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Day to day changes atmosphere is called weather. The general climate condition of an area for long
period of time about 35-40 years is called climate.

Factor of climate:


Decrease in the temperature occurs when the altitude increases. It has a rate of 6°C/1000 m. this is
known as the adiabatic lap’s rate. It is different for oceanic and deserted area.


The temperature decreases with the increases of latitude it has no rate. It depends upon the
topography of the particular land.

Oceanic Influence:

Ocean keeps low the temperature difference between winter and summer temperature. It keeps the
temperature moderate or mild throughout the year.

Continental Effect:

It keeps the temperature difference high between summer and winter temperatures. Continental
areas experience high temperature in summer and low temperature in winter.

Temperature Inversion:

When temperature increases with the increases in altitude in the upper atmosphere. It is because of
the meeting of hot air of thar desert with cool air of Karachi and b/c of the accumulation of cabob di
oxide at the altitude of 1500 to 1600m . The presence of temperature inversion belt at the altitude
of 1500-1600 meters does not allow cloud formation. Due to this Karachi does not receive rain fall
from conversion

Monsoon Winds:

Monsoon winds originate from the Bay of Bengal and hit the north eastern and the northern part of
Pakistan in the summer months. These moist winds bring rainfall and also decrease the
temperature of eastern part in summer.

Western Depression:

Western depression originate from Mediterranean sea and hit north western part of Pakistan.
These winds bring rainfall in winter season and further decrease the winter temperature.

Convectional rainfall mostly occurs in the northern areas and decreases southwards. it occurs in
April, May, June and in Octobe-november. Convection rainfall increase humidity in the areas where
it occurs.

Angle of Sunlight:

In summer season earth receivers direct sun rays or vertical sun rays with a high angle. It increases
the temperature of a particular region. In winter season earth angular rays of sun. most of these are
reflected due to their low angle. It decreases the temperature of a particular region.

Cloud Cover:

Clouds reflect the sunlight and decrease the temperature in the lower atmosphere .

Elements of climate:

There are four important elements of climate.

1. Precipitation
2. Temperature
3. Wind
4. Pressure


Any form of moisture coming down on the earth is called precipitation eg; hales, rainfall, Glazes
snow fall etc.

Monsoon / Summer Monsoon:

Origination Bay of Bengal

Time duration July to September
Main starting zone North east Pakistan. (Muree etc.)
Secondary zone North central Punjab + N.M
Least amount Southern Punjab and Sindh.

Monsoon originates from the Bay of Bengal and hit the eastern part of Pakistan in summer. The
northern areas of Pakistan receive maximum amount of rain from monsoon because monsoon
winds direct toward north east of Pakistan due low pressure on the mountainous region and the
presence of forests and mountains. Muree to Hunza region receives maximum amount of ie.
850mm. the monsoon decreases northwards towards mountains north and southwards towards
Punjab and its vicinity receives least amount of rainfall i.e. Only 120mm.

Sindh coastal areas including Karachi and Makran coastal belt also receive rainfall from in monsoon
season from Arabian Sea. The amount decreses towards the makran coastal area because of the
pattern (particular) rain first strikes the sindh coast and then and then moves to makran coast. The
mangroves of Sindh coast also attract rainfall. There is comparatively low temperature in the
Sindhcoastal areas because of the sandy coast. There is easy formation of clouds as compared to the
high temperature zone of Makran coast.

Air Mass:

Due to high evaporation, the water vapor comes in the lower atmosphere of air and called air mass.

Western Depression/ Winter Monsoon:

Origination Mediterranean Sea

Time duration December to March
Main starting zone North west Pakistan. (Peshawar)
Secondary zone Northern mountains & Quetta
Least amount Western Baluchistan(Nokundi)

Western depression decreases northward towards mountains north due to the high altitude and
low temperature. Precipitation mostly occurs in the form of snow. Quetta receives secondary
amount of rainfall from western depression. It decreases in the south and western Baluchistan. In
Baluchistan Nok Kundy receives minimum amount of rainfall.

Convection Rainfall:

Time duration April to June, Oct & Nov.

Main starting zone Northern areas
Secondary zone Northern Punjab

Due to evaporation from water bodies, water rapour rises up and condensation takes place in the
upper atmosphere. When cloud reach saturation point rainfall occurs. This type of rainfall is called
convection rainfall.

Northern areas receive more amount of convectional rain because of thir high altitude and low
temperature condensation takes place very quickly and cloud readily reaches their saturation point.
It decreases southwards towards Northern Punjab.

Southern Pakistan receives very less amount of rain from convection because of the temperature
inversion belt belt is located at the altitude of 1500-1600m which does not allow cloud formation.

Relief Rainfall:

Moist winds rise up with the slope of the mountains. At the highest of 2000 m condensation take
places and rainfall occurs on one side of the mountains known rain fed or wind ward side. The
other side does not receive rainfall and know as the rain shadow are or the leeward side. Where
ever hills or mountains are more than 2000m high relief rainfall is possible.

Different area of Pakistan receives experience difference range of temperature according to their
relief and altitude. Temperature wise, Pakistan can be divided four regions;

1) Warm summer & mild winter

2) Hot- very hot summer & mild winter
3) Warm summer & cool winter
4) Warm to cool summer & cool to very cold winter.

Very hot 38°C and above

Hot 32° - 37°C
Warm 20° - 31°C
Mild 10° - 19°C
Cool 2° -9° C
Cold -3° -1° C
Very cold -3° C and less

Warm summers and Mild Winter:

This type climate prevails over the narrow coastal belt including the Sindh and Makran coastal
areas. These areas always experience moderate temperature throughout the year. Temperature
ranges between warm summers and mild winters.

Summers are warm because cool winds below from the ocean and keep the temperature low (Sea
breeze). In winter winds come from the continental areas and increase the coastal areas (land

Very hot – hot and mild winter:

This type of temperature prevails over Punjab, Sindh (excluding the coastal belt) and Baluchistan
(excluding hills of Baluchistan and Makran coastal areas) the deserts of Pakistan including Thar,
Thal,Tha, Cholistan Nara / Pat and Kharan desert experience very high temperature in summers
specially in the day time, due to continental effect, low altitude and vast areas exposed to sunlight.
Multan, Jacobabad, Sibi experience very high temperature in summers and are known as thermal
poles of Pakistan. These areas receive vertical rays of the sun. rest of sindh, Punjab and Baluchistan
experience hot summers.

In winter these region mild temperatures because of their low altitude and plain topography. The
continental effect which brings low temperature in winter is cancelled by the low altitude of this

Warm summers and cool winters:

This type of temperature prevails over northern and western hills of Baluchistan and part of
Waziristan hills. The summers are warm due to the high altitude of hills and winters are cool and
sometimes the temperature falls below the freezing point. The continental effect bring low
temperature in winters is encouraged by high altitude.

Warm – cool summers and cold – very cold winters:

These types of temperature prevail over western hills of K.P.K and northern mountains including
Himalayas Karakoram and Hindu Kush.

Te summers are warm in the valleys and low altitude hills of K.P.K but at the sometime mountains
experience cool temperature even in summer. In winters valleys and low altitude hills of K.P.K
experience cool temperature but mountains experience cold to very cold temperature due to their
high altitude, snow covered peaks and fields, glaciers and low angle of sun.

Climate Hazards:


Overflowing of water from river banks is known as floods or inundation.

Causes of floods:

Torrential Rainfall for Long Periods:

Eastern and northern parts of Pakistan experience floods due to torrential rainfall from monsoon.
North western areas including Peshawar, Bannue, Kohat valleys etc receive. Torrential rainfall from
western depression in winters. This causes the river in the area which is Kabul, Kurram, Togi,
Gomal etc to overflow and flood the surrounding areas. Sometime the rivers of northern areas and
the rivers of Makran coastal areas also overflow due to heavy rainfall.

Indian Dams:

During the heavy monsoon, the Indian dam’s located river Ravi and Sutlej are filled to their
capacity. To avoid damage to the dams, the gates of the dams are opened. Thus the water rushes
down towards Pakistan and causes floods in northern Sindh and southern Punjab.

Excessive melting from glaciers:

In summers the due to high temperature the glaciers melt and cause floods in the northern areas.


Due to deforestation in the foot hills of mountains flood water comes down from mountains with
high speed and causes flood in northern Punjab and K.P.K.

Siltation in reservoirs and dams:

Siltation in dams and reservoirs decreases the capacity of dams and reservoirs and these cannot
control the flood water. Sometimes due to heavy rainfall and excessive melting of glaciers the dams
are filled with water and reach up to the danger level. The gates are opened by the Government, of
the dams and the surrounding areas are flooded.

Non- closure of canals:

In some areas due to non- closure and narrow depth of canals the water out and flooded the
surrounding areas.
Weak embankment walls:

In Pakistan due to high flow of river water, the weak canal and river embankment walls cannot
stand the water pressure and break. It results in flooding in the surrounding areas.

Advantages of floods:

Floods spread alluvium on the active flood plains. This makes the soil very fertile. Flood water
increases the moisture of old flood plains or dry soil so agriculture can be practiced without extra
irrigation. Flood water can be stored in reservoirs for dry season and to generate electricity. Flood
water is very useful for the vice cultivation. Floods also recharge ground water table especially in
the areas which are away from river or in the erase where water table reaches an inaccessible

Disadvantages of floods:

 Loss of life,
 Loss of cultivable land,
 Loss of infrastructures,
 Loss of livestock,
 Wide spread of diseases,
 The economic activities slow down,
 Loss of properly, shortage of food & clean water.

Preventive and curative measures:

 Building more dams,

 Increasing the height of dams,
 Planting trees at the foot hills of mountains, river,
 Desiltation of dams and reservoirs,
 Lining the canal (canal closure)
 Increasing the width and depth of canals,
 Raising the embankment walls of rivers in flood prone areas,
 Publicizing flood warnings through media,
 Evacuations of people from flooded regions,
 Providing funds for rehabilitation.


Which productive land turns into a non- productive land?

Causes of Desertification:

Water logging and salinity:

After the introduction of perennial unlined canals, the water table continuously increases in the
canal colonies of Punjab and Sindh. When water table reaches upto 6 inches below the land, the
land becomes water logged. When the saline water on the surface of earth evaporates, it leaves
patches of salt on the earth. This called salinity.

Trees hot only provide organic and inorganic material and increase the fertility of the soil but they
also lower the speed of fast flowing streams on mountains slope and reduce erosion. After
deforestation soil loses its fertility due to non- availability of organic and inorganic material and soil
evasion also increases. High speed water coming down from mountains slope erodes the first layer
of soil called sheet evasion. After sheet evasion small cracks appears on the land known is will
evasion. Water goes inside cracks and deepens and widens these cracks known as gully evasion.
After this the land becomes decertified.

Excessive use of modern farming methods:

Chemical fertilizers and modern seed extract nutrient from the land give it to the plants. Due to
excessive use of these fertilizers and seeds land gradually loses its fertility and eventually becomes

Over grazing:


Over grazing occurs when more than the normal number of sheep enters a pasture land. A land is fit
for feeding a particular(fixed) number of cattle but if more cattle enter the same pasture land they
can cause harm to the grasses and soil. When more cattle enter a farmland the grass is not enough
and they pull out the stalks and roots of the small plants. This makes the soil loose as there is
nothing there to hold the soil in place. This soil is vulnerable to wind and water erosion. The eroded
material is deposited in the rivers and causes siltation.

Over cultivation:

Due to over cultivation crops are continuously extracting nutrients from the land. After few years
due to the cultivation of the same crop year the soil becomes deficient in those minerals and
becomes degraded or dead.

Long dry Spell:

Also known as draughts. After a long dry spell, the soil becomes dry and cracks appear on the land
which leads to desertification. Excavation of sand silt from river beds and surrounding areas. The
excavation of sand and silt from any sea mal river and the river and the surrounding area, the water
table continuously decreases. The sea water penetrates the ground water when the water table
reaches certain depth. When the sea and ground water mix the ground water becomes salty and
cannot be used for cultivation / agricultural activities. It leads to desertification in those areas.

Consequences of Desertification:

 Shortage of agricultural land.

 Shortage of food supply.
 Unemployment increases.
 Inflation increases.
 Rural urban migration.

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