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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Experiment No.2 Name: ______________

Roll No: ______________


Analysis of Real, Reactive, Apparent Power
Date: 12/09/2018
And Power Factor Improvement

Pre-Lab Reading:

Chapter “Fundamentals” of Power System Analysis & Design by J. Duncan Glover

Objectives:

 Difference between Real, Reactive and Apparent power


 Power factor improvement methods
 Calculation of real, reactive and apparent power and their effects on the power system.

Tasks:
1. Analyze the impact of real and reactive power
2. Power factor improvement
3. Perform the Simulation

Equipment:

 Power Supply
 Connecting wires
 Multimeter
 Capacitors, Resistor, Inductor

Theory:
 The power system is composed of many passive components like resistors, capacitors and
inductors, all of these passive components have a great impact on the power of the whole
system. Real Power is the power of the system which does not contain any imaginary
component in it.

 The reactive power is the power of the system which is calculated in the form of
inductive and capacitive power load, when there is an inductive load the current of all the
power system lags then the voltage by 90 degrees and vice versa in case capacitive load.

 Apparent power is the power of the electrical system which contains both powers real and
reactive.

 Power Factor is the ratio of the actual electrical power dissipated by an AC circuit to the
product of the rms. values of current and voltage. The difference between the two is
caused by reactance in the circuit and represents power that does no useful work.

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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Section 1: Analyzing Real, Reactive and Apparent power in Resistive loads

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 1: Power system having Resistive load

Formulas:
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑅
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑋
𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑍
𝑃
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑆

Observation & Calculation:

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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Parameters Observed Calculated

Real Power 288W 288W

Reactive Power 0VAR 0VAR

Apparent Power 288VA 288VA

Power Factor 1 1

Section II: Analysis real, reactive and apparent power in Inductive load

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 2: Power system having Inductive load

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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Formulas:
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑅
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑋
𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑍
𝑃
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑆

Observation & Calculation:

Parameters Observed Calculated

Real Power 0W 0W
Reactive Power 272.78VAR 272.78VAR
Apparent Power 272.78VA 272.78VA
Power Factor 0 0

Section III: Analysis real, reactive and apparent power in Inductive and Resistive load

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 3: Power system having Inductive and Resistive load

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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Figure 4: Analysis of power system having Inductive and Resistive load

Formulas:
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑅
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑋
𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐼 2 𝑍
𝑃
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 =
𝑆

Observation & Calculation:

Parameters Observed Calculated

Real Power 131.3W 141.3W

Reactive Power 173.3VAR 169.3VAR

Apparent Power 217.422VA 223.422VA

Power Factor 0.6038 0.6138

Section IV: Analysis of improvement in power factor.

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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 5: Power system having improved power factor

Figure 6: Analysis of power system having improved power factor

Formulas:
We know that for the improvement of Power Factor, capacitors are used, because the improving
of power factor means reducing the phase difference between voltage and current. Since the
majority of loads are of inductive nature, they require some amount of reactive power for them to
function. The capacitor or bank of capacitors installed parallel to the load provides this reactive
power.
Let us suppose,
𝑋 = 𝐸 2 /𝑄
𝑋 = 1202 /173.3
𝑋 = 83.09 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠
Now,
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Power System Analysis and Design Laboratory LAB # 2

1
𝑋𝑐 =
2 ∗ 𝑝𝑖 ∗ 𝑓 ∗ 𝐶
1
𝐶=
2 ∗ 3.142 ∗ 60 ∗ 83.09
𝐶 = 31.924 𝑢𝐹

Observation & Calculation:

Parameters Observed Calculated

Real Power 0.5W 96W

Reactive Power 0VAR 39.998VAR

Apparent Power 0.5VA 112.256VA

Power Factor 1 0.96

Result and Conclusion:


By analyzing all the cases of real, reactive and apparent power, we deduce that when there is no
inductive/capacitive load then we have only real power, but for inductive/capacitive we also have
reactive power which is not beneficial for the power system.
Power Factor must be improved because there are losses in power system, to eliminate the
losses, capacitor is used and ultimately power factor is improved.

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