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Draw a c/s of hill road & label the components

State the component parts of hill road with their function

1. Road Pavement: - The main function of pavement is to carry vehicular load and distribute it
evenly. In other words it resists the stresses cause due to moving loads of traffic.
2. Parapet wall :- Parapet wall is to provide protection to the traffic against falling down in valley .
it constructed as a continuous wall but with small gaps in between rather than a continuous wall
to achieve economy.
3. Breast wall :-.Breast wall is provided at the upslope side of the road to prevent Lateral pressure
of earth. In other words ,It is constructed when hill side is steep and there is tendency of its sliding
down towards the roads.
4. Retaining wall: - This wall is constructed at the downslope side to resist pressure from earth filling
of pavement due to traffic load and other load. This is constructed when the hill road is to be
made in partly cutting or whole embankment .
5. Catch water drain :- These drains are provide on hill slope to collect or intercept the rainwater
and divert them to nearby cross drainage work
6. Side Drainage :- These drains are provided at the foot of hill slope to collect rainwater from
carriageway and from hill slope and divert it to the nearby cross drainage work
7. Cross drainage works: - Cross drainage works are provided at regular intervals in hill road to drain
off rain water across the road.
State necessity of cross drainage work.

Cross drainage work: An efficient drainage system for disposing off the surface water collected in side
drains or that of the natural streams across a road or railway track or across a hill road is called cross
drainage.

Necessity of CD work:

1. Helps to maintain the continuity of a road or a railway track while going across the river, streams,
nala, depressions and valleys.

2.Maintain the gradient in undulating area in case of railway.

3.Provides continuous access to the surrounding villages and towns even at the time of flood and heavy
rain.

4.Maintains continuous communications.

5.The provision of cross drainage structure at frequent intervals also helps in reducing the size of side
drains as well as of catch water drains .

6.An efficient cross drainage system is essential for disposing off the surface water collected by catch
water drains and side drains across the hill road .

7.An effective cross-drainage system prevents side drains from overflowing and flooding the road
surface .

Draw a cross section of National Highway in hilly area.


State the difference between alignment of hill roads and alignment of plain roads.

Alignment of hill roads Alignment of plain roads

1) Sharp curves are to be provided. 1) Sharp curves are not to be provided.

2) The minimum radii of such sharp curve should 2) As curves are not to be provided, radii of curve
be required to take into consideration while should not require to be taken into account.
fixing alignment of hill roads.

3) Cost per kilometer length is much higher in 3) Cost per kilometer length is less in case of
case of hill roads. plain roads as compared to hill roads.

4) Proper care is required to be taken for 4) In case of plain roads drainage does no causes
drainage. that much problem.

5) Stability is very important factor in case of hill 5) Stability is not that much important in case of
roads due to problem of land slide. plain roads as there is no land slide.

6) Curves and bends are not easy for all types of 6) In spite of curves and bends the gradient
vehicle to negotiate the route. should be easy for all types of vehicle.

7) Not economical as compared to plain roads. 7) Economical as compared to hill roads.

Explain the Difference between Hill road and Roads in plain.

Hill Road Roads in plain


The roads which are constructed by cutting hillThe road which are construed on fairly leveled
rocks is known as hill roads ground without cutting (but with embankment)
is known as road in Palin
Catch water drain and side drains are provided Side gutters are provide on both sides of
on hill top side only for drainage. alignment for effective drainage
Retaining wall with parapet is necessary for itsSide slope or side embankment with shoulder
stability. are required for its stability
The types of hill roads curves are hair pin bendThe types of curves for roads in plain area are
curve , salient curve and re- entrant curve horizontal and
vertical curves
Construction of hill roads tedious and required Construction of roads a plain is comparatively
more time simple and quick
More maintenance is required for hill roads Periodic maintenance is
throughout the year sufficient for road in plain areas
Hill roads may pass through tunnels and Ordinary machines are sufficient to complete
hence required special cutting machines road construction
Landslides, settlements, cracks are the No such common problems occurred in well-
common problem in hill roads constructed plane roads
Q. Describe the alignment survey for hill roads. W16
The alignment of hill road is fixed and translated on ground through following operations-
a) Reconnaissance – It is done through aerial and ground mediums to know physical ground
features of proposed alignments of hill road. Aerial photographs taken are verified physically
through site visit . The various probable alignments and its data is collected separately .
b) Preliminary Survey- In this each alignments are studied very carefully to get information of traffic
, construction materials, slope , drainage conditions. This information is taken such that design
features like length , width , slope etc. for all alignments will be helpful. Trace cut 1 to 1.2 m
wide are made by pegging the boundaries , the permanent features are marked using offsets
and maps are prepared of larger suitable scales
c) Determination of final center line – in this l/s and c/s contour maps of alignment are studied for
satisfying aesthetic, engineering, economic and environmental requirements. Earthwork , curves
, obstructions , protective works are considered simultaneously . the grade line is marked on
ground using Abney level and control points are marked for horizontal and vertical curves for
alignment
d) Final location of alignment- The marked center line on prepared map is then studied in office for
estimate and theodolite survey. It is then marked by pegs at 20 m intervals along center line and
cross sections. Sometimes the said marking are made with paints . the stakes are marked using
theodolite at 10 m at curved alignment of hill road

State and explain factors controlling alignment of hill road. ( refer same question in w18)
The factors controlling the alignment of hill road are as follows.

1. Length of road – It should be less to reduce cost of construction per kilometre.


2. Number of curves- If no. of curves is more then it becomes difficulty in construction.
3. Excessive cutting of rock- If alignment results in excessive cutting of rocks then it should be
diverted to another direction
4. Gradient of road- It should be always to lower side to maintain comfortness while driving.
5. Landslide prone area- The alignment in hilly area should pass through area of lesser chances of
landslides.
6. Economy of project- The alignment is selected such that the transportation, construction and
maintenance cost will be minimum to achieve overall economy of project.
7. Number of curves- If no. of curves is more then it becomes difficulty in construction.
8. Excessive cutting of rock- If alignment results in excessive cutting of rocks then it should be
diverted to another direction
9. Gradient of road- It should be always to lower side to maintain comfortness while driving.
10. Landslide prone area- The alignment in hilly area should pass through area of lesser chances of
landslides.
11. Economy of project- The alignment is selected such that the transportation, construction
and maintenance cost will be minimum to achieve overall economy of project
Landslide : The downward and outward movement of slope forming/consisting materials such as
natural rocks, soils, artificial fills, etc. is known as land slide or land slip.
OR
The movement of the soil , rocks on the land caused by the finite shear failure .landslides moves along
the surface of separation

State the various causes of Land Slide.

1. Increase in water content of soil during rainy season.


2. Undermining caused by erosion or excavation.
3. Vibrations and shocks caused by blasting or earthquakes.
4. Hair cracking due to alternate swelling and shrinkage of the soil mass.
5. Formation of faults in bedding planes of the strata due to vibrations
6. Due to seepage pressure of percolating ground water.
7. Due to failure of breast wall constructed for hill roads.
8. Increase in weight dur to accumulation of snow and external loads due to traffic .
9. If blasting at the hilly region is done , then the natural connectivity between particles of rock is
weakened which may result in landslide .
10. Removal of a part of the mass by excavation and due to the increase in the angle of slope .

Explain various preventive measures that can be taken to avoid landslides.

1. Effective drainage system: - Landslides can be avoided by providing proper and effective
drainage system that is by providing catch water drains, cross drains etc.to intercept and divert
the water.

2. Slopes: - By providing proper slopes and their treatment to minimize the erosion due to which
landslides may be avoided.

3. Support: - To support the earth fill by constructing retaining structure along with buttress at
toe.

4. Soil stabilization: - Landslide may occur due to poor load bearing capacity of soil. By improving
the stability conditions of soil by soil stabilization method the landslide may be avoided.

5. Angle of slope: - By reducing the angle of slope or by providing breast wall land slide which
may occur due to increase in slope should be avoided.

6. Chemical treatment: - To enhance the properties of soil, chemical treatment may be adopted.
It improves the load carrying capacity of soil and helps to avoid landslides.

7. Netting: - By providing jute netting or wire netting. It also help to avoid landslides in case of
hilly areas. Net which is made up of fibres such as jute net are provided in hilly areas to prevent
landslides.
8. Asphalt mulch treatment:- By asphalt mulch treatment of the slopes and growth of vegetation
can also avoid the landslides

What are the various types of curves provided in hill road? Draw sketch of any one type.

1. Hair pin bend curve


2. Re-entrant curve
3. Salient curve

State the types of curves in hill roads. Explain anyone with neat sketch.
1)Hair pin curves:
Definition : The curve in a hill road which changes its direction through an angle of 180 degree or so,
down the hill on the same side is known as hair-pin curve.
1.this curves are safe from viewpoint of land slides and ground water .
2.this type of curve shall be provided on a hill side having the minimum slope and maximum stability .
3.these are difficult to negotiate and should therefore ,be avoided as far as possible .
4.minimum radius of the inner curve =14m
Minimum length of transition =15m
Maximum design speed =20 kmph
5 . For good visibility at the hair pin bend , the island portion shall be cleared of all the tress ,HIGH
GROUND etc. refer ( 6-6) if needed more .

2)Salient curves: The curves having their convexity on the outer edges of a hill road are called salient
curves. The centre of curvature of a salient curve lies towards the hill side.
Re-entrant curve: The curves having their convexity on the inner edge of a hill road are called re-
entrant curves.

Define:

(i) Land slide (ii) Re-entrant curve (iii) Salient curve (iv) Hair pin bend curve

Refer first line of above answer

Describe in brief drainage structure in hill road.


An adequate and effective drainage is very essential for better service and less
maintenance cost of hill roads. The drainage of hill roads consists of the following structure:
1. Surface Drainage
2. Controlling Seepage flow
3. Cross drainage
1) Surface Drainage: In case of hill roads, surface water causes erosion to the road
surface and hill sides and may result in landslides or slips. A proper arrangement for
drainage of surface water is therefore, importance to prevent erosion and landslides. An
efficient network of surface drainage system of a hill road consists of Side drains and Catch
water drains or Intercepting drains.
2) Controlling Seepage flow: When the general ground as well as the impervious
strata lying underneath are slopping, the seepage flow is likely to exist. If the seepage zone
is at a depth less than 0.6 to 0.9 m from the surface of pavement, it is desirable to intercept
the seepage flow. For controlling seepage flow, sub-surface drains are provided at foot of
the hill slope.
Cross drainage: An efficient cross drainage system is essential for disposing off the surface
water collected by catch water drains and side drains across the hill road. It consists in
providing cross drainage structure at frequent intervals. An effective cross drainage system
prevents side drains from overflowing and flooding the road surface. Cross drainage is
provided by constructing Small under drains, Scuppers, Causeways, Culverts and Minor or
Major bridges

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