 20 3,1
Student 23 19 3,0
Student 24 18 2,9
Student 25 18 2,9
Student 26 14 2,5
AVERAGE MARK 4,6

MARKS
3.5
12% 12%
3

2.5
8% 8% 8% 8% 8%
Students

1.5
4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4%
1

0.5

0
6.1 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1 5 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 4 3.1 3 2.9 2.5

MARKS

The following graphic shows the mark that students obtained after taking the post – test. We
have to mention that marks were put in order from the highest to the lowest one. As the
graphic shows, the marks obtained by students vary between 6,1 which belongs to the
maximum mark obtained, and 2,5 which belongs to the minimum mark obtained among 26
students who were tested. According to the results, one student got the highest mark 6.1 (4%
of the sample), and one student got the minimum of the mark 2,5 (4% of the sample). The
most recurring marks were 5.6 (3 students and 12% of the sample), and 5.3 (3 students and
12% of the sample). The second recurring marks were 5.8 (2 students and 8% of the sample),
5.1 (2 students and 8% of the sample), 5.0 (2 students and 8% of the sample), 4.5 (2 students
and 8% of the sample), 2.9 (2 students and 8% of the sample), and 5.4, 4.8, 4.7, 4.3, 4.2, 4.0,
3.1, 3.0 (1 student and 32% of the sample). According to this information, we can observe
that students showed a better performance in the learning process compare to the results they
obtained in the pre- test related to the past simple tense.

To obtain more specific information about post – test, we are going to analyze item by item.

Item 1

15%

Achieved
Unachieved

85%

The graphic reveals that 15% of students did not know or did not remember how to identify
the regular and irregular verb in past, and 85% of students did know and remember how to
identify verbs in simple past tense.
Scores Item I
12

10

8
Points

0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

The total score in the first item was 10 points. The maximum score was achieved by two
students. This graphic shows that from a group of twenty - six students, none of them
obtained 0 points. Three students obtained 3 points that represents the minimum score in this
item. The most repeated score was 8 points from eight students. This item was the second
achieved by students. According to the points obtained. They were able to identify and fill in
the gaps the sentences given.
Item II

38%
Achieved
Unachieved
62%

This graphic shows that 38% of students were not able to use verbs in context and to
transform the verbs into the past. 62% of students were able to perform the activity. As it is
observed more than half of students show a better performance in this activity.
Scores Item II
10
9
8
7
6
Points

5
4
3
2
1
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

As it is observed, the maximum score was achieved by two students that obtained 9 points.
This item consisted of 10 points. From twenty – six students, none of them obtained 0 points.
We can observe that this item was the most difficult to perform by students, because a less
than half was not able: use verbs in context and to transform into the past.
Item III

27%

Achieved
Unachieved

73%

By observing this graphic, the orange part shows that 27% of students were not able to read
and comprehend text in simple present tense, therefore they did not know how to complete
the sentences using the correct form of the verb in simple past. In addition, they were not
able to re order the sentences in interrogative form. On the other hand, the blue part shows
that 73% of students reached the goal to read and comprehend a text in simple present tense
and how to complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in simple past.
Scores Item III
14

12

10

8
Points

0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

This item consists of 13 points as a total score. As it is observed in this graphic three students
obtained the maximum score of the item. Then two students obtained 3 points as the
minimum score. eight students obtained 10 points being these the most repetitive score. As a
rank of difficulty, this item is located in the median according to the rest of items.
Item IV

8%

Achieved
Unachieved

92%

This graphic shows that 92% of students reached the goal, and just 8% of students did not
know how to perform the activity by using the verbs in the correct past simple form.
Scores Item IV
16
14
12
10
Points

8
6
4
2
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

By observing this graphic, we can see that eight students obtained the maximum score of 13
points being these the most repetitive score of the item. Then two students obtained 13 points
and five students obtained 12 points. Just one student obtained 5 points as the minimum score
of the item. This item was the easiest according to its rank of difficulty.

According to the results of the post - test we can conclude that the easiest activity for students
was to use verbs in context, and to transform them into the past form. On the other hand, the
item were students obtained the minimum results was item II, showing a weak performance
to fill in the gaps to complete the sentences.
4.1.5 Discussion: Pre-Test and Post-Test Results

According to the results of pre and post – test we can conclude that the group of students
from 9° grade N at Liceo de Aplicación school, improve their performance at the moment of
applying UDL as a methodology to teach simple past tense. As the following images:

Item I - Pre Test Item I - Post Test

0% 15%
38% Achieved Achieved
62% Unachieved Unachieved
85%

By comparing both graphics, we can notice that students who achieved the goal increased
from 38% to 85% showing a positive difference of 47% by performing the activity of how to
identify the regular and irregular verbs in simple past form. On the other hand, we can observe
that students who did not achieve the goal decreased from 62% to 15% showing a better
performance of the activity in comparison to the results of pre – test.
Scores Item I - Pre Test
8
6
Points

4
2
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5
Student 6
Student 7

Student 9

Student 11

Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 8

Student 10

Student 12

Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

Scores Item I - Post Test


12
10
8
Points

6
4
2
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

As we can observe, the scores obtained by students in the post test were better than the pre -
test. In the pre - test the maximum score was 7 points whereas in the post – test the maximum
score was 10 points, being this the real score of the item. This results show that students
improved their performance of the activity in comparison of item I in the pre – test. On the
other hand, we can notice that the minimum score of 0 points belonged to three students in
the pre – test whereas in the post test the minimum score was 3 points.
Item II - Pre Test Item II - Post Test

0%
8%
Achieved 38% Achieved
Unachieved 62% Unachieved
92%

By observing these graphics, we can conclude that in the pre – test, the amount of students
who achieved the goal were 8% whereas in the post – test was 62%, showing a big difference
of 54% which reveals an increase of the learning process.
Scores Item II - Pre Test
2.5
2
Points

1.5
1
0.5
0

Student 11
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4

Student 6
Student 7

Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 5

Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

Scores Item II - Post Test


10
8
Points

6
4
2
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

As we can observe, the scores obtained by students in the post test were better than the pre -
test. In the pre - test the maximum score was 2 points whereas in the post – test the maximum
score was 9 points. This result shows that students improved their performance of the activity
in comparison of item II in the pre – test. On the other hand, we can notice that the minimum
score of 0 points belonged to 24 students in the pre – test whereas in the post test none of
them obtained 0 points, is to say, most of students overcame the minimum score.
Item III - Pre Test Item III - Post Test

0%
35% 27%
Achieved Achieved
unachieved Unachieved
65% 73%

By observing these graphics, we can conclude that in the pre – test the amount of students
who achieved the goal was 35% whereas in the post – test was 73%, showing a notorious
difference of 38% which reveals an increase of the learning process. On the other hand, the
amount of students who did not achieve was 65% in the pre - test whereas in the post declined
to 27% which reveals that the amount of students who did not perform the activity decreased
considerably.
Scores Item
Scores Item III
III -- Post
Pre Test
Test
3.5
14
123
2.5
10
Points
Points

82
1.5
6
41
0.5
2
0
0
Student2 2
Student3 3

Student5 5
66
77

Student1111
Student1212
Student1313
Student1414
Student1515
Student1616

Student2121
Student2222
Student2323
Student2424
Student2525
Student2626
Student1010
Student11

Student44

Student8 8
Student9 9

17
18
19
20
Student17
Student18
Student19
Student20
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student

Student

Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student

Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Student
Score
Score

As we can observe, the scores obtained by students in the post test were better than the pre -
test. In the pre - test the maximum score was 3 points whereas in the post – test the maximum
score was 13 points. This result shows that students improved their performance of the
activity in comparison of item III in the pre – test. On the other hand, we can notice that the
minimum score of 0 points belonged to 17 students in the pre – test whereas in the post test
none of them obtained 0 points, is to say, seventeen students overcame the minimum score.

Item IV - Pre Test Item IV - Post Test

0%
12% 8%
Achieved Achieved
unachieved Unachieved
88% 92%
By observing these graphics, we can conclude that in the pre – test the amount of students
who achieved the goal was 12% whereas in the post – test was92%, showing a huge
difference of 80% which reveals an increase of the learning process of content. On the other
hand, the amount of students who did not achieve was 88% in the pre - test whereas in the
post decrease to 8% which reveals that the amount of students who did not perform the
activity decreased considerably showing a better performance in the post - test.
Scores Item IV - Pre Test
6
5
4
Points

3
2
1
0
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5
Student 6
Student 7

Student 10
Student 11
Student 12
Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17

Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 8
Student 9

Student 18
Student 19
Student 20

Student 26
Score

Scores Item IV - Post Test


20
15
Points

10
5
0
Student 11
Student 12
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5

Student 13
Student 14
Student 15
Student 16
Student 17
Student 18
Student 19
Student 20
Student 21
Student 22
Student 23
Student 24
Student 25
Student 26
Student 6
Student 7
Student 8
Student 9
Student 10

Score

As we can observe, the scores obtained by students in the post test improved in comparison
to the pre - test. In the pre - test the maximum score was 5 points whereas in the post – test
the maximum score was 15 points being this the maximum score of the item. This result
shows that students improved their performance of the activity in comparison of item IV in
the pre – test. On the other hand, we can notice that the minimum score of 0 points belonged
to 23 students in the pre – test whereas in the post test none of them obtained 0 points, is to
say, all of students overcame the minimum score showing a big difference.
Pre - Test and Post - Test marks
30

25

20

15

10

0
1,0 -2,5 2,6 - 4,0 4,1 - 5,6 5,7- 6,1

Pre Test marks Post Test marks

This graphic shows an important change and improving in the performance of the students
by comparing the marks between the pre-test in color blue and post-test in orange. As the
graphic shows, 26 of students obtained a mark lower than 2,5 in the pre-test. In comparison
with the post-test where most of student achieved a mark higher than 2,5 being 6,1the highest
mark reached by one student.

Observing the marks obtained in the pre-test the most of students were not able to reach the
minimum score but when we analysed the marks of the post-test a big amount of students
overcame their first results. According to the results of the post – test we can conclude that
the item IV was the best achieved followed by item I then III and II by students in comparison
to the pre-test results. When observing the perform of students, in the post test we could
observe that students improved their ability to comprehend a text and to transform the verbs
into simple past tense. At the same time, by observing the results of the post-test in the item
I, we noticed the increase of the ability of students to fill in the gaps with the correct answer
in comparison with the same item in the pre-test.

In the item III the process to read a text and complete sentences, according to the results of
the post test, students did achieve this goal showing an increase of their learning process due
to UDL. Finally, in the item II by observing the results of the pre-test, it was one of the most
difficult skill for students to develop their ability to identify verbs in context and at the same
time to transform those verbs into simple past tense. Then observing the results of the post-
test students showed a notorious increase to perform the activity.

According to all data analysis we can conclude that the use of UDL as a methodology to
teach simple past tense is a good tool to improve the learning process of students.
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusions

The aim of our investigation was to improve the learning process of the use of simple past
tense by using as a strategy the Universal Design for Learning in students of 9th grade N at
Liceo de Aplicación School. After this experimental process, we can conclude that the use
of Universal design for learning as a strategy to teach simple past tense was a useful tool to
improve the performance of students in their learning process. We observed that the use of
multiple means of engagement promoted the affective networks of students, we could notice
they felt more engaged and motivated during the lessons, because at the moment of
challenging them, they showed a better disposition and interest to reach the objectives of the
lessons. In other words, the use of UDL stimulated the interest and motivation for learning.

Besides when we use this strategy based on UDL, students were able to improve their
recognition networks (gathering facts, categorizing, identifying, etc.) this has to do with to
provide multiple means of representation, is to say, the ‘’what’’ of learning when the teacher
presents the same information and content to students in different ways (visual support,
animation, physical objects and movement, auditory support, and text, etc.)

Also, we observed that the use of UDL as a strategy provided multiple means of action an
expression, is to say the ‘’how’’ of learning where students improved their strategic networks,
planning and performing tasks, organizing and expressing ideas. By using this strategy,
students were able to express what they knew and what they were going to be able to learn.

At the beginning of the process of applying UDL, students were not familiarized with the
topic, and their previous knowledge had to be reinforced with use of some personal pronouns
and grammatical structures. After having explained this content we started with different
activities which motivated students to reach the knowledge through more didactic and
encouraging lessons, supporting different needs of learners.

Each activity had a precise purpose where the students had to express what they already knew
about the topic and where we as teachers guided them to know what they really want to learn
through a methodology that in unconscious way stimulated the learning process and at the
same time helped them to conceive the concept of meaningful learning.

To prove the utility of this methodology we applied a pre and post-test to obtained concrete
data to be analysed and conclude if UDL is a good tool or not. After to obtain the results of
the pre-test we noticed that students had a huge lack of knowledge about the topic. And when
we obtained the results of the post-test, we observed enormous change in the performance of
students, proving that UDL is a useful tool be applied at the moment of teaching simple past
tense. Observing the marks obtained in the pre-test the most of students were not able to
reach the minimum score but when we analysed the marks of the post-test a big amount of
students overcame their first results.

UDL uses a lot of technological resources which stimulates students because it is known,
young learners belong to the digital era. For this reason, the use of online QUIZZES and
PICKLERS apps were very useful at the moment of teaching simple past tense because
students engage better using them. At the same time, we have to mention that the lack of
digital resources at any school is not a problem to apply UDL as a methodology, because
when we talk about ‘’digital’’ is not only computers and apps, but also all the resources that
students can use (paper, pencil, markers, scissors, etc.) in order to create concrete material to
engage, represent and help students to show what they learned.

On the other hand, our project pretends to improve the teaching learning process about simple
past tense applying a strategy that considers the needs of our students, an at the same time,
this methodology may be motivational, didactic and challenging answering the two questions
of our investigation.

- Is UDL an effective way to teach past simple tense in context?


As we can observe through the teaching period the use of Universal Design for Learning
as a strategy is an effective way to teach simple past in context because it considers
different learning styles, students´ needs and the use of digital resources to motivate
learners that currently belong to at digital era.

- What are the main advantages and disadvantages when using UDL as strategy to teach
simple past?
The main advantages of this methodology is that it motivates the learning process of the
topic using different means of representation, it challenges to students to achieve a better
performance because through this student are able to show what they know. Other
advantage of this methodology is the motivation to participate during the lessons,
moving the students from their point of inertia and to become expert learners, which
means, students not only receiving information (input) but also processing and
performing the knowledge learnt (output).
The only disadvantage is not referring to the methodology itself, but rather was the lack
of enough digital and non-digital resources (computer classrooms, interactive screen,
paper, markers, whiteboard, text books, etc.)

Based on the results of our research through the pre and post-test and the advantages and
disadvantages of the use of UDL as a strategy to teach simple past tense, our
investigation aims to validate the following hypothesis: ‘’The use of UDL as a
methodology will improve students’ performance when using past simple tense in
context’’. Due after using UDL, students were able to improve their performance at the
moment using simple past tense (regular and irregular verbs, grammatical structures and
reading comprehension, etc.)

Finally, the contribution of our project is that UDL takes the best concepts of different
approaches attending the needs and different styles of learning of the students, motivates the
participation during the lessons because UDL considers not only academic factors but also
affective ones. After all, we as a teachers recommend the use of this methodology to improve
the performance of students concerning the topic of simple past tense.
5.2 References

Clarke, S. (2007). English grammar in context. Mc Millan.

Cognitive Versus Learning Style. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://personality-


project.org/others/heineman/COG.HTM

Cook DA, S. D. (2006). multitrait-multimethod comparison with three cognitive/learning


style instruments.

Etall, R. (2011).

Frank Romanelli, P. M. (2009, febrero 19). Retrieved from


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690881/pdf/ajpe9.pdf

Gardner, H. (1983). Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-


research

J, C. M. (1981). medical, Curry L. Learning preferences in continuing.

learning, c. (n.d.). Using ICT to support learners with diverse abilities and needs. Retrieved
from
https://www.cengage.com/education/book_content/0170181812_krause/go_further/
pdf/krause3e_gf_1104.pdf

Multiple Intelligence (MI) – Howard Gardner. (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/learning/MI%20Theory.htm

Nelson, L. L. (2013). Design and Deliver planning and teaching using Universal Design for
learning. Brookes Publishing Company.

Nicole Strangman, A. M. (2005). Improving Foreign Language Instruction with New


Technologies and Universal Design for Learning.

Rose, A. M. (1997). Universal design for learning: theory and practice. Retrieved from
http://udltheorypractice.cast.org/reading?4&loc=intro.xml_l1969952

Sarkar, R. (2015). Integrating ICT in education is a catalyst to promote universal design for
learning for students with special needs: need, challenges, and possible solutions.
APPENDIX

Lesson Plans

Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 4
PPT Explanation