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JAMA Engine Oil Seminar 2019

JCMA LCM-WG Report

Japan Construction Machinery and


Construction Association
Lubricants for Construction Machinery WG

March 2019

JAMA Engine Oil Seminar 2019 1


Members of JCMA

JAMA Engine Oil Seminar 2019 2


LCM-WG Agenda

1. About JCMA

2. Construction and Mining Machinery

3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic fluid

4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease

5. On-File System of JCMA Standards

6. Summary of JCMA Standards for Construction Machinery

7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard

8. Grand Summery

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1. About JCMA
1.1 Outline of JCMA
1.Official Name of the Organization
• Japan Construction Machinery and Construction Association

2.Established
• August, 1950

3.Objectives
• To mechanize the construction industry and contribute to
improvement of human life through national economic
development under the joint jurisdiction of the Ministry of
Economics, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT) of Japan

4.Member Companies(as of December 2018)


• Electric Power Company (1), Manufacturer (95), Constructor
(55), Trading Company (12), Machine Service (5), Rental Trader
(17), Institute, Consultant and Others (18), Association (17)
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1. About JCMA
1.3 Objectives of the LCM-WG
1. Investigation and promotion of lubricants and fuels with proper
quality for construction machinery for customers’ benefit
2. Implementation and promotion of JCMA On-File System for
lubricants (hydraulic fluid / grease) conforming to the JCMA
standards
3. Promotion of proper engine oils and fuels suitable for engines
meeting with the “Off-Road Emission Regulation Norms”
4. Standardization of high efficiency hydraulic fluid for
construction machinery
JCMAS HK/HKB and GK/GKB
specifications established in 2004
1. Hydraulic Fluids for Construction Machinery (HK): JCMAS P041
2. Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids for Construction Machinery (HKB) : JCMAS P042
3. Lubricating Grease for Construction Machinery (GK, GKB) : JCMAS P040

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1. About JCMA
1.4 Member of JCMA LCM-WG
Name Organization Type Category
Tsukasa Toyooka (Chair) Hitachi Construction Machinery
Genroku Sugiyama Hitachi Construction Machinery
Shinichiro Tanaka KCM Corporation
Yoshiki Kamon Kobelco Construction Machinery
Construction
Koji Iijima Komatsu Ltd. OEMs
Toshiharu Abekawa Komatsu Ltd. Machinery
(37%)
Junichi Suzuki Kubota Corporation
Masatoshi Nakane Sumitomo Construction Machinery
Naoto Kawabuchi Tadano Ltd.
Kenji Baba Bosch-Rexroth Component
Ryoma Yoshida Cosmo Oil Lubricants
Hitoshi Hamaguchi GS Caltex
Toshiyuki Nagai Idemitsu Kosan
Tsunetoshi Sugawara JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Lubricants
Hiroyuki Tazaki Shell Lubricants Japan
Toshihiro Sei EMG Lubricants
Teruyoshi Hayashi Total Lubricants
Masahiro Yoneda Daizo Nichimoly
Producers
Masayoshi Morimoto Kyodo Yushi (56%)
Kengo Kinoshita Nippon Grease
Grease
Noboru Fujita Sumico Lubricant
Tomohiro Takanishi Afton Chemical Japan
Himiko Takayama Chevron Japan
Hideo Tanaka Evonik Japan
Additives
Yoshitaka Tamamura Lubrizol Japan
Shinichi Mitsumoto JCMA
Shiro Yoshida JCMA
Secretariat JCMA(7%)

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2. Construction and Mining Machinery
Kind of Construction & Mining Equipment

Bulldozer Motor Grader

Hydraulic Excavator Crane

Wheel Loader Dump Truck Articulated


Dump Truck
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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid

Hydraulic
fluid

Diesel
Fuel

Engine Oil
Engine
Grease
Coolant

Swing Motor
Oil

Final Drive
Oil
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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.1 Example of Hydraulic Components

Swing Motor
Center Joint

Hydraulic
Cylinders

Control Valve

Travel
Pilot Valve

Front Pilot
Valve Piston
Pump

Hydraulic
Motor

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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.2 Trends of Hydraulic fluid
• Higher Pressures
– Mobile equipment now at 300 bar, moving to 450 bar
• Smaller, Lighter Equipment
– Reduced fluid volumes
– Less residence time for cooling
• Higher Fluid Operating Temperatures
– 80 °C common for mobile equipment
– 100+ °C peak temperatures
• To be More Friendly with Environment
– Soil / Water / Air / Noise / Vibration

Improved Fluids are Required

Quality Standards of Hydraulic fluid


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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.4 Specific Requirements Comparison
Industrial Use vs. Mobile Use
Industrial Machinery Construction Machinery
More Severe Condition
Vane Pump,
Piston Pump/Motor,
Hydraulic Pump & Motor Gear Pump, than Industrial Use
Gear Pump
Piston Pump/Motor
Pressure, MPa 13 - 32 32 - 42 Higher Pressure
Oil Temperature, ℃ 60 80 - 100 Wider operating
Necessary temperature
Low Temperature Start Not Necessary
(<-20 deg.C)
Oil Reserver Open/Closed Pressurized or Closed
Airation Little Yes Need to consider
Tank Capacity Large Small friction coefficient
Parking Brake No Yes of brake materials
Allowable Limit of H2O, % >1.0 <0.2 Poorer
Water Drain Yes (Drain Cock) No maintenance
Contamination of Dust < NAS 7 Grade Some cases; > NAS 9 conditions
Contamination of Engine Oil No Yes
JCMA LCM-WG members had realized that ISO standards at the time about
hydraulic oil had been for industrial use and not match for mobile use
That’s why LCM-WG established new standards for construction machinery in
2004
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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.5 Trouble Examples caused by Hydraulic Fluid
Failure Examples of Piston Pump Test (1)

Scratched Cylinder Block


Scuffed Cradle Bearing
Normal Surface of
Cylinder Block

Copper Transfer on
Cavitation and Wear of
Mating Rocker-Cam
Corroded Cylinder Block Cylinder Bore
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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.5 Trouble Examples caused by Hydraulic Fluid
Failure Examples of Piston Pump Test (2)

Scuffed Big Servo Piston


Worn Piston Shoes
Pitting of Bearing

Lacquer on Servo Piston


Caused Flow Reduction Color Change of Oil

Scuffed Piston Shoes


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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.6 Outline of JCMA Hydraulic Fluid Standards

・HK:Hydraulic fluid for construction machinery (JCMAS P041)


・HKB:Biodegradable hydraulic fluid for construction machinery (JCMAS P042)

3.6.1 Classifications
• HK categorized single grade • HKB categorized low temperature
and multi grade and high temperature application
(Viscosity Index is different) (Low temp. performance is different)

Type Symbol Uses Type Symbol Uses


Single VG32 For construction machinery Normal VG32 For construction machinery
grade operating under ambient temperature operating under ambient
VG46 temperature of -5℃ or VG46 temperature of -5℃ or
use
higher higher
Multi grade VG32W For construction machinery Low VG32L For construction machinery
operating under ambient temperature operating under ambient
temperature of -25℃ or temperature of -25℃ or
use
higher higher
VG46W For construction machinery VG46L For construction machinery
operating under ambient operating under ambient
temperature of -20℃ or temperature of -20℃ or
higher higher

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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.6.2 Category, Grade and Viscometric Properties
JCMAS HK HKB
Normal Climate
Classification Single Grade Multi Grade Cold Climate Grade
Grade
Code VG32 VG46 VG32W VG46W VG32 VG46 VG32L VG46L
Operating Temperature > -5℃ > -25℃ > -20℃ > -5℃ > -25℃ > -20℃
ISO Viscosity Grade VG32 VG46 VG32 VG46 VG32 VG46 VG32 VG46
K. Viscosity at 40℃, mm2/s 32 ± 3.2 46 ± 4.6 32 ± 3.2 46 ± 4.6 32 ± 3.2 46 ± 4.6 32 ± 3.2 46 ± 4.6
K. Viscosity at 100℃,
5.0 min. 6.1 min. 5.3 min. 6.8 min. 5.3 min. 6.8 min. 5.3 min. 6.8 min.
mm2/s
Viscosity Index 90 min. 120 min. -
Pour Point, ℃ - 18 max. - 15 max. - 39 max. - 30 max. - 18 max. - 15 max. - 39 max. - 30 max.
Low Temperature at - 10℃ - Report -
Viscosity, mPas at - 20℃ - - 5000 max. - - 5000 max.
(Brookfield) at - 25℃ - 5000 max. - - 5000 max. -
Shear Stability *,
- 10 max. -
% Viscosity Loss at 100℃

* Sonic Shear Stability Tests: Either ASTM D 5821 or JPI-5S-29

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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.6.3 Mechanical Rig Test Requirements
Requirements HK HKB
Load Carrying Capacity, Weld Load
1235 min.
(JPI-5S-32: 4-Ball Method), N
Wear Preventive Properties, Scar Diameter
0.6 max.
(JPI-5S-40: 4-Ball Method), mm
Load Carrying Capacity (DIN 51354-3: FZG A/8, 3/90), stage 8 min.
High Pressure Piston Pump Test Pass (Flow Rate, Wear,
Used Oil Properties) -
(JCMAS P044: Komatsu HPV35+35)
Viscosity Increase Ratio, %
or 10 max.
High Pressure 10 max.
Piston Pump Test AV Increase, mgKOH/g 2.0 max. 2.0 max.
(JCMAS P045: Bosch Sludge (0.8μ Filter), mg/100ml 10 max. 10 max.
Rexroth A2F-10)
Copper in Used Oil, mass-ppm - report
Vane Pump Test Ring Wear, mg 75 max.
(ASTM D6973: 15 max. -
Vickers 35VQ25, 150h) Vane Wear, mg
Vane Pump Test
or
Ring Wear, mg 120 max.
(ASTM D2882: 50 max.
Vickers V104C, 100h) Vane Wear, mg 30 max.
Friction Characteristics
0.08 min. 0.05 min.
(JCMAS P047: Micro Clutch Test), μ
Friction Characteristics or
0.07 min. 0.07 min.
(JCMAS P047: SAE No.2 Clutch Test ), μ0

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3. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Hydraulic Fluid
3.6.4 Test Rig of Piston Pump

JCMAS P045 Test Rig JCMAS P044 Test Rig (HPV35+35


(A2F Piston Pump 34.3MPa) Piston Pump Max 34.3MPa)

LCM Standards adds Piston Pump Test Rig with high pressure same as actual
hydraulic System because current ISO does not required such test methods

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease

Hydraulic
fluid

Diesel
Fuel

Engine Oil
Engine
Grease
Coolant

Swing Motor Oil

Final Drive Oil

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.1 Trouble Examples caused by Grease
Grease applied parts of construction machinery

Grease applied part


Used at low speed
and heavy load

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.1 Trouble Examples caused by Grease
Mild trouble * By severe test

Boom foot
Pin (Abrasion wear)

Squeaking noise
caused by Pin-Bushing wear

Bushing (Abrasion wear)

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.1 Trouble Examples caused by Grease
Serious trouble * Grease wrongly selected

Arm top

Heavy abrasion

[Image photograph]

Preventable by
using right grease
New parts
[Image photograph] Grease groove disappeared
by abrasion

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.2 Outline of JCMA Grease Standards
・GK:General Lubricating Grease for Construction Machinery (JCMAS P040)
・GKB:Biodegradable Grease for Construction Machinery (Same as above)
4.2.1 Classification
Class Operating Suitability for use conditions
Use Consistency temperature Contact Biodegradability Application example
Grade limit, ℃ with water
General No.1 -20 ~ +130 Suited No General construction
Grease (GK) machinery
No.2 -20 ~ +130 Suited No
Biodegradable No.2 -20 ~ +130 Suited Yes Construction machinery to
grease (GKB) be used at the site requiring
environmental protection

4.2.2 Main performance items


 Extreme-pressure/anti-wear properties
 Suitable penetration
 Seal compatibility
 Heat resistance
 Rust prevention
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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.4 Detail of JCMA Grease Standards (General performance)
Performance criteria JCMAS GK GKB
Consistency Grade
Item
No. 1 No. 2
Range of operating temperature (°C) -20~+130
Thickener type Report
Worked penetration 310 340
~ 265~295
General Property
Unworked penetration Report
Apparent viscosity (-10°C, shear rate: 10S-1) (Pa * s) 250 or less 500 or less
Base oil kinematic viscosity(40°C) (mm2/s) Report
Dropping point (°C) 170 or more
Heat Resistance Oil separation (100°C, 24h) (mass %) 10 or less 5 or less
Evaporation loss (99°C, 22h) (mass %) 2.0 or less
Humidity cabinet test (14 days) Class A
Rust Prevention
Copper corrosion (100°C, 24h) No discoloration to green or black
Extreme-Pressure/ Four-ball load carrying characteristics (weld load) (N) 1961 or more 981 or more
Anti-Wear Properties Four-ball wear preventive property (wear scar diameter) (mm) 0.7 or less
Mechanical Stability Worked stability 400 or less 375 or less
Water Washout
Water washout loss (38°C,1h) (mass %) 10 or less
Characteristics
Oxidation Stability Oxidation stability (90°C,100h) (KPa) 80 or less
Hardness change -30 or more Report
Tensile strength change (%) -70 or more Report
NBR
Elongation change (%) -80 or more Report
Seal Compatibility Test Volume change (%) 0~40 Report
(100°C, 72h) Hardness change -5~+5 Report
Tensile strength change (%) -70 or more Report
AU (urethane)
Elongation change (%) -60 or more Report
Volume change (%) -5~+15 Report

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease
4.3 Detail of JCMA Grease Standards
(Environmental performance for GKB)

Item Test method Criteria


Biodegradability OECD 301B Biodegradability is 60% or higher
(28 days) OECD 301C within 28 days

OECD 301F *10-days window of OECD 301B


ASTMD5864 does not apply
ASTM D6731
Fish Acute Toxicity OECD 203 96h LC50 level is less than
96h LC50 value JIS K0102-98 100mg/l

JIS K0420-71

Environmental standard is the same as Eco mark product


category No.110 “Biodegradable Lubricating oil”

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4. Lubricants for Construction Machinery ; Grease

Please see examples of grease performance test

• Cone penetration measurement


NLGI No.00
NLGI No.2

• Extreme pressure test


Four-ball load carrying characteristics
JCMAS failed grease
JCMAS passed grease

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5. On-File System of JCMA Standards
5.1 Outline of On-file system
Japan
Petroleum Japan Japan
Construction Japan Fluid Power Additive
Association Lubricating Lubricating
Machinery and Association suppliers
of Japan Grease Oil Society
Construction
Association
Association

Equipment engineering committee Operation commission


JCMA Lubricants Standards
Implementation Panel
Fuel and Lubricants
subcommittee (LCM-
WG) Secretariat : JCMA/PAJ
Technical support

Hydraulic Fluid Steering Lubricating Grease Steering


Committee Committee

 JCMA Lubricants Standards Implementation Panel has bee established


by related industry associations.
 On-file system has been established.
 Operation of on-file system is commissioned to JALOS (same as JASO)
 JCMA Fuel and Lubricants Subcommittee (LCM-WG) supports technical
issues.
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5. On-File System of JCMA Standards
5.2 JCMA On-File Process

JCMAS Read-Across Formulation


Guideline
Test

Notification
•Test Data
•Physical Property Submitters
JCMA Hydraulic
(Oil Marketer)
Fluid Standards
Written Consent (OEM)
Implementation Panel
(Additive Co.)
On-File Notice

H023ABC456
File HK
Release List End Users Logo Mark
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6. Summary of JCMA Standards for Construction Machinery
6.1 Performance
 JCMA’s hydraulic fluid and grease standards have been
developed for satisfying a severe operating conditions of
construction machinery
 Criteria of the standards are based on a required level of
construction equipment manufacturers
6.2 Advantages by the use of JCMA standards
 Clarify performance requirements of hydraulic fluid and
grease for construction machinery during field
maintenance
 Enable end users to easily recognize proper lubricants
through the On-File System
 Prevent troubles caused by the use of low quality
lubricants

JCMA Standards provide merits for users,


OEMs and component manufacturers
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.1 Saving Fuel for Construction Machinery
Hybrid construction machinery

References: KOMATSU Ltd., HITACHI Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.,


SUMITOMO Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.,
KOBELCO Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.1 Saving Fuel for Construction Machinery
Development and sales of hybridized
construction machinery are progressing
by each construction machinery maker

Test methods for determining the fuel


consumption of construction machineries
○JCMAS H 020: Fuel consumption on hydraulic excavators
○JCMAS H 021: Fuel consumption on tractor-dozer
○JCMAS H 022: Fuel consumption on wheel loader
Hydraulic fluid standards for construction machinery
JCMAS P041 (HK) Hydraulic fluid for construction VG32, VG46,
machinery VG32W, VG46W
P042 (HKB) Biodegradable hydraulic fluid for VG32, VG46,
construction machinery VG32L, VG46L
Hybrid construction machinery are spreading.
Test methods for fuel consumption measurement have been
standardized, however, high efficiency hydraulic fluid have not
been specified.
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.2 Current Hydraulic Fluid Standards
ISO 11158 Mineral type hydraulic fluid HH, HL, HM, HR, HV,
HS, HG
15380 Biodegradable hydraulic fluid HETG, HEPG, HEES,
(Environmentally Acceptable) HEPR
12922 Fire resistant hydraulic fluid HFAE, HFAS, HFB,
HFC, HFDR, HFDU
6743-4 Classification
DIN 51524 Hydraulic fluid HL, HLP, HLPD, HVLP,
HLPD and more
ASTM D6158 Mineral type hydraulic fluid
JCMAS P041 Hydraulic fluid for construction VG32, VG46, VG32W,
machinery VG46W
P042 Biodegradable hydraulic fluid VG32, VG46, VG32L,
for construction machinery VG46L

High efficiency hydraulic fluid standards have not been introduced

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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.3 Survey on the High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid
JCMA LCM-WG conducted a survey on the necessity of high efficiency
hydraulic fluid standard.
Targeted groups in JCMA : Construction subcommittee,
Manufacturing subcommittee,
Rental business group

There is a huge demand for high efficiency hydraulic fluid.


The users expect to improve efficiency by 5% or more.
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.4 High Efficiency from Hydraulic Fluid
Effects of Viscosity on Overall Efficiency
Poor Volumetric efficiency
Pump Efficiency

Overall =
V*HM

Optimum
Operating
Range

Viscosity
High frictional losses
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.4 High Efficiency from Hydraulic Fluid
Two Oils Meeting the ISO 46 Viscosity Requirements
10000
HM Oil
Maximum Start-up Viscosity
1000
Kinematic Viscosity, mm²s

Benefits at Low Temperature


High VI
100
ISO 46 Benefits at High Temperature
50

10 Minimum Operating Viscosity

5.0
TOW
Minimum Operating Temperature Maximum Operating Temperature
3.0
-20 -10 0 20 40 50 60 70 80 90
Temperature, °C
The higher the oil’s viscosity index, the more the pump efficiency
can be maintained.=High efficiency
However, since the high viscosity index oil contains viscosity index
improver, it is necessary to pay attention to the JAMA
shear
Enginestability.
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7. Development of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard
7.5 Summary of High Efficiency Hydraulic Fluid Standard

・Although the hybrid construction machinery is


spreading, high efficiency hydraulic fluid standards have
not been specified.
・From a result of survey, there is a huge demand for
high efficiency hydraulic fluid. The users expect to
improve efficiency by 5%.
・JCMA is working on the standardization of high
efficiency hydraulic fluid with reference to the hydraulic
efficiency theory.
・They will consider the test method of the shear viscosity
and the optimization of the standard value which are
concerned associated with the high viscosity index oil.
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8. Grand Summary of the JCMA LCM-WG Report

1. For exhaust gas regulation, off-road construction machinery,


like on-road trucks, requires the introduction of new hardware
technologies that require changes in fuel and lubricant quality.
2. With suitable specifications for lubricants and grease for
construction machinery, end users can choose excellent
lubricants and greases.
3. We have established the standard of construction machinery.
Hydraulic fluid (JCMAS HK), biodegradable hydraulic fluid
(JCMAS HKB), grease (JCMAS GK), biodegradable grease
(JCMAS GKB).
4. JCMA On-File system is adopted to promote the standard as
with JASO engine oil standards,
5. Site problems on the quality of lubricating oil decrease as
standards penetrate.
6. JCMA LCM - WG began studying high efficiency hydraulic fluid
standards.
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Thank you for your attention !!

Please visit URL of JCMA On-File System:


http://www.jalos.or.jp/jcmaonfile/

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