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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
OF
THE TOPIC
EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION
Human resource is considered to be the most valuable asset in the
organization. It is the some-total of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge
and skills represent by the talents and aptitude of the employed persons
who comprise executives, supervisors to rank and file employees. It may
be noted that the human resource should be utilized to the maximum
possible extent, in order to achieve the organization and individual goal.

Employee satisfaction or job satisfaction is, quite simply, how content or


satisfied employees are with their jobs. Employee satisfaction is typically
measured using an employee satisfaction survey. These surveys
address topics such as compensation, workload, perceptions of
management, flexibility, teamwork, resources, etc.

These things are all important to companies who want to keep their
employees happy and reduce turnover. Employees would never be
satisfied with their jobs unless and until they have something interesting
and challenging to work on. The first benefit of employee satisfaction is
that individuals hardly think of leaving their current jobs. Employee
satisfaction in a way is essential for employee retention. Organizations
need to retain deserving and talented employees for long term growth
and guaranteed success. If people just leave you after being trained,
trust me, your organization would be in a big mess.
Job Satisfaction Theory :

One way to define Job Satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state
of feeling. The word 'end' emphasises the fact that the feeling is
experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place
whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective
endeavour of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or
large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be
positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not &
could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the
other the situational opportunities available to him.

This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an


engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a
special order by a certain, deadline. Person may experience positive job
satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. It gives
him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a
special task, he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra
wages. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does
not like rush work, has no need for extra wages. Each one of these
variables lead to an end state of feeling, called satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction an “A reintegration of affect produced by individual's


perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work & the
situations surrounding it”.
Another Theories of Job-Satisfaction :
There are 3 major theories of job satisfaction.

 Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene theory.


 Need fulfillment theory.
 Social reference - group theory.

Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory :

This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969. On the
basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh
area in the USA, he established that there are two separate sets of
conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation &
dissatisfaction of workers. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator')
is present in the organization, workers feel motivated but its absence
does not dissatisfy them. Similarly, when another set of conditions
(called hygiene factors) is absent in the organization, the workers feel
dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. The two sets are
unidirectional, that is, their effect can be seen in one direction only.
According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators :

Achievement, Recognition, Advancement, Work itself, Possibility of


growth & Responsibility.

Hygiene factors are : Company policy & administration, Technical


supervision, Inter-personal relations with supervisors, peers &
Subordinates, Salary. Job security, Personal life, Working Conditions, &
Status.

Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical


incident method). In this technique subjects were asked to describe
those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or
dissatisfied. Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme
satisfaction were generally characterised by 'motivators' & those which
led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a
totally different set of factors which were called 'hygiene factors'.

Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the
environment. Hence, they are also known as job - environment or job -
context factors. Motivators are factors which result in psychological
growth. They are mostly job - centered. Hence they are also known as
job - content factors.

The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are


independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. In
pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene
factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations.

Need fulfillment theory :

Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory was one of the first theories to examine
the important contributors to job satisfaction. The theory suggests that
human needs form a five-level hierarchy consisting of : physiological
needs, safety, belongingness/love, esteem, and self-actualisation. Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs postulates that there are essential needs that need to be
met first (such as, physiological needs and safety), before more complex
needs can be met (such as, belonging and esteem).
Maslow’s needs hierarchy was developed to explain human motivation in
general. However, its main tenants are applicable to the work setting, and
have been used to explain job satisfaction. Within an organisation, financial
compensation and healthcare are some of the benefits which help an
employee meet their basic physiological needs. Safety needs can manifest
itself through employees feeling physically safe in their work environment,
as well as job security and/ or having suitable company structures and
policies. When this is satisfied, the employee’s can focus on feeling as
though they belong to the workplace. This can come in the form of positive
relationships with colleagues and supervisors in the workplace, and whether
or not they feel they are a part of their team/ organisation. Once satisfied,
the employee will seek to feel as though they are valued and appreciated by
their colleagues and their organisation. The final step is where the
employee seeks to self-actualise; where they need to grow and develop in
order to become everything they are capable of becoming. Although it could
be seen as separate, the progressions from one step to the next all
contribute to the process of self-actualisation. Therefore, organisations
looking to improve employee job satisfaction should attempt to meet the
basic needs of employees before progressing to address higher-order
needs.

Social reference - group theory.

It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the
individual looks for the guidance. Such groups are defined as the
'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he
should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the
environment (including himself). It would be predicted, according to this
theory that if a job meets the interest, desires and requirements of a
person's reference group, he will like it & if it does not, he will not like it.

we can say, Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the


degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved & the
desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating
the world & defining social reality.
Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Work
Behaviour :
Generally, the level of job satisfaction seems to have some relation with
various aspects of work behaviour like absenteeism, adjustments,
accidents, productivity and union recognition. Although several studies
have shown varying degrees of relationship between them and job
satisfaction, it is not quite clear whether these relationships are correlative
or casual.

Job Satisfaction and Productivity :

Experiments have shown that there is very little positive relationship


between the job satisfaction & job performance of an individual. This is
because the two are caused by quite different factors. Job satisfaction is
closely affected by the amount of rewards that an individual derives from his
job, while his level of performance is closely affected by the basis for
attainment of rewards. An individual is satisfied with his job to the extent
that his job provides him with what he desires, and he performs effectively
in his job to the extent that effective performance leads to the attainment of
what he desires. This means that instead of maximizing satisfaction
generally an organisation should be more concerned about maximizing the
positive relationship between performance and reward. It should be ensured
that the poor performers do not get more rewards than the good performers.
Thus, when a better performer gets more rewards he will naturally feel more
satisfied.
Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism :

One can find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and


absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate-usually less than 0.40. While it
certainly makes sense that dissatisfied Sales Persons are more likely to
miss work, other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the
correlation coefficient. e.g. Organizations that provide liberal sick leave
benefits are encouraging all their Sales Persons, including those who are
highly satisfied, to take days off. So, outside factors can act to reduce the
correlation.

Job Satisfaction and Turnover :

Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is


stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Yet, again, other factors such
as labour market conditions, expectations about alternative job
opportunities, and length of tenure with the organization are important
constraints on the actual decision to leave one's current job.

Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover


relationship is the Sales Person's level of performance. Specifically, level of
satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers
because the organization typically makes considerable efforts to keep these
people. Just the opposite tends to apply to poor performers. Few attempts
are made by the organization to retain them. So one could expect,
therefore, that job satisfaction is more important in influencing poor
performers to stay than superior performers.

Factors Influencing Employee Job Satisfaction

1) Working Environment : It is essential to provide employees with a

work environment which is conducive to their overall development.


They need an environment which is healthy and safe and which caters
for both personal comforts and facilitates doing a good job. If the working
conditions are good (clean, attractive surrounding), the personnel will find
it easier to carry out their jobs. On the other hand, if the working
conditions are poor (hot, noisy surrounding), personnel will find it more
difficult to get things done.
Hence, it can be said that having a friendly, and supportive environment
can lead to increased job satisfaction.

2) Fair Policies and Practice : Individuals who perceive that promotion


decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience
satisfaction from their jobs.
Very often employees are demotivated and dissatisfied with their jobs
because unfair policies and practices prevail at their place of work.
It is therefore of utmost importance for an organization to have a fair and
equal system regarding practices and policies so that there is no
discrimination and frustration.
3) Caring Organization : Care can be shown in various ways, but it takes
into consideration career development, adult treatment, being taken
seriously and being appreciated for a job well done.
When people feel that the organization; for which they are working, cares
for them and takes actions to improve their work and lives, they are
happy, and this creates higher satisfaction.

4) Appreciation : Human race loves to be appreciated. Even for the


smaller job that does one seek to have an appreciation, from colleagues,
boss, and seniors. When one gets acknowledged in front of everyone, it
gives up a boost to their morale.
When appreciation leads to encouragement, the ultimate result is reflected
in the efficiency of work automatically. Therefore, the level of job
satisfaction is always higher wherever appreciation is higher.

5) Pay : Wages and salaries are recognized to be a significant but


cognitively complex (Carraher, & Buckley, 1996) and multidimensional
factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic
needs but is also instrumental in providing upper-level need satisfaction.
Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their
contribution to the organization. Fringe benefits are also significant, but
they are not as influential.
One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know how
much they are receiving in benefits. Moreover, most tend to undervalue
these benefits because they do not realize their significant monetary
value.
6) Age : Age is one of the factors affecting job satisfaction. Various studies
carried out in this field have shown that job satisfaction tends to increase
with age. That is older employees tend to report higher satisfaction, and
younger employees say the lowest job satisfaction rates.

7) Promotion : Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect


on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take some different forms
and have a variety of accompanying rewards.
In recent years, with the flattening of organizations and accompanying
empowerment strategies, promotion in the traditional sense of climbing
the hierarchical corporate ladder of success is no longer available as it
once was.

8) Feel of Belongings : Most of the organization fails to understand this


fundamental factor, whereas many have started acting towards it. If an
employee feels that he is considered as an important part of the team, he
belongs to the organization then there are higher chances of job
satisfaction.
Texting Or mailing an employee on his/her birthday, communicating the
crisis to even at the ground level employee, making special efforts during
festive seasons, all these small little gestures make an employee believe
that he or she belongs to the firm. This brings job satisfaction and loyalty
together.
9) Initiation and Leadership : If an employee is given an equal
number of opportunities to show their talent, take the lead and initiate
then the chances of having a higher level of job satisfaction is more.
Suppose in an organization; no employee is asked to give suggestions,
nobody is bothered to inform them of the decision.

10) Feel of Being Loved : It is noticed that if an employee has good


bonding with colleagues arid seniors, then the job satisfaction level is
higher.
One feels like coming to the office and performing the job. If the
environment is not friendly, office politics is at its peak, and malpractices
are done, then all these factors together leave no stone unturned in
discouraging an employee from not coming to the office.

11) Safety and Security : These days companies are taking endless
measures in order to see that an employee is catered a different kind of
facilities like health care and medical checkups.
There are a few institutions that also provide insurance policies at a lower
rate.
Hence, this aspect of safety and security plays a major role. If an
employee didn’t feel safe and secured at the organization that he or she
works in, the level of job satisfaction is ultimately going to fall.
12) Challenges : There are few types of employees who love to
experiment; they like it when the challenging job is assigned to them. To
them, the challenge is always associated with ability and capability.
They feel that if an employee is given a challenging job, it means that the
leader trusts his or her capacity to fulfill the expectations.

13) Responsibilities: This suggests that when an employee is given


a bigger responsibility it makes him or her conscious about the fact that
the employers think him or her as a capable and trustworthy candidate.
Jobs where responsibility is involved always carry a higher level of
satisfaction. The idea of responsibility and the feel that one gets when
the responsibility gets accomplished cannot be traded for anything in the
world.
If an employee is not given any responsibility to handle, ultimately the
result is that the person feels detached and doubts about self-worth
which immediately affects the job satisfaction.

14) Creativity in Job: Job satisfaction is always higher wherever


creativity is involved. The creative freedom gives a sense of fulfillment
whenever any project is complete.
It makes an employee feels as if the project belongs to them for their
creativity is there. Even if it is just a creative sentence that they have put
in, means a lot to them.
On the other hand, in jobs which are monotonous, the employee won’t
feel like he or she belongs to the project. The alienation takes place, and
hence the job satisfaction level falls drastically.
15) Personal Interest and Hobbies : People who pursue their
hobbies and interest as their career, gain the highest level of satisfaction
in whatever they do at their workplace.
This is because their job is not a job for them, but a way of getting closer
to their interest and making money. Whatever, they will be more than just
to have a promotion.

16) Respect from Co-Workers: Employees seek to be treated with


respect by those they work with. A hostile work environment with rude or
unpleasant coworkers is one that usually has lower job satisfaction.
Managers need to take a step and mediate conflicts before they escalate
into more serious problems requiring disciplinary action. Employees may
need to be reminded what behaviors are considered inappropriate when
interacting With coworkers.

17) Relationship with Supervisors : One of the major reasons


employees gives for quitting a company is that their supervisor does not
care about them.
A participative climate created by the supervisor seems to have a more
substantial effect on workers’ satisfaction than does participation in a
specific decision. Effective managers know their employees need
recognition and praise for their efforts and accomplishments.
Employees also need to know their supervisor’s door is always open for
them to discuss any concerns they have that are affecting their ability to
do their jobs. It will lead their satisfaction at the office.
18) Feedback : Not receiving feedback on their work can be quite
discouraging for most people. Effective feedback will help the team
members know where they are and how they can improve.
Authority also needs to know what kind of feedback the team members
respond to best. Research shows that learners seek and respond to
positive feedback, while experts respond to negative feedback.
In the case of negative feedback, it’s not enough to simply point out what
is wrong. One should explain the reason something they did isn’t
working, and how it might be corrected.

19) Flexibility : Offering flexibility is a great way to show the team


members that what is expected from them. What’s more, the gift of time
is one of the most appreciated workplace perks. Smart people work best
when they can choose their schedule.
Flexible hours can increase engagement and productivity. But keep in
mind that these may decrease collaboration.

20) Nature of Work : The nature of work can define the willingness
to work. Most individuals have a liking for certain tasks and would prefer
to handle these tasks. One should make sure that he/she is going for
firms where he/she gets to apply the skills, abilities, and knowledge to the
fullest.
Recent research has found that such job characteristics and job
complexity mediate the relationship between personality and job
satisfaction, and if the creative requirements of employees’ jobs are met,
then they tend to be satisfied.
For each working personal job satisfaction has a different meaning.
There are different factors that influence the level of job satisfaction. The
ones that are listed above are the most common ones.
It is vital for an employee to have a satisfaction level derived from the job
that he or she is doing.

Simple and Efficient Ways to Measure Employee


Satisfaction

Employee suggestion box : Management is never going to get a


good idea of what their employees think if they are not being asked.
Even though honesty is always the best policy, often employees are
scared of telling exactly what they think. One of the simplest way of
getting employee’s opinions are suggestion box but it is difficult to get
any actual insight.

Management may get some dubious ideas about what their employees
want but it will give them a sense of what could be lacking at the
workplace. It may be a simple request of using white light bulb instead of
the yellow ones or a better coffee machine, but at least it gives
employees an open channel to improve the condition of the workplace.

Employee performance review : Another way of finding out if


employees are satisfied at work is by conducting a one-on-one review
with them as management need to focus on individuals and their specific
needs.
Reviews should take place at least biannually but it depends on each
individual companies. Take notice of the problems employee face in
accomplishing their task or the increase pressure and stress levels or
even conflicts with other employees. Always try and investigate if
employees need extra training as people often become dissatisfied in
their job because they feel they have nothing left to learn. By providing
them with a new set of skill to develop, employees could be motivated
and they would be looking forward to work every morning.

Management could find out from employees what it is that they want to
get out of their job, what their dream job is and what goals they hope to
achieve. This is also part of the employee engagement programs as
management can assist employees in helping them achieve these goals
within the company.

Anonymous employee surveys : Completing regular employee


surveys may sound dull but if the questions are different every round and
there are incentives to those who complete them, it is common for
management to enjoy a 100% response rate from their employees.

Creating different sets of questions each time encourage employees to


answer truthfully and it tends to take them off guard; in a good way.
Incentives do not have to be expensive; a bottle of their favourite drink or
a free breakfast is often sufficient to get the employees to complete the
survey.
Management could set up employee satisfaction survey questions for
their employees and making it anonymous so that employees do not feel
they are being targeted all the time. Employee satisfaction surveys are the
most efficient ways to hear out the opinions and concerns of the
employee and gives employees a voice where some may feel
apprehensive if they have something to comment or talk about.
OBJECTIVE
Objective of the study
1. To find out the satisfaction level of the employees in
the organization.
2. To access the general attitude of the employees
towards Airtel Bharti.
3. To understand the problem of the employees with the
working condition.
4. To know how the opinion of the employees about pay,
benefits and working condition.
5. To study and analysis the various factors affecting
the satisfaction level.
Need of the study
It is crucial for the employees to be satisfied with their jobs, else neither
they would be able to deliver as per expectations nor feel comfortable at
the workplace. Believe me; satisfaction is all in our minds. Sometimes,
we are satisfied with small things also and sometimes we find a problem
even in the best of situations. Satisfied employees willingly work towards
the fulfillment of organization’s goals and objectives, eventually assuring
profits and higher revenues. Unsatisfied employees often badmouth
their organization which has a serious impact on the image of the
particular brand. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs stick
around for a long time, benefitting the organization with their expertise
and experience.
CHAPTER -2

INTRODUCATION
OF
COMPANY
Introduction Of The Company
Bharti Airtel Limited is a leading global telecommunications company with
operations in 20 countries across Asia and Africa. Headquartered in New
Delhi, India, the company ranks amongst the top 4 mobile service
providers globally in terms of subscribers. In India, the company's
product offerings include 2G, 3G and 4G wireless services, mobile
commerce, fixed line services, high speed DSL broadband, IPTV, DTH,
enterprise services including national & international long distance
services to carriers. In the rest of the geographies, it offers 2G, 3G
wireless services and mobile commerce.