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Answer the following

​Qn01 :} What is biogeochemical cycles ?
Ans: } It is a pathway by which a chemical element or nutrients moves through
both biotic and abiotic components of the earth.

Qn02:} What is water cycle?

Ans:} The whole process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain
and later flows back into sea via rivers is known as watercycle

Qn03:} What are the different states in which water is found during water

Ans:} a) Water vapour in the air [gaseous form] which ultimately forms clouds.

b) Rainwater [liquid form] that falls on land.

c)Dew, snow or hail [solid form].

Qn04: } Why is water essential for life?

Ans: } Water is essential for life because

a. All life processes that take place in the cell require water medium.

b. Water is needed for transportation of substances from one part of the body
to the other in a dissolved form.

c. Water act as a universal solvent, providing a medium for the chemical

reaction to occur.

Qn05 :}Name two biologically important compounds that contain both oxygen
and nitrogen.

Ans:} Proteins and nucleic acids.[DNA and RNA]

6.Nitrogen cycle

The process in which nitrogen passes from its elemental form in the atmosphere
into simple molecules in the soil and water, which gets converted to more
complex molecules in living beings and back again to the simple nitrogen
molecules in the atmosphere.

Various steps involved in nitrogen cycle are as follows.

a. Nitrogen fixation​: The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into

nitrates with the help of symbiotic bacteria present in the root nodules of
leguminous plants is called nitrogen fixation.[Rhizobium, blue-green algae,

b. Ammonification​ : It is the conversion of complex organic compounds like

proteins into ammonia is called ammonification.[bacteria and fungi]

c. Nitrification​: The conversion of ammonia into nitrites and then into nitrates by
the action of some bacteria is called nitrification. [nitrosomoas and nitrobactor]

d. Denitrification​: It is the process of reducing nitrates into elemental nitrogen by

the action of bacteria.[pseudomonas]

Qn07: } List any three human activities which would lead to an increase in the
carbon dioxide content of the air.

Ans: } Human activities which are responsible for adding carbon dioxide to the
atmosphere are

a) Respiration​-Both plants and animals release carbon dioxide to the

atmosphere as a product of respiration.

b) Combustion-​ Burning of fossil fuels like wood, coal, petrol gas and kerosene
also releases carbon​ ​dioxide to the atmosphere.

c)Decomposition​-Decomposition of organic waste and dead bodies by

decomposers release CO​2​ to the atmosphere.

Qn08: } List the various forms of carbon dioxide found on earth​.

Ans:} Carbon is found in various forms on the earth.

a) Elemental forms as diamonds and graphite.

b) As carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

c) As carbonates and hydrogen carbonate salts in various minerals.

d) As dissolved carbonic acids and bicarbonates in water.

e) All life forms are based on carbon containing compounds like proteins,

carbohydrates , fats, nucleic acids and vitamins.

Qn09: } How is carbon incorporated in living organisms?

Ans} Carbon is incorporated in life forms through the basic process of

photo synthesis. This process converts carbon dioxide from air or dissolved

in water into glucose molecules.

Qn10: } What is greenhouse effect?

Ans:} It is an atmospheric phenomenon in which some gases like carbon dioxide,

methane, present in the earth’s atmosphere prevent the escape of heat

from the earth. An increase in the percentage of such gases in the

atmosphere would cause average temperature to increase world wide.

This is known as greenhouse effect.

Qn11:}What is global warming?

Ans:} An increase in the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere would cause

more heat to be retained by the atmosphere and lead to global warming.

Qn12:}What are the harmful effects of global warming?

Ans:} a) It cause rise in land temperature which leads to forest fire, damage to

agricultural crops etc.

b) Increase in temperature leads to melting of glaciers, sea level rises up

causing cyclones, flood etc.

c) Geography of land changes.

d)Weather pattern changes

Qn13:}What are the two forms of oxygen found in the atmosphere​?

Ans:}Molecular oxygen-O2[Diatomic molecule]

Ozone-O3[Triatomic molecule]

Qn14:}What is the function of ozone layer?

Ans:}Ozone layer absorbs harmful radiations from the sun and prevents it from

reaching the surface of the earth where they may damage many forms of life.

Qn15:}How do ozone layer gets depleted?

Ans:}When harmful chemicals like chloro fluoro carbon[CFC]are released into the

air, it accumulates in the atmosphere and reacts with ozone ,resulting in

the reduction of the ozone layer by forming a hole. Thus the ozone layer in

the atmosphere becomes thinner and gets depleted.

Qn16:}What are the harmful effects of depletion of ozone layer?

a)Plants, animals and microorganisms get killed.

b) It causes skin cancer, skin burns, cataract etc.

c) It leads to variation in rainfall and ecological disturbances.

Qn17:}How is oxygen maintained in the atmosphere?

a) Oxygen cycle maintains the level of oxygen in the atmosphere.

b) Oxygen from the atmosphere is used up in three processes, namely

combustion, respiration and in the formation of oxides of nitrogen.

c) Oxygen is returned to the atmosphere in only one major process, that is,


Qn18:}How is carbon dioxide fixed in atmosphere?

Ans:} Plant utilises atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis to produce

carbohydrates. Carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere during

respiration ,decomposition and burning of fossil fuels.