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DOI 10.1007/s00521-011-0540-7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

by a singular perturbation scheme

P. C. Chen • C. W. Chen • W. L. Chiang •

D. C. Lo

Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Abstract Generally, the difficulty with multivariable Keywords Singular perturbation Lyapunov direct

system control is how to overcome the coupling effects for method Genetic algorithm

each degree of freedom. The computational burden and

dynamic uncertainty of multivariable systems makes the

model-based decoupling approach hard to implement in a 1 Introduction

real-time control system. In this study, an intelligent adaptive

controller is proposed to handle these behaviors. The struc- Fuzzy control (FC) has already been extensively discussed

ture of these model-free new controllers is based on fuzzy in the literature [1–5]. Its main advantages over conven-

systems for which the initial parameter vector values are tional control methods are that an exact mathematical

found based on the genetic algorithm. One modified adaptive model of the system to be controlled is not needed and that

law is derived based on Lyapunov stability theory to control FC can efficiently control complex continuous unmodeled

the system for tracking a user-defined reference model. The or partially modeled processes.

requirement of the Kalman–Yacubovich lemma is fulfilled. Many works have been published on the design of fuzzy

In addition, a non-square multivariable system can be sliding mode controllers (FSMCs) in efforts to improve the

decoupled into several isolated reduced-order square multi- robustness of the FC [6–10]. The FSMC is composed of an

variable subsystems by using the singular perturbation FC and a sliding mode controller (SMC) [11–16]. This is a

scheme for different time-scale stability analysis. The powerful and robust control strategy for the treatment of

adjustable parameters for the intelligent system can be ini- modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. It has

tialized using a genetic algorithm. Novel online parameter been shown that the robustness of the FSMC is better than

tuning algorithms are developed based on the Lyapunov that of the FC. Furthermore, although the FSMC has good

stability theory. A boundary-layer function is introduced into control performance, one still has to decide on the parame-

these updating laws to cover parameter and modeling errors ters. This is one of the most important issues in their design.

and to guarantee that the state errors converge into a specified In the so-called adaptive FSMC (AFSMC) [16–20], an

error bound. Finally, a numerical simulation is carried out to adaptive algorithm can be adopted to find the best high-

demonstrate the control methodology that can rapidly and performance parameters for the FSMC [21–25]. The design

efficiently control nonlinear multivariable systems. procedures are as follows: one initially constructs a fuzzy

model to describe the dynamic characteristics of the con-

trolled system; then, an FSMC is designed based on the

P. C. Chen W. L. Chiang

fuzzy model to achieve the control objectives. After this,

Department of Civil Engineering,

National Central University, Chung-li 320, Taiwan, ROC adaptive laws are designed (with the Lyapunov synthesis

approach) for tuning the adjustable parameters of the fuzzy

C. W. Chen (&) D. C. Lo models and analyzing the stability of the overall system.

Institute of Maritime Information and Technology,

In recent years, adaptive fuzzy control system designs

National Kaohsiung Marine University,

Kaohsiung 80543, Taiwan have attracted attention as a promising way to approach

e-mail: chengwu@mail.nkmu.edu.tw nonlinear control problems [22–25]. The fundamental idea

123

Neural Comput & Applic

of adaptive fuzzy control is that one first constructs fuzzy e z_ ¼ gðt; x; z; eÞ; z 2 Rn ; ð2Þ

models to describe the input/output behavior of the con- where the chosen e is a small positive time constant; f, g are

trolled system based on the universal approximation theo- continuously differentiable. Setting e = 0 causes a funda-

rem [7, 22]. These fuzzy models are then used to design a mental and abrupt change in the dynamic properties of the

controller; adaptive laws are devised to adjust the parame- system, as the differential equation e z_ ¼ g degenerates into

ters of the fuzzy models. A lot of effort has been made to the algebraic or transcendental equation

improve the robustness of the adaptive fuzzy system,

including studies regarding the design of the adaptive fuzzy 0 ¼ gðt; x; z; 0Þ: ð3Þ

sliding mode controller (AFSMC) [16–20], and the inte- The essence of the developed theory is that discontinuity

gration of the sliding mode controller to improve the fuzzy of solutions caused by singular perturbations can be avoided

rule base [11–16]. if analyzed in separate time scales. This multitime-scale

How to decide on the fuzzy rules and the initial approach is a fundamental characteristic of singular

parameter vector values for the AFSMC is very important. perturbation methods.

A genetic algorithm (GA) [26–30] is usually used as an The dimension of the state equation reduces from

optimization technique in the self-learning or training n ? m to n. It can be said that model (1, 2) is in standard

strategy for deciding on the fuzzy control rules and the form if and only if (3) has k C 1 isolated real roots

initial values of the parameter vector. This GA-based

AFSMC should improve the immediate response, the sta- z ¼ hi ðt; xÞ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . .; k: ð4Þ

bility, and the robustness of the control system. This assumption ensures that a well-defined n-dimen-

Another common problem encountered when switching sional reduced model will correspond to each root of (3).

the control input of the FSMC system is the so-called To obtain the ith reduced model, substitute (4) into (1), to

‘‘chattering’’ phenomenon. The tracking performance can obtain

be excellent, but this is obtained at the price of high control

x_ ¼ f ðt; x; hðt; xÞ; 0Þ: ð5Þ

chattering. Chattering can be eliminated by smoothing of

control discontinuity inside a thin boundary layer that For example, an armature-controlled DC motor can be

essentially acts as a low-pass filter structure for the local modeled by the second-order state equations

dynamics [12]. The boundary-layer function is introduced dx

into these updated laws to cover the parameter errors and J ¼ ki; ð6Þ

dt

modeling errors and to guarantee that the state errors

di

converge within a specified error bound. L ¼ kx Ri þ u; ð7Þ

Chow and Kokotovic [31] discussed a singular pertur- dt

bation scheme. They proved that the control laws for the where i, u, R and L are the armature current, voltage,

subsystems of a multitime-scale complex system can be resistance, and inductance; J is the moment of inertia; x is

inferred singly [32]. This current study focuses on the angular speed; ki is the torque electromotive force; and

designing robust tracking control for a class of SIMO kx is the back electromotive force. The first-state equation

nonlinear systems involving plant uncertainties and exter- is the mechanical torque equation; the second one is the

nal disturbances. First, a singular perturbation scheme is equation for the electric transient in the armature circuit.

used to decouple the multivariable nonlinear system. This Typically L is ‘‘small’’ and can play the role of the

system is described with fuzzy models, the initial param- singular perturbation parameter e such that the second-state

eter vector values of which are obtained using the genetic equation (7) rapidly converges to a stable value.

algorithm. Next, the designed adaptive control law and the Neglecting L, the second-state equation of the motor’s

boundary-layer function for updating the parameters of model can be solved as follows:

the GA-based DAFSMC are introduced. Finally, both the 0 ¼ kx Ri þ u:

tracking error and the modeling error approach zero.

To obtain

u kx

2 Singular perturbation model i¼ ; ð8Þ

R

Faced with a difficult perturbation and multitime-scale which is the only root, substitute it into the torque equation.

problem, we can use the ‘‘so-called’’ standard singular The resulting model is

perturbation model: k2 k

n J x_ ¼ x þ u: ð9Þ

x_ ¼ f ðt; x; z; eÞ; x2R ð1Þ R R

123

Neural Comput & Applic

Since the state of the electric transient in the armature is If f(x) and g(x) are known and Assumption 1 is satisfied,

faster than the mechanical torque state and their coupled the control law can defined by

effect is very weak, this model system can be reduced to a

ðn1Þ

first-order equation. f ð xÞdð xÞ an1 y þþa1 yþa

_ 0 y þr

Singular perturbations cause multitime-scale behavior u¼ ; 8x 2 S:

in dynamic systems characterized by the presence of slow gð x Þ

and fast transients in the system’s response to external ð13Þ

stimuli.

Substituting (13) into (10), the linearized system becomes

In addition, a singular perturbation scheme can be used

to decouple a non-square multivariable (NIMO) system ðnÞ ðnÞ ðn1Þ ðn1Þ

into several reduced-order isolate square MIMO system ðyr y Þ þ an1 ð yr y Þ þ þ a1 ðy_ r yÞ

_

subsystems for different time-scale stability analysis. þ a0 ðyr yÞ ¼ 0: ð14Þ

reference control input (2) results in the following error

3 Reference modeling for a nonlinear dynamic system equation:

ðnÞ ðn1Þ

The plant is a single-input/single-output nth-order system e þan1 e þ þ a1 e_ þ a0 e ¼ 0: ð15Þ

with n C 1.

It is clear that e will approach zero if an1 ; an2 ;

x_ 1 ¼ x2

.. . . .; a1 ; a0 are chosen such that the polynomial ‘n þ

. an1 ‘n1 þ an2 ‘n2 þ þ a1 ‘ þ a0 is Hurwitz.

x_ n1 ¼ xn ð10Þ

x_ n ¼ f ð xÞ þ gð xÞ u þ d

y ¼ x1

4 Development of a GA-based FSMC

where x ¼ ½x1 ; x2 ; . . .; xn1 ; xn T 2 Rn is the state vector of

the system; u [ R is the control signal; f, g are smooth Genetic algorithms (GAs) are parallel and global search

nonlinear functions; d denotes the external disturbance d(t), techniques taken from the concepts of evolutionary theory

which is unknown but usually bounded. and natural genetics. They emulate biological evolution by

The states x ¼ ½x1 ; x2 ; . . .; xn1 ; xn T are assumed to be means of genetic operations such as reproduction, cross-

available. For example, a single robot can be represented in over and mutation. GAs are usually used as optimization

the form of (1), with n = 2 and x x1 ¼ h; x2 ¼ h_ being techniques. It has been shown that they also perform well

with multimodal functions (i.e., functions that have mul-

measurable. Differentiating the output with respect to time

tiple local optima).

for n times (till the control input u appears), one obtains the

Genetic algorithms work with a set of artificial elements

input/output form of (10)

(binary strings, e.g., 0101010101) called a population. An

ðnÞ individual (string) is referred to as a chromosome, and a

y ¼ f ð xÞ þ gð xÞ u þ dðtÞ: ð11Þ

single bit in the string is called a gene. A new population

The system is said to have a relative degree n if g(x) is (called offspring) is generated by the application of genetic

bounded away from zero. operators to the chromosomes in the old population (called

parents). Each iteration of the genetic operation is referred

Assumption 1 g(x) is bounded away from zero over a

to as a generation.

compact set f , Rn,

A fitness function, specifically, the function to be

jgð xÞj b [ 0; 8x 2 f: maximized, is used to evaluate the fitness of an indi-

vidual. One of the important purposes of the GA is to

If the control goal for the plant output y is to track a

reserve the better schemata, i.e., the patterns of certain

reference trajectory yr, the reference control input r can be

genes, so that the offspring may have better fitness than

defined by the following reference model:

their parents. Consequently, the value of the fitness

ðnÞ ðn1Þ ðn2Þ function increases from generation to generation. In most

r ¼ yr þan1 yr þan2 yr þ þ a1 y_r þ a0 yr ; ð12Þ

genetic algorithms, mutation is a random-work mecha-

where an1 ; an2 ; . . .; a1 ; a0 are chosen such that the nism to avoid the problem of being trapped in a local

polynomial ‘n þ an1 ‘n1 þ an2 ‘n2 þ þ a1 ‘ þ a0 is optimum. Theoretically, a global optimal solution can be

Hurwitz; and ‘ here denotes the complex Laplace variable. found.

123

Neural Comput & Applic

The basic operations of a simple GA, i.e., reproduction, In the case of binary coding, the mutation operator changes

crossover, and mutation, are described below: a bit from 0 to 1 or vice versa. All in all, the mutation

operation introduces new genes into the population, so as to

4.1 Reproduction avoid the problem of being trapped in local optima.

Offspring are generated from the parents until the size of

Let F be the fitness function, and Fi denote the value of the the new population is equal to that of the old population.

fitness function associated with the individual string i in the This evolutionary procedure continues until the fitness

current population. Reproduction is the process by which reaches the desired specifications.

individual strings in the current population are copied Knowledge acquisition is the most important task in the

according to their fitness function values Fi. A higher F value fuzzy sliding mode controller design. As mentioned earlier,

indicates a better fit (or larger benefit). To perform repro- there are at least four methods for the construction of a

duction, first calculate the Fi’s. Next, the current individual fuzzy rule base:

strings are selected probabilistically and copied into a mating

1. Extracted from expert knowledge or operator

pool according to their fitness value. The arrangement means

experience.

that the strings with a higher degree of fitness have a greater

2. Modeling an operator’s control action.

probability of contributing a larger amount of offspring to the

3. Modeling a process.

new population. The Darwinian notion of ‘‘survival of the

4. Learning, training, self-organizing and self-tuning the

fittest’’ underlies this type of ‘‘reproduction’’. Actually, this

fuzzy rules.

operation is an artificial version of natural selection.

The easiest way to implement the reproduction opera- The initial values of the entries in the consequent

tion is to create a biased roulette wheel whose slot size is parameter vector are decided by the self-organizing FSMC

proportional to the fitness value of each string in the current system developed based on genetic algorithms. The con-

population. Let psi denote the probability of the selection figuration of this system is shown in Fig. 1.

of the individual string i, and let M be the population size. It can be seen in Fig. 1 that the GA is used as the

The probability of a string getting selected is learning and training mechanism. This usage means that

. the second, third and fourth approaches also provide an

psi ¼ Fi PM Fi :

i¼1 efficient way to obtain a fuzzy rule base. We are convinced

that GAs are the best way to extract an optimal or at least a

4.2 Crossover

sub-optimal fuzzy rule base for the initial values of the

consequent parameter vector of the FSMC or AFSMC.

Crossover provides a mechanism for individual strings to

exchange information via a probabilistic process. Once the

reproduction operator is applied, the members in the mat-

5 GA-based RAFSMC for SISO nonlinear systems

ing pool are allowed to mate with one another. First, the

genetic codes of the two parents are mixed by exchanging

If f(x) and g(x) are known, we can design the FLC (16) to

the bits of codes following the crossover point. For

approximate u

example, consider two parent strings where the crossover

2 !

point is 5 (i.e., the fifth bit in the string) X m

k S i Cki k

u h ¼ Rk hk ; ð16Þ

P1 ¼ 10101j010; k¼1

b

P2 ¼ 01111j100:

where m is the sum of the fuzzy rules; hk , i.e., hk hmax

The separator symbol ‘‘|’’ indicates the crossover site. indicate the adjustable consequent parameters of the FLC;

The resulting offspring have the following:

P01 ¼ 10101j100;

Genetic

P02 ¼ 10101j010: Algorithms

eim Sliding Mode Si

This random process provides a highly efficient method Function

u

to search the string space to find a better solution. Plant

FSMC

Decide the initial value of the

4.3 Mutation

consequent parameter

State

In each iteration, every gene is subject to random change,

based on the probability of the pre-assigned mutation rate. Fig. 1 GA-based FSMC

123

Neural Comput & Applic

and RðSÞ ¼ ½R1 ðSÞ; R2 ðSÞ; . . .; Rm ðSÞT is the vector of Then, substituting (23) into (13), we obtain the error

fuzzy basis function [7], which is defined as dynamic equation

Qn ðnÞ ðn1Þ

l ðkSi Cki kÞ e þan1 e þ þ a1 e_ þ a0 e ¼ gð xÞ ~hT RðSÞ þ e :

Rk ðSÞ ¼ Rk ðkSi Cki kÞ ¼ Pm i¼1 Qn k

;

k¼1 i¼1 lk ðkSi Cki kÞ

ð24Þ

ð17Þ

We now define the augmented error as

where k = 1, …, m and i = 1, …, n with lk represent the

ðn1Þ

degree of membership. The Si in lk can be chosen by S ¼ bn1 e þ þ b1 e_ þ b0 e; ð25Þ

!

kSi Cki k 2 where bn1 ; ; b1 ; b0 in (25) and an1 ; . . .; a1 ; a0 in (14)

lk ðkSi Cki kÞ ¼ exp : ð18Þ

b are chosen such that

Since here n, the sum of input variables, is only one, we ^ ð‘Þ ¼ bn1 ‘n1 þ þ b1 ‘ þ b0 N ð‘Þ

M ¼ ð26Þ

know that ‘n þ an1 ‘n1 þ þ a1 ‘ þ a0 Dð‘Þ

2 ! is a SPR (strictly positive real) transfer function, and N ð‘Þ

kS C k k

lk ðkS Ck kÞ ¼ exp ;

b and Dð‘Þ are coprime.Now, S and gð xÞ ~hT RðSÞ þ e can

ð19Þ

lk ðS Ck Þ be related by

Rk ¼ P m : n o

k¼1 lk ðS Ck Þ ^ ð‘Þ L gð xÞ ~hT RðSÞ þ e ;

LfSðtÞg ¼ M ð27Þ

From the approximation property of the fuzzy system,

an uncertain and nonlinear plant can be well approximated where Lf g is the Laplace transform of the function, and ‘

and described with the fuzzy model involving FLC rules to denotes the complex Laplace transform variable.

ðn1Þ

achieve the control object. If em ¼ ½e; . . .; e T defines the states of (24), then

Assumption 2 For x [ f , Rn, there exists an adjustable (24) can be realized by

T h i

parameter vector h¼ h1 ;

h2 ; . . .;

hn such that the fuzzy

e_ m ðtÞ ¼ K em ðtÞ þ b gð xÞ ~hT RðSÞ þ e ; ð28Þ

system u S;

h ¼ hT RðSÞ can approximate a continuous fun-

ction u with accuracy emax over the set f, that is, 9

h, such that SðtÞ ¼ cT em ðtÞ; ð29Þ

supu S;

h uðSÞ emax ; 8S 2 f: where

2 3 2 3

Let ^

h denote the estimate of h at time t. Now, we can 0 1 0 0 0 0

6 7 607

6 0 0 1 0 0 7 6 7

define the estimated control output u^ S; ^

h by 6 7 6.7

6 .. .. .. .. .. .. 7 6.7

6 . . . . . . 7 6.7

X K¼6 7 ; b¼6 7

m 6 0 0 0 1 0 7 607

u^ S; ^

h ¼ ^

h k Rk ð SÞ ¼ ^

hT RðSÞ; ð20Þ 6 7 6 7

6 7 6 7

k¼1 4 0 0 0 0 1 5 405

and decide on the initial values of the consequent param- a0 a1 a2 an2 an1 nn 1 n1

T

eter vector ^

h based on the GA. c ¼ ½b0 ;b1 ;...;bn1 ; letbn1 ¼ 1:

First define the parameter error vector at time t by

~

h¼ h^ h, and then According to the Kalman-Yakubovich lemma, when

^

M ð‘Þ is SPR, there will exist symmetric and positive

~

hT RðSÞ ¼ u S;

h u^ S; ^

h : ð21Þ definite matrices P and Q such that

error Pb ¼ c; for i ¼ 1; . . .; p: ð31Þ

e ¼ u u S;

h ; ð22Þ

Next, we investigate the asymptotic stability of the

where jej emax . origin using the Lyapunov function candidates. First, define

We can say that a Lyapunov candidate function as

u ¼ u^ S; ^

h þ~ hT RðSÞ þ e: ð23Þ V em ; ~h ¼ g eTm Pem þ ~hT H11 ~h; ð32Þ

123

Neural Comput & Applic

where g is a positive constant representing the learning V_ ¼ gTm Qem þ 2gTm c ðgð xÞ eÞ

rate,

g kem k2 þ2g kem k kck kgð xÞ ek

h iT

~

h¼ ~

h1 ; ~

h2 ; . . .~

hm ; H11 ¼ gð xÞ Imm ; g kem k ½kem k 2kck kgð xÞ ek:

and

such that

2 3

gð x Þ ~

h1 0 0 uQ

6 0 gð x Þ ~

h2 0 7 pﬃﬃﬃ 2kck kgð xÞ ek [ r; ð36Þ

~ 6 7 P

hT H11 ¼6 .. .. .. 7 ;

4 . . . 0 5

where eTm Pem [ u2 .

0 0 gð x Þ ~

hm mm It is real that V_ g kem k r if eTm Pem [ u2 and

m : the sum of the fuzzy rules: _

jSj [ U, and hence V\0. Thus, V will gradually converge

to zero as all the 1.

If eTm Pem [ u2 , the derivate of V em ; ~

h along the

Based on the above inference and the Lyapunov stability

trajectories of the system should be negative definite for all theory, em will gradually converge inside the bounded zone

nonlinearities that satisfy a given sector condition

jem j puﬃﬃPﬃ; bU . The tracking error and the modeling error

(Lyapunov stability). 0

_

V_ em ; ~ hT H11 ~

h ¼ g e_ Tm Pem þ eTm Pe_ m þ 2~ h: ð33Þ Theorem 1 Consider the nonlinear uncertain system

ðnÞ

As mentioned earlier, h ~¼ h^

h, and we can infer that y ¼ f ð xÞ þ gð xÞ u þ d that satisfies the assumptions

_~ _^

h ¼ h, and ðh; ^hÞ. Suppose that the unknown control input u can be

approximated by u^ S; ^h as in (20); S is given by (29); and

V_ ¼g eTm KT Pem þ eTm PKem þ 2g eTm Pb

h i Q is a symmetric positive definite weighting matrix.

_

gð x Þ ~hT Rð S Þ þ e þ 2 ~

hT H11 ^ h

h i ð34Þ

¼g eTm ðQÞem þ 2g S gð xÞ ~h T Rð S Þ þ e 6 GA-based DAFSMC for SIMO nonlinear systems

_

þ2~ hT H11 ^ h :

The RAFSMC inferred in the former section is only used in

To amend the modeling error e and the chattering SISO systems. If we want to obtain linearizing feedback

phenomenon, we propose a modified adaptive law (24) control for SIMO systems (e.g., to find the displacement

with which to tune the adjustable consequent parameters of and angle of an inverted pendulum on a cart), we can

the RAFSMC recommend the singular perturbation concept to link up

each sliding surface Si of multitime-scale subsystems by

_ the perturbation parameters d, di. The SISO RAFSMC can

h ¼ g jSj R sat S=U :

^ ð35Þ

be used to control SIMO systems.

The application of a singular perturbation scheme for

The thin boundary layer function sat S=U is defined as

decoupling a non-square NIMO system is illustrated below:

8 A 1 9 n SIMO second-order dynamic system can be

>

> 1; if S= [ 1

> < U described by

S

satðS=UÞ =U ¼ S =U if 1 S=U 1 x_ 1 ¼ x2

>

>

>

: 1; x_ 2 ¼ f1 þ b1 u þ d1

if S=U \ 1

x_ 3 ¼ x4

x_ 4 ¼ f2 þ b2 u þ d2 ð37Þ

where U [ 0 is the thickness of the boundary layer. ..

If we substitute (35) into (34), then (34) becomes .

h i x_ 2n1 ¼ x2n

V_ ¼ g eTm Qem þ 2g S gð xÞ ~ h T Rð S Þ þ e x_ 2n ¼ fn þ bn u þ dn ;

h i

hT RðSÞ sat S=U :

2g jSj gð xÞ ~ where v ¼ ½x1 ; x2 ; ; x2n1 ; x2n T is a state vector, u(t) is

single control signal and di denotes the external disturbance

when jSj [ U, then di(t).

123

Neural Comput & Applic

Assuming xrð1Þ ; xrð3Þ ; . . .; xrð2n1Þ is the reference input This usage of this asymptotic strategy in SIMO systems

such as in (12), the error signal of the output is defined as allows a single control value to control complex multitime-

follows: scale subsystems at the same time. Depending on the time

e_ 1 ¼ e2 constant of the sliding surface, i.e., 1=k; 1=dk; . . .; 1 dn1 k,

e_ 2 ¼ x€rð1Þ f1 b1 u d1 a closed-loop control system will possess the aforemen-

e_ 3 ¼ e4 tioned characteristic. Therefore, we can analyze and

e_ 4 ¼ x€rð3Þ f2 b2 u d2 ð38Þ approximate the whole complex dynamic system by the

.. reduced-order model and the coupling effect between these

.

multitime-scale subsystems.

e_ 2n1 ¼ e2n

For example, assume now that the dynamics of a sin-

e_ 2n ¼ x€rð2n1Þ fn bn u dn :

gle-input/both-output second order system can be described

We can use the structure of SISO RAFSMC with the as

singular perturbation concept to control the SIMO system. e_ 1 ¼e2

Each sliding surface Si of a multitime-scale subsystem is

e_ 2 ¼ f1 b1 u d1

composed of a combined sliding hyper-plane S with the ð43Þ

singular perturbation parameters d and di. e_ 3 ¼e4

Define the combined sliding hyper-plane: e_ 4 ¼ f2 b2 u d2 :

S ¼ signðb1 ÞS1 þ signðb2 Þd1 S2 As shown in Fig. 2 and above equation (43), a single

Y

n1 control input u can be used to control two outputs

þ signðb3 Þd1 d2 S3 þ þ signðbn Þ di Sn ; ð39Þ y 1, y 2.

i¼1 One combined sliding surface S is defined as

where S1 ¼ e_ 1 þ ke1 ; S2 ¼ e_ 3 þ dke3 ; . . .; Sn ¼ e_ 2n1 þ S ¼ signðb1 ÞS1 þ signðb2 Þd1 S2 ;

dn1 ke2n1 .

where S1 ¼ e_ 1 þ b1 e1 , S1 ¼ e_3 þ d k e3 ¼ e_ 3 þ b2 e3 ;

The perturbation parameters d and di are small positive

and d, d1 are small singular perturbation parameters.

constants and decide the multitime-scale behaviors of

The design of this controller is S = 0, then

subsystems in the whole dynamic system.

The design of the controller is S = 0. Now signðb1 ÞS1 þ signðb2 Þd1 S2 ¼ 0: ð44Þ

signðb1 ÞS1 þ signðb2 Þd1 S2 Setting the perturbation parameter to be d1 = 0 in (44),

Y

n1 let S1 approach to zero and (44) converge to S2 = 0. It is

þ signðb3 Þd1 d2 S3 þ þ signðbn Þ di Sn ¼ 0: ð40Þ clear that e1 and e3 will gradually converge inside sections

i¼1 close to zero in the time b1 and b1 .

1 2

Setting perturbation parameter in (40) to be d1 = 0, let

S1 approach to zero and (40) converge to (41) in the time

constant 1=k, 7 Numerical simulation

Y

n1

signðb2 Þd1 S2 þ signðb3 Þd1 d2 S3 þ þ signðbn Þ di Sn In this section, the proposed GA-based DAFSMC is dem-

i¼1 onstrated with an example of the control methodology.

¼ 0: Consider the problem of balancing an inverted pendu-

ð41Þ lum on a cart, as shown in Fig. 3. The dynamic equations

of motion of the pendulum are as follows [30]:

Similarly, setting perturbation parameter in (B) to 8

>

> x_ 1 ¼x2

d2 = 0, let S2 approach to zero and (41) converge to (42) >

>

>

> g sinðx1 Þ amlx22 sinð2x1 Þ=2 acosðx1 Þ u

in the time constant 1=k, >

> x_ 2 ¼

<

4l=3 amlcos2 ðx1 Þ

Y

n1 ; ð45Þ

signðb3 Þd1 d2 S3 þ þ signðbn Þ di Sn ¼ 0: ð42Þ >

> x_ 3 ¼x4

>

>

>

>

i¼1 >

> mlx22 sinðx1 Þ mlx_ 2 cosðx1 Þ þ u

: x_ 4 ¼

With the above interpretation, we find that every Si M þm

will approach to zero, and the state-tracking error where x1 denotes the angle (in radian) of the pendulum

e1 ; e3 ; . . .; e2n1 will converge gradually in the time from the vertical, x2 is the angular vector, x3 denotes the

1= ; 1= ; . . .; 1 n1 . displacement of the cart and x4 is the vector of the cart.

k dk d k

123

Neural Comput & Applic

system

Genetic Algorithms

decide the initial

value of consequent

parameters

_

GA_DRAFSMC

y1 e1

+ β1

+

y r1 Rule

S1 y1

+ Base u SIMO

Reference S

PLANT

Model + Fuzzifi- Fuzzy Defuzzifi-

Reference δ

Model

S2

yr 2

+

+ β2

y2 e3 Adaptive Law

mass of the pendulum, M is the mass of the cart, l is the

length of the pendulum, u is the force applied to the cart

(in Newtons), and a = 1/(m ? M). The parameters chosen θ (Angle) Pole

for the pendulum in this simulation are as follows:

m = 0.05 kg, M = 1 kg, and l = 0.5 m.

The control objective in this example is to balance

the inverted pendulum within the approximate range

x1 [ (-p/2, p/2). Using the procedure discussed earlier,

we designed the GA-based DAFSMC as in the following θ (Angle Velocity)

steps:

(Step 1) Specify the response of the control system by Hinge

defining a suitable sliding surface. Let, d = 0.1 and

d1 = 0.33, then F (input force)

Cart

S1 ¼ cT1 e1m ¼ e_1 þ ke1 ¼ e_ 1 þ 5e1 ; where e1 ¼ xr1 x1 ;

e_ 1 ¼ xr2 x2 ;

S2 ¼ cT2 e2m ¼ e_ 3 þ d ke3 ¼ e_ 3 þ 0:5e3 ; where e3

¼ xr3 x3 ; e_ 3 ¼ xr4 x4 ; Fig. 3 System of the inverted pendulum on a cart

and the combined sliding hyper-plane is S = S1 ? d1 S2.

(Step 2) Construct the fuzzy models (21) based on the

genetic algorithm. The initial values of the consequent ½1; 0:6264; 0:4115; 0:2217; 0:1191; 0; 0:1191; 0:2217;

parameter vector ^

h can be chosen as follows: 0:4115; 0:6264; 1T :

123

Neural Comput & Applic

(Step 3) Apply the controller as given by (20) to control illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. The initial conditions are

the nonlinear system (10). Let g = 10, U = 0.33, and x1(0) = 60 and x2(0) = 0.

adjust ^

h by the adaptive law as given by (35). Figures 4 and 5 show that GA-based DAFSMC stabi-

lizes multitime-scale dynamics of the inverted pendulum

Therefore, utilizing the above theorems, the proposed system, which is characterized by the presence of slow and

GA-based DAFSMC can asymptotically stabilize the fast transients in the system’s response to external stimuli.

inverted pendulum on a cart. The simulation results are We have found that the inverted pendulum is asymptoti-

cally stable, and the position of the cart is adjusted to the

origin later, because the multitime-scale trajectories rapidly

and asymptotically approach the origin when starting from

any non-zero initial states.

8 Conclusion

fuzzy sliding model controller for a nonlinear system is

discussed. First, we track the reference trajectory for an

uncertain and nonlinear plant. Each sliding surface Si in the

multitime-scale subsystem in a dynamic system can be

composed of a combined sliding hyper-plane S with the

singular perturbation parameters d and di. The combined

Fig. 4 Angle response of the pendulum with the initial condition sliding hyper-plane can be well approximated and descri-

x1(0) = 60

bed by a fuzzy model involving FLC rules. The GA is used

to decide on the initial values of the consequent parameter

vector ^h. Next, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model control law

is proposed to stabilize and control the system so that the

state-tracking error ei will gradually converge for different

times. A stability criterion is derived from Lyapunov’s

direct method to ensure stability of the nonlinear system.

Finally, an example is discussed and a numerical simula-

tion provided. The results demonstrate that the control

methodology can rapidly and efficiently control nonlinear

multivariable systems.

from the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC, under project

number NSC 98-2221-E-366-006-MY2. The authors are also most

grateful for the kind assistance of Prof. John MacIntyre, Chief-editor

Fig. 5 Displacement of the cart with the initial condition x1(0) = 60 of Neural Computing and Applications, and the constructive sug-

gestions of the anonymous reviewers all of which have led to the

making of several corrections and suggestions that have greatly aided

us in the presentation of this paper.

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