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A. Drainage - means of collecting, transporting and disposing of surface water originating in or near the
right of way, or flowing in stream or crossing bordering the right of way.

B. Hydrology - branch of physical geography that deals with water of the earth.

C. Manhole - a small covered opening in a floor, pavement, or other surface to allow a person to enter,
especially an opening in a city street leading to a sewer.

D. Inlet - a pipe that brings water into a machine or a room.

E. Catch basin - a receptacle, located where a street gutter opens into a sewer, designed to retain matter
that would not readily pass through the sewer.

F. Channels - a usually tubular enclosed passage (or conduit).

G. Culverts - a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or similar obstruction
from one side to the other side.

H. Slope Failure - an existing earth slope that have been stable can experince significant movement.

I. Slide - occurence where the moving mass is defined and separated from the underlying and adjacent
earth by plane, comprising a number of adjacent planes where seepage result.

J. Rotational Slide - natural slopes and constructed embankment of homogeneous materials possessing

K. Translational Slide - associated with slope of layered materials where the mechanism of slippage
occurs along a weak plane that possesses a downward dip and in cohesionless soil slopes where seepage

L. Block or wedge failure - refers to the displacement of an intact rnass of soil due to the action ofan
adiaccnt zone ofearth.

M. Flow and Spread Failure - the most complex type of soil mass movement. Flow involves lateral
movement of soil having a characteristic of viscous fluid, although the actual consistency of the moving
mass may vary fiom very wet to dry.

N. Spread - occurrence of multi-directional lateral movement by a fractured soil mass. Earthquake is a

typical causes of lateral spreads.

O. Retaining wall - are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can
be retained at different levels on the two sides.

P. Distortion (concrete) - a vertical displacement of concrete slab at the joints or cracks. Distortion is
due to failure or weakness of concrete joints.
Q. Cracking (concrete) - can take many forms in concrete pavement that could be the result from;
applied load, temperqture or moisture changes.

R. Disintegration (concrete) - appears in the form of durability cracking, scaling or spalling, as the result
of mix design or construction related problems.

S. Transverse Expansion Joints - provide space allowance for the lengthening of slab due to expansion.

T. Longitudinal Joints - provided between adjacent traffic lanes. It is considered as hinges to provide
edge support, but allows rotation between the slabs"

U. Construction Joints - A joint where two successive placements of concrete meet

2. What are the two sources of water and the drainages related to them.

3. What are the parts of hydrology that concerns highway engineers?

a. The frequency and intensity of precipitation.

b. The frequencies that this precipitation brings the highest run-off which are equal or exceeded critical

c. The distribution of precipitation throughout the seasons that influences water behavior affecting the
highway surfaces.

d. The prediction regarding future rainfalls or run-off from gathered statistical approaches, formula, or
simulated methods based on the laws of probability.

4. What are the methods of predicting run-off?

a. Bythe Rational Methods.

b. By the Empirical Formula.

c. By the Unit Hydrograph.

d. By Statistical Approach.

e. By Simulation.

5. What are the Cardinal Rules on Drainage Design?

a. As much as possible, any exisfing drainage system Wt-terns and soil cover should not be disturbed.
b. Necessary changes in the drainage patterns should not in any manner bring velocities that may create
new erosion problems.

6. What are the steps when doing drainage economic considerations?

a. Determine the estimated initial investment cost.
b. Consider the maintenance cost or outlay.
c. Consider anticipated.loss and damage for each solution.

7. What are the natural causes of change in conditions of a slope?

a. Occurrence ofearthquake.

b. Subsidence of underground cavern.

c. Erosion.
d. Slope weakening due to the development of cracks or shrinkage cracks that are followed by water
e. Variations in the elevation of ground water or changes in the slope subsurface flow that create new
seepage forces.

f. Weakening of buried soil or rock seams due to ground water flow or chemical leaching.

8. What are the man induced changes in the condition of a slope?

a. Increased loading on a slope or near its crest.

b. Removal of earth below the toe of a slope.

c. Removal of materials from slope making it steeper.

d. Topographic modification like earth moving, excavations, change in elevation from one areato
another which may create slope failure.
e. Landslide or other conditions caused by man

9. Give at least five ways of improving the slope stability.

l. Corrective and preventive measures of reducing a mass or loading have successfully prevented further
2. Improving the shear strength of the earth in the failure zone by constructing structural elements that
will provide resistance to movement.

3. Consider the characteristics of the soil in the slope like:

a) The thickness and depth of the materials involved in sliding.

b) The ground water conditions.
c) The spaces available to undertake corrective changes.

d) The topographical conditions at the vicinity of the slope and the tendency for changes such as the
advert of the seismic and vibratory loadings to occur.

4. Where area is available, flattening of the slop can be done to reduce the weight of the mass that
tends to slide.
5. If base failure is anticipated, placement of beam below the toe of the slope will increase movement