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Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33.

PERIPARTURIENT DISORDERS IN GOATS – A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 324 CASES

G.N. Purohit*1, A.K. Gupta1, M. Gaur1, Arvind Sharma1 and D. Bihani2

Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics


College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner (Raj.) 334 001

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study of goats kept by hobby breeders and presented to the referral obstetric clinic (n=324)
between July, 1997 to July 2004 was done. Prepartureint, parturient and post parturient problems accounted for 19.5%,
38.6% and 41.9% of total cases presented. Abortion was the major preparturient complication (68.2%) followed by
hydrometra (psuedopregnancy, 14.3%), hydroallantois (4.8%) and pregnancy toxaemia (12.7%). Dystocia formed the
major parturient complication (84%) followed by prolonged gestation (8.8%) and delivery of mummified fetuses (7.2%).
Retained after birth was the major post parturient complication (51.5%) for which the goats were presented followed by
post parturient metritis (38.3%), vaginal prolapse (4.4%), uterine prolapse (2.9%) and uterine rupture (2.9%) coupled with
prolapse of abdominal organs from the vagina. The detail of the causes diagnosed, therapies given and the prognosis are
mentioned.

Key words: Goat, dystocia, preparturient, post parturient, metritis.

The incidence of reproductive disorders relating to parturition is sparsely described for the female goat (doe) (Wosu
and Anene, 1990; Majeed, 1994; Jackson, 1995). Although, periparturient conditions like pregnancy toxaemia (Marteniuk

*
Corresponding author email : gnpvog@yahoo.co.in
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine
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and Herdt, 1988, Smith and Sherman, 1994) abortion (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Moeller, 2001) hydroallantois (Morin et al.,
1994) prepartum vaginal prolapse (Smith and Sherman, 1994) and hydrometra (Hesselink and Taverne, 1994) are known
to occur in the doe, their relative incidence and the commonly used therapies are poorly described. Moreover, the
prevalence of different parturition related disorders may be different at various geographical locations due to difference in
breeds and management systems.

Dystocia is considered to be the major reproductive disorder for which the does are presented to the referral
centres (Wosu and Anene, 1990), however, the relative frequency of the various forms of dystocia and their therapies are
more described for the ewe (Hughes Ellis, 1958; Blackmore, 1960; George, 1975; Whitelaw and Watchorn, 1975; George,
1976; Gommers e al., 1985; Thomas, 1990; Sobiraj, 1994; Majeed and Taha,1995, Kloss et al., 2002) and less for the doe
(Rahim and Arthur, 1982, Majeed, 1994). Moreover, since sheep are generally kept at organised farms in large numbers
and goats are usually kept by hobby breeders the incidence of reproductive problems remains difficult to estimate. It is
estimated that 95% of the does require no assistance in delivery (Engum and Lyngest, 1970). The incidence of
postpartum conditions like retained placenta, post partum metritis, uterine prolapse and their therapies are described for
the ewe (Majeed and Taha, 1995), but referred only in caesarean births in the doe (Brounts et al., 2004) or partially
described (Majeed, 1994).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative frequency of preparturient, parturient and postpartum
reproductive disorders in the local does referred to the referral clinic and the effective therapies employed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Retrospective study was done on does (n=324) presented to the referral obstetric centre between July 1997 to July
2004. Does of various ages, breeds and parities were brought by different hobby breeders of various localities. Medical
records were reviewed and information was obtained on history, physical examination findings, duration of illness,
duration and nature of therapies instituted, number and viability of kids delivered and recovery.
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When available, fetal parts/fetuses were sent for evaluating the cause of abortion. Blood samples were collected
from does that aborted and serum separated to evaluate serum calcium, phosphorous and trace minerals by standard
methods (Oser, 1976). Dystocia cases were diagnosed after careful assessment of the stage of labor and vaginal
examination. The dystocia was resolved either by i) manual correction and traction, ii) partial fetotomy correction and
traction, iii) pharmacological treatment when fetal membranes were not yet ruptured or iv) caesarean section when
delivery per vaginum was judged to be impossible or when other methods of delivery of fetus had failed. Pharmacological
treatment used in cases of uterine inertia and partial cervical dilation comprised of administration of oxytocin (Syntocinon,
Novartis, India) 20-30 IU intravenous in 500 ml of 5% Dextrose over a period of 1 hour along with 30-60 ml of 25%
calcium borogluconate, (Wockhardt, India). Medical therapy used for CL regression/pregnancy termination in cases of
early diagnosed hydrometra, hydroallantois, pregnancy toxaemia or prolonged gestation comprised of administration of
7.5 to 10.0 mg of a prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn) and dexamethasone 10-20 mg IM. If this treatment failed an elective
caesarean was performed. Caesarean section was performed by left oblique venterolateral incision just above the arcus
cruralis under local infiltration anaesthesia. Four to six mg of xylazine (Xylaxin, Indian Immunologicals, India) was given
to does that were excitable, furious or nervous. Sutures were removed on day 7 post operative. Does that were anorectic
for 2-3 days post operative were considered to be at post operative risk and treated accordingly. Therapies for post-
partum disorders including retained placenta, post parturient metritis, uterine/vaginal prolapse were standard methods
described previously (Smith and Sherman, 1994).

RESULTS

From the does (n=324) brought for parturition related problems to the referral centre, the proportion of does
submitted for preparturient, parturient and post parturient reproductive problems was 19.44% (63/324) 38.58% (125/324)
and 41.97% (136/324), respectively. The respective problems, their diagnosis and therapies are described under various
headings.
Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33.

Preparturient disorders

The major periparturient problem for which the does were brought to the referral centre was abortion (68.2%)
followed by hydrometra (14.3%), pregnancy toxaemia (12.7%) and hydroallantois (4.8%). From the total does (n=43)
brought for abortion related problems only 41.8% (18/43) does were brought to the centre before abortion with a history of
reddish discharge per vaginum or symptoms of straining. The remaining 58.2% (25/43) does were brought 24-48 hours
after abortion with a history of pus discharge or for reference. Majority (35/43) of does that were presented had aborted
between 3-4 months of gestation, and the remaining (8/43) aborted between 4 to 5 months of gestation. The cause of
abortion could be ascertained in only 4% (2/43) of the does as mineral deficiency. Moreover, fetal smears or fetuses were
available only in 5 abortions, laboratory diagnosis of which was inconclusive.

A total of nine cases of hydrometra (psuedopregnancy) were seen in the present study. Two cases of hydrometra
(2/9) were diagnosed during routine sonographic diagnosis for pregnancy. Anechoic fluid without any fetal part or
cotyledon was diagnostic of hydrometra. Seven (7/9) does were brought to the centre for evaluation of non-delivery of
fetuses after vaginal discharge of plenty of watery fluid without fetal or placental expulsion. These does were not given
any therapy and the owners advised to observe for subsequent estrus and to milk their does if sufficient milk was present
at that time. Does diagnosed to have hydrometra by sonography were given a prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn) and does
returned to estrus with discharge of fluid.

Hydroallantois was easily diagnosed in all does (n=3) due to gross excessive sudden enlargement of abdomen.
These does were having difficulty in breathing. Sufficient fluid therapy was given to them to combat shock that was likely
because of delivery of fetuses by caesarean or induction of parturition. Two does were surgically operated to deliver
single male small fetuses. However, one doe died due to shock during the operation, although careful slow aspiration of
the fetal fluid was done before hysterotomy. One doe was opted for induction of parturition with prostaglandins and
dexamethasone. This doe voided excessive fluid 24 hours later. The fetus was removed manually, however, the doe died.
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Does with pregnancy toxaemia (n=8) were originally presented with a history of inability to rise, loss of appetite,
rapid respiration and muscle spasms. Sonographic presence of twin fetuses and ketone bodies in the urine were used as
indicators for the diagnosis of the condition to be pregnancy toxaemia. All does were beyond 120 days of gestation.
Pregnancy was terminated in all but one doe, the owner of which refused for such a therapy. Three does (3/8) died inspite
of supportive therapy with 5% dextrose and pregnancy termination therapy using 7.5 mg prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn)
IM and 20 mg dexamethasone IM for 2 to 3 days. Fetuses were delivered in the does that survived (n=5) within 48 hours
in 80% (4/5) does and in 72 hours in 20% (1/5) does.

Parturient disorders

The most common parturient disorder was dystocia (105/125) followed by prolonged gestation (11/125) and
delivery of mummified fetuses (9/125).

Dystocia

Goats of different ages were referred for dystocia correction. The fetal causes formed the major cause of dystocia
(68.6%) whereas maternal causes accounted for 31.4% dystocia in does under study.

Fetal causes

The various fetal causes accounting for dystocia were fetal maldispositions (50/72), fetal oversize or fetal
emphysema (16/72), monsters (2/72) and fetal dropsical conditions (4/72).

Fetal maldispositions

Head deviation was the most common maldisposition (22/72) followed by limb flexion (18) posterior presentation
(08) dosotransverse (1) and limbs over head in anterior presentation.
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Head deviation

Head deviation was common in does between 2-4 years of age. Majority of does with head deviation were
presented within 12 hours of 2nd stage of labor. It was nearly equally common in does carrying single or twin/triplet
fetuses. Majority of fetuses were dead at the time of presentation to the clinic. Deviations of the head could be corrected
manually but when fetuses were emphysematous, partial subcutaneous fetotomy of either forelimb was performed to
make sufficient space for head correction. A small obstetric hook indigenously prepared was required in some cases to
correct the laterally deviated head. Out of total cases recorded 2 had downward deviation of head, 1 case had upward
deviation and the rest had right or left lateral deviation. Only one case in which the head could not be approached
required caesarean section for delivery. Lubrication in the birth canal was achieved by liquid paraffin. After delivery of the
first fetus in case of twins the rest of the fetus/es were delivered manually or 5-10 IU of oxytocin was administered and
fetus/es delivered with assistance later.

Limb flexion

Shoulder flexion (4 bilateral and 7 unilateral) and carpal flexion (5 bilateral and 2 unilateral) were common cause in
does of 1-2 years. Majority of these does were also presented early within 12 hours (n=13) and carried single (55.5%) and
live fetuses (55.5%). All these dispositions could be corrected manually by pulling the limb slowly. Only one doe required
caesarean section to relieve the dystocia.

Posterior presentation

Fifty per cent of does with fetus in posterior presentation were between 1-2 years and majority was presented
within 12 hours. Half of the does had single fetuses and 50% had twins. Seventy five percent of the fetuses were live and
all fetuses were delivered manually. There were 3 breech presentations, 1 hock flexion and 4 normal posterior
presentations. All posterior presentation fetuses were delivered manually.
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Other maldispositions

One doe presented had a fetus in anterior presentation with the limbs crossed over head which were corrected
manually and the fetus delivered manually. There was no case of dorso illial position and in fact, fetuses slightly rotated
towards the ileum could be delivered manually without much difficulty. Only one doe had a fetus in dorso transverse
presentation, which was delivered surgically.

Fetal oversize

A total of 16 oversized fetuses were observed however, only one fetus was actually oversized. Rest of the fetuses
became oversized because of fetal death followed by fetal emphysema. Majority of these does were brought to the
referral centre beyond 24 hours of labor and majority of does with such fetuses carried single fetuses. Delivery of such
dead emphysematous fetuses in a narrowed birth canal was difficult and required partial subcutaneous fetotomy in 2
cases along with manual correction and traction. Cases in which the birth canal was too narrow or the uterus was tightly
wrapped around the fetus necessitated caesarean section for delivery. One emphysematous fetus that was delivered by
traction had the umbilical cord tightly coiled around the flank of the fetus.

Fetal monsters

Fetal anasarca and amorphous globosus were the only two monsters recorded. Both the fetuses were delivered
manually. Amorphous globosus monster was delivered after natural delivery of a kid.

Fetal dropsical conditions

Fetal dropsical conditions were recorded in 1 doe above two years and 3 does beyond 4 years. Does with
hydroallantois (n=2) had a history of sudden abdominal enlargement during fourth month of gestation which was visible
and does had difficulty in respiration. These does were presented on completion of gestation with a history of straining
without fetal delivery. Sonographic findings were inconclusive. An emergency caesarean was performed with due care to
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deliver the fetuses. Fetuses with ascites or hydronephrosis were delivered by fetotomy that involved removal of one of the
limb followed by puncture of the abdomen. All fetuses with dropsy were dead.

Maternal causes

Cervical dilation failure (ring womb, n=15) was the single largest cause of maternal dystocia in does followed by
uterine inertia (n=8), uterine rupture (n=4), pelvic fracture (n=2) and other causes (n=4).

Cervical dilation failure (ring womb)

Most does with ring womb were young (1-2 years), carried single fetuses which were mostly live. Does that were
presented early were administered medical therapy comprising of dexamethasone + prostaglandin and were examined 24
hours later. Nearly 55.5% does had sufficient relaxation at this time and fetuses could be delivered manually. Caesarean
was performed when sufficient dilation was not evident after 24 hours of medical therapy. Caesarean was opted
immediately in all does that were presented beyond 12 hours of second stage of labor.

Uterine inertia

Uterine inertia was common in does of 2-4 years age and most does (6/8) carried twin fetuses. Medical therapy of
such does comprised of IV administration of 20-40 mg IU of Oxytocin with 500 ml of 5% Dextrose over a period of 1 – 1½
hours. Fetuses could be delivered manually in all does carrying live fetuses after such a therapy. Caesarean section had
to be performed in does carrying dead fetuses as they did not respond to medical therapy.

Uterine rupture

Does with uterine rupture were presented beyond 24 hours of second stage labour and carried dead twin fetuses.
Does were presented with a history of straining followed by stoppage of labor signs without delivery of fetuses and
sometimes with profuse vaginal bleeding. One doe had an oversized fetus impacted badly in the birth canal and one doe
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was given 20 IU of oxytocin by the treating veterinarian. Caesarean was performed in all the does. The rupture was
suspected in two does and detected accidentally in other two does.

Pelvic fracture

History of pelvic fracture and narrowing of birth canal could be detected on digital examination and caesarean was
performed to deliver live fetuses.

Other conditions
Other conditions included uterine torsion (n=1), ventral hernia (n=1) and cervical closure (n=2).Only one case of
right side uterine torsion (180°) was recorded. Torsion was pre-cervical and the doe was presented with no clinical sign.
Torsion was detected on caesarean section, although, it was suspected to be a case of ring womb. Ventral hernia was
grossly visible externally. The doe failed to have sufficient labour and was operated to deliver two dead fetuses. The
hernial ring was repaired simultaneously. Two does were presented for dystocia with history of delivery of fetal sacs
without fetal delivery. These does were presented after sufficient delay since labor onset (< 48 hours). The cervices of
both the does were closed and fetuses were not present in the birth canal. Both the does were operated to deliver dead
single fetuses.

Other parturient disorders

Parturition was induced in does with a prolonged gestation (n=11) by injecting prostaglandin and dexamethasone.
The does delivered fetuses within 26.2±1.1 hours. The birth had to be assisted in 36.3% (4/11) of the births because of
oversized fetuses.

Fetal mummies (n=9) were delivered either during normal delivery along with a normal fetus (n=4) or by induction
of parturition. In 5/9 does, there was a history of udder development followed by disappearance of the udder and
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sometimes shrinkage of the abdomen. Sonographic examination of the does revealed the presence of mummified fetus
and such does were treated (by prostaglandin injection IM) to deliver the mummified fetuses.

Post parturient disorders

Retained placenta was the most common post parturient disorder for which the does were presented (70/136)
followed by metritis (52/136), vaginal prolapse (6/136), uterine prolapse (4/136) and uterine rupture (4/136).

Retained placenta

Retained placenta was significantly higher (P<0.01) in does aged between 1-3 years compared to ewes of more
than 3 years. The proportion of does that were presented for retained placenta within 12 hours, 12-14 hours and beyond
24 h ours of kidding was 28.57%, 57.15% and 14.28%, respectively. A high proportion (70.14%; 50/70) of the does with
retained placenta had a history of assistance in delivery of fetuses by the owners. Out of the total does presented, only
40% (28/70) of the does presented had strands of placenta hanging out when presented. The placenta was removed
manually in these does as far as possible by gently pulling out the pieces by rolling on a wooden stick. In does that did not
have any placental part hanging (n=22) and were presented early (within 24 hours of kidding) 5-10 mg diethyl stilboesterol
(Haristrol, Will Mark, India) and 20-40 I.U oxytocin ( Syntocinon, Novartis) was given to expel the placenta. Placenta was
expelled uneventfully within 24 hours in 20 (20/22) does. Two does showed no response and developed febrile reaction.
The does were then treated by intra uterine administration of antibiotics (Oxytetracycline 500 mg, Pfizer) and parental
administration of antibiotics. However, one doe died 2 days later due to toxaemia and one had an uneventful recovery.
Small proportions (17.2%, 12/70) of the does with retained placenta were very weak and debilitated.

Metritis
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Post partum metritis was common in does beyond 3 years of age compared to the younger does below 3 years
age. Majority of does (43.8%) (21/52) had a febrile reaction when presented, and were anorectic. Rest of the does (31/52)
had only a history of pus discharge, poor appetite and normal temperature. Does with systemic involvement were treated
by parentral administration of tetracycline 5 ml IM for 3-5 days, Novalgin 3 ml IM for 3-5 days along with intra uterine
treatment with tetracycline. Does without any febrile reaction were treated by intra uterine administration of 500 mg
ciprofloxacin (Cifran, Ranbaxy) (n=11) or 500 mg oxytetracycline (n=20). Two does died inspite of therapy. A speculum
was used to locate the cervix and a glass pipette was used to infuse the drug. The hind legs of the doe were lifted. All
does recovered without any complication in 3-5 days.

Vaginal and uterine prolapse

Vaginal (n=6) and uterine prolapse (n=4) were seen in does aged above 3 years. Excepting two vaginal prolapses,
which occurred during estrus, all prolapses occurred following handling of difficult birth by the breeders. Prolapses were
replaced gently after thorough washing and application of soothing cream. Progesterone 500 mg (Proluton Depot,
German Remedies) was given IM. There was no reoccurrence of prolapse.

Uterine rupture

Does with uterine rupture were presented with a history of intestinal prolapse per vaginum following dystocia
handling by breeders. Animals were in poor general condition. An emergency laparotomy was performed by incision at the
left flank and the uterine rupture was located. The intestinal loops were pulled back and the uterine rupture sutured. The
laparotomy wound was closed routinely. There was an uneventful recovery.

DISCUSSION

Parturient and post parturient problems were common in goats compared to preparturient problems during the
present study. Wosu and Anene, (1990) had previously diagnosed dystocia (49.5%) to be the major reproductive disease
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in goats. The most common preparturient disorder recorded was abortion, the diagnosis of the cause of which was difficult
similar to previous reports (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Kirkbride, 1993; Moeller, 2001). Goats are considered to have a high
incidence of abortion (Mobini, 1997; East, 1983). Psuedopregnancy, hydroallantois and pregnancy toxaemia were found
in a small number of goats as recorded in previous reports on goats (Taverne et al., 1988; Hesselink and Taverne, 1994;
Morin et al., 1994; Jones and Fectau, 1995; Van Suan, 2000). Prognosis in cases of pregnancy toxaemia and
hydroallantois was poor. Laparotomy with slow withdrawal of fluid from uterus as suggested (Morin et al., 1994) could not
always save the life of the doe suffering from from hydroallantois. Likewise, pregnancy termination in does (suffering from
pregnancy toxaemia) could save only 5 of the 8 does treated. It is known that numerous metabolic abnormalities develop
in affected sheep and goat subsequent to hypoglycemia and hyperkeratonaemia which affect the prognosis (Tontis and
Zwahlen, 1987; Marteniuk and Herdt, 1988). The exact etiopathology of psuedopregnancy and hydroallantois although
studied extensively (Bowen, 1978; Haibel, 1990; Jones and Fectau, 1995; Kornalijnslijper et al., 1997) remains poorly
understood.

Dystocia was the single largest parturient disorder for which the does were referred to the referral centre similar to
previous studies (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Majeed, 1994). An overall age related incidence of dystocia was not seen in
this study as seen in previous studies (Majeed and Taha, 1989 Majeed et al., 1993). However, majority of goats were
presented within 12 hours of second stage of labor, with more number of single fetuses which could be resolved easily by
manual correction except, in cases of emphysematous/oversized fetuses or ring womb where more number of
caesareans was performed even though the does were presented within 12 hours. Studies by Sobiraj (1994) recorded a
higher number of caesareans being performed to resolve the dystocia but a higher proportion of ewes with ring womb
were delivered by manual (43.5%) and caesarean (73.7%) in their studies. Fetal causes were significantly higher as a
cause of dystocia (68.5%) compared to the maternal causes (31.5%) during the present study. Fetal maldisposition was
the predominant fetal cause followed by emphysema/oversize (22.2%) and other causes (8.3%). Ring womb was the
major maternal cause accounting for 45.5% of cases followed by uterine inertia (24.2%) and other causes (30.3%).
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Previous findings of Rahim and Arthur (1982) showed an incidence of 24% maternal and 76% fetal causes of dystocia in
goats, whereas, Majeed and Taha (1989) reported 52.9% fetal and 47.1% maternal causes of dystocia. It is clear form the
present and previous studies that fetal causes of dystocia (predominantly fetal maldisposition) are much more common
compared to the maternal causes of dystocia (predominantly ring womb) in female goats.

The choice of the method of resolving dystocia was dependent on the time since dystocia onset, fetal viability,
cause of dystocia and condition of the patient. Manual correction was successful more easily with fetal causes and in
does presented early with viable fetuses, 60% of the dystocia cases were corrected manually, fetotomy was done in 9.5%
of the total cases (all with fetal dystocia) and caesarean was done in 30.5% of cases. Partial fetotomy was possible in a
small number of fetal dystocia chiefly with head deviation of a dead fetus, emphysematous fetus or in fetal dropsy.
Resection of one or both limbs was the only fetotomy done.

As already emphasized that more number of caesarean sections performed in studies by Sobiraj (1994) was
possibly because, more number of cases requiring surgery was presented in their studies. These authors also performed
a small number of fetotomies similar to the present study. Fetal dropsical /abnormal conditions seen in the present study
have been rarely recorded previously (Tamuli et al., 1987; Kumar et al., 1989; Purohit et al., 2000).

Caesarean sections were more performed with maternal causes compared to fetal causes. A small number of
uterine ruptures required laparotomy with repair of uterine ruptures. Slightly different surgical approach was used in the
present study for caesarean. Brounts et al., 2004 had suggested operation via left paralumbar fossa but an oblique
ventero lateral incision just above arcus cruralis was used in the present study with no serious post operative complication
and easier approach to the uterus. Laparotomy for repair of uterine ruptures subsequent to dystocia handling by breeders
was done over the left paralumbar fossa, in order to suture caudal parts of uteri easily. Retained placenta was not seen in
any of the doe operated as seen by Brounts et al., 2004, because it was either removed at the time of operation when the
fetus was dead or the doe was administered 20 IU of oxytocin post operative when live fetuses were delivered. Likewise,
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uterine rupture post delivery followed by abdominal organ prolopses is not recorded previously. Ventral hysterocoele has
also been recorded rarely (Balasubramanian et al., 1991).

Uterine ruptures or torsion are difficult to detect clinically and caesarean is the only remedy possible. Plenty of
blood clots are detected on surgical excision of peritoneum in cases of uterine ruptures and the uterus and its contents
are reddish coloured in uterine torsion. Sparse reports are available on uterine torsion in sheep (Smith and Ross, 1985)
and goats (Vyas, 1987; Chandrahasan et al., 1990; Bansod and Srivastava, 1991). Post cervical uterine torsion may be
confused with ring womb (Smith and Sherman, 1994) and therefore need careful diagnosis. Uterine rupture has been
observed in a goat with ring womb (Sundarvadanan et al., 1996), however, it is difficult to clinically diagnose uterine
rupture when they are small and occur at the apex of the uterine cornua.

Prolonged or delayed parturition was considered when breeders had exact breeding dates and does failed to
evidence labor signs 10 days beyond the expected date of kidding. A small number of does (3) had slight discomfort
without any labor sings. Induction of parturition was rapid (26.2±1.1 hours) when both dexamethasone and prostaglandin
were combined in this study compared to previous reports in which either was used alone (Verma et al., 2000).

Fetal mummification is known to occur in sheep (Kirkbride, 1993) and goat, but is usually associated with normal
delivery or rarely abortion (Dadarwal et al., 2000). Mummified fetuses with sudden udder shrinkage seen in the present
study are rare. The findings of multiple mineral deficiency in goats presented to the clinics with abortions in this study
indicates that vitamin and mineral deficiencies may result in death of fetuses sometimes without an abortion and
culmination into mummification.

Retained placenta was the major post parturient complication in goats during this study similar to previous reports
(Majeed, 1994) but manual removal was possible in a small number of cases and only antibiotic therapy was sufficient.
Post parturient metritis responded well to intra uterine antibiotic therapy and parentral therapy with antibiotics as
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suggested previously (Majeed, 1994). Parentral antibiotics were only used as an adjunct in cases with febrile or systemic
reaction. Does with post partum metritis were anorectic when presented and anorexia disappeared after 2-3 days of
therapy.

The incidence of genital prolapse was much less common in the present study compared to a previous study in
goats (Majeed, 1994) or ewes (Majeed and Taha, 1995). Dystocia, hypocalcaemia and confinement without exercise can
increase the risk of this relatively uncommon problem (Engum and Lyngest, 1970; Majeed and Taha, 1991). Since, goats
were regularly sent for grazing by hobby breeders in this study, this probably can account for a lower incidence.

Uterine rupture subsequent to a difficult birth followed by prolapse of abdominal organs per vaginum observed in
this study was not seen in previous studies in ewes (Majeed and Taha, 1995) or goats (Majeed, 1994). Braun (1997) has
suggested that examination or manipulation in the birth canal of the goat must be done with extreme care as the uterus
and vagina are fragile and can rupture easily. Forceful traction by inexperienced breeders had probably resulted in uterine
ruptures during dystocia handling.

It was concluded that does can suffer from various parturition related disorders that can be resolved easily if does
are presented for early therapy. Parturition and post parturient period appears to be critical for the doe.
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Bansod, R.S. and Srivastava, A.K. (1991). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 12(1): 106-107.

Blackmore, D.K. (1960). Some observations on dystocia in the ewe. Vet. Rec. 72: 631-636.

Bowen, J.S. (1978). Pregnancy toxaemia, milk fever and kidding difficulties. Dairy Goat J. 56: 20.

Braun, W. (1997). Periparturient infection and structural abnormalities. Section III Caprine Theriogenology. In: Current
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Brounts, S.H.; Hawkins, J.F.; Baird, A.N.; Glickman, L.T. (2004). Outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats
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279.

Chandrahasan, C.; Subramanian, A. and Kulasekar, K. (1990). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 11(2):
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