A DISSERTATION
i By
PRAMENDRA KUMAR BAJPAI
Roll No: 776/03
Registration No: 2K3NITK542
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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Deemed University)
KURUKSHETRA 136 119 (Haryana) INDIA
Dated.
CERTIFICATE
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Dated: (Dr. K. C. GOYAL)
Place : Kurukshetra Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
N.I.T. Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra
Haryana136119 (India)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A lot of work has been done to enhance the understanding of EDM process,
modeling efforts are far fewer in comparison. There are several reasons for this: the
complex phenomenon inside a plasrna channel is not well understood, the stochastic
nature of the Electric discharge machining process, and unlike many other traditional
manufacturing processes, the length and time scale of single discharges. The effective
process analysis and modeling help in understanding the influence of the parameters on
the material removal rate. The computer aided Finite Element Analysis can be
considered as the best available tool to get a clear insight in the process as well as to
analyze the process.
The present work is a step to venture into understanding of the intricacies of
EDM process. A CAE software (ANSYS 8.0) is used for modeling the EDM process
with real time process parameters like the variable heat flux from the spark, are used. A
transient thermal analysis in conjunction with a static structural analysis (using the
results from thermal analysis) is performed .The material removal due to both melting
and thermal stress induced in the structure is calculated from a VISUAL BASIC
program and hence the on going material removal rate is established and compared
with the work from the literature. The effects of process parameters like current,
discharge voltage, and pulse duration on the material removal rate have been studied.
HI
NOTATIONS
p Density
c Specific heat
T Temperature
t Time
k Thermal conductivity
5'
F;
{V} •Vr • Velocity vector for mass transport of he
y z.
kl Heat flux vector
IV
[a] Stress vector
Vol Volume of element
[B] Straindisplacement matrix, based on the element shape functions
{u} Displacement vector
[N] Matrix of shape functions
[w] Vector of displacements of a general point
[F] Acceleration (D' Aiembert) force vector
[p] The applied pressure vector
j^ J Element stiffness matrix
V Breakdown voltage
/ Current
J^^ Energy partition to the work piece
0 Degree of freedom
E Young's modulus
V Poisson's ratio
^^ Coefficient of thermal expansion
LIST OF FIGURES
Page No:
Figure 1.1 Basic scheme of EDM 4
Figure 1.2 The basic process of E D M 5
Figure 3.1 A Close View of EDM Machining Region 16
Figure 3.2 Mechanism of material removalStage 1 19
Figure 3.3 Mechanism of material removalStage 2 19
Figure 3.4 Mechanism of material removalStage 3 19
Figure 3.5 Effect of Current on EDM Process 23
Figure 3.6 Effect of spark frequency on surface finish 23
Figure 4.1 The FEM Model 27
Figure 4.2 The Error Verification Model 28
Figure 4.3 Element Models 29
Figure 4.4 Elemental Grids 30
Figure 4.5 Surface Load Allocation On Elements 30
Figure 4.6 Position Of Mid Side Node 31
Figure 4.7 Local Co ordinate Systems 32
Figure 4.8 Rotation in XY Plane 32
Figure 4.9 Nodal Coordinate System 33
Figure 4.10 Shape Function For the 2D, 4 Noded Quadrilateral Element 34
• Figure 4.11 2D Quadrilateral Integration Point Locations 34
Figure 4.12 Free and Mapped Meshes 35
Figure 5.1 Thermal Solid Plane 55 42
Figure 5.2 3D viewofworkpiece 43
Figure 5.3 2D view of workpiece 43
Figure 5.4 Thermal Model of Electrical Discharge Machining 44
Figure5.5 3D meshed model 45
Figures.6 2D meshed model 45
VI
Figure 6.1 Temperature Isotherms Due To Single Spark 51
Figure 6.2 Temperature variation in Radial Direction 52
Figure 6.3 Temperature variation Along Depth 52
Figure 6.4 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values 53
Along The Radial Direction
Figure 6.5 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values 54
Along Depth
Figure 6.6 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime 55
Along Radial Distance
Figure 6.7 Temperature Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime 55
Along Depth
Figure 6.8 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along 56
Radial Distance from the Centre
Figure 6.9 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth 57
Figure 6.10 Equivalent Stress Distribution Due to Single Spark for the Half 58
Section of HSS Workpiece
Figure 6.11 Von Mises stress variation Along Radial Direction Due to Single 58
Spark for Current= 12 Amp, V=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
Figure 6.12 Von Mises stress variation Along Depth Due to Single Spark for 59
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
Figure 6.13 Stress Components Distribution Due To Single Spark at Current 60
= 12 Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse Ontime^lOO // Sec (a) Along
Radial Distance, (b) Along Depth
Figure 6.14 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values Along the 61
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=lOO // Sec, Voltage= 100 Vohs
Figure 6.15 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values 62
Along Depth at Pulse Ontime=100 JJ. Sec, Voltage=100 Volts
Figure 6.16 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along 63
Radial Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
Figure 6.17 Stress Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.0001sec 63
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
vn
Figure 6.18 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial 64
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100 n Sec
Figure 6.19 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At 65
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec
Figure 6.20 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 66
of Model for Different Values of Current.
Figure 6.21 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 67
of Model for Different Values of Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.22 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 68
of Model for Different Values of JDischarge Voltage
vui
CONTENTS
Page No:
CERTIFICATE 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii
ABSTRACT iii
GENERAL NOTATIONS iV
IX
3.4.3 Dielectric Fluid 21
3.4.4 The Servo System 22
3.4.5 Power Supply 22
3.5 PROCESS PARAMETERS 22
3.5.1 Current 22
3.5.2 Spark Voltage 23
3.5.3 Spark Frequency 23
3.5.4 Gap between WorkPiece and Electrode 23
3.5.5 Pulse Duration 23
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS 24
3.7 DISADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS 25
3.8 APPLICATIONS OF EDM 25
4.1 GENERAL 26
4.2 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 29
4.3 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 29
4.4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS 31
4.4.1 Global Coordinate System 31
4.4.2 Local Coordinate Systems 31
4.4.3 Nodal Coordinate Systems 32
4.5 SHAPE FUNCTION 33
4.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 33
4.7 MESHING 35
4.8 LOADS 35
4.9 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 36
Chapter 5 MODELING AND ANALYSIS 4150
«
5.1 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING ' 41
5.1.1 Temperature Modeling 41
5.1.1.1 Governing Equation 41
5.1.1.2 Steps Involved In Finite 42
Element Modeling
REFERENCES 71
APPENDIX A 74
APPENDIX B 93
APPENDIX C 95
APPENDIX D 106
XI
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Due to the continuous developments in the field of engineering and
technology, the scientists and the researchers are facing more and more challenging jobs
in these fields. Any new development comes after excessive efforts in the fields of
designing and manufacturing. There have been many advances made up to date in the
field of manufacturing. Since 1940, a revolution has been taking place that once again
allows manufacturers to meet the demands imposed by increasingly sophisticated
designs, but in many cases unmachinable, materials. This manufacturing revolution is
now, as it has been in the past, centered on the use of new tools and new forms of
energy. The result has been the introduction of new manufacturing processes used for
material removal, forming, and joining, known as nonconventional manufacturing
processes.
Based on the following drawbacks in the conventional methods of machining
development of nonconventional machining processes took place:
1. Many new materials and alloys that have been developed for specific uses
posses a very low machinabilty.
2. Producing complicated geometries with dimensional accuracy become
extremely difficult with the traditional processes. Some of the examples include
machining a complicated turbine blade made of super alloys, producing holes
and slots (both through and blind) in materials such as glass and
semiconductors, drilling a non circular hole or a micro hole.
3. Higher production rate and economy requirements may demand the use of non
conventional methods of machining.
4. Large amount of energy is lost in the form of unwanted products (chips).
5. Many a times, lost heat often produces a problem of distortion and surface
cracking, as well as micro structural changes.
The main aim of all machining operations is to remove the excess material to
obtain the desired shape and size. The unconventional methods have many advantages
over convemional ones. They are not bounded by the boundaries of hardness,
1
toughness, brittleness etc. of the material and can be used for producing any type of
shape on any workpiece material. However, non conventional methods of machining
are not the substitute for conventional methods of machining, but are only
complementing them.
Eiecirode^
FilMr
Tanic
WdifcA0K
pump
33
(FIG.1.1)
^ ^ ^
3, The metal and diebctric fluid are partly
vaporised, causing sudden expansion.
(FIG.1.2)
F.T. Weng and M.G. Her [31] had studied the micro machining of
copper plates by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Tungsten carbide
was selected as the material for the electrode. Experiments were carried out on a
conventional CNCEDM machine to investigate machining of micro holes, and micro
slots. The results show that micro holes, and micro slots can be successfully processed
on a conventional CNCEDM machine. To improve the productivity of micro parts
using the EDM process, a batch production method of micro EDM using multi
electrodes had been studied. A new technique for preparing multi electrodes had been
developed. Resuhs also showed that the batch production of micro parts using EDM
was feasible.
J.R. Crookall and B.C. Khor [8] had given earlier that metal removal in
EDM is primarily on a thermal basis. The physical strength of the workpiece material
is of minor consequence, it has been widely found that the thermal properties in general
correlate with metalremoval ability and the erosive action is essentially 'force free'.
But the force free nature of the process should not, however, be taken to imply that the
surface produced is stressfree. Both of them had concluded that high tensile stresses are
generated by EDM, which can approach the ultimate tensile strength of the material
near the surface, but fall rapidly with depth to low values, or to zero. The workpiece
material, and particularly its thermal properties, influences the distribution of residual
stress. However, neither the tool electrode material nor the dielectric fluid appears to
affect significantly the residual stress distribution in workpiece. They also concluded
that residual stresses cannot be avoided altogether and machining conditions for
minimizing their extent almost inevitably conflicts (as in the case of surface roughness)
with rapid metal removal required.
J.H. Zhang et al. [9] studied the effect Of EDM on hot pressed aluminium
oxide based ceramic and concluded that using Ax J'^^ as an indication of the material
machinabilty in EDM is suitable. Although the fusion temperature of ceramics is high,
as the thermal conductivity of them is very small, the product of thermal conductivity
and fusion temperature ( I x J ' ^ J of them is lesser than most metals, so that EDM is
8
suitable for conductive ceramics. They also concluded that the material removal rate,
the surface roughness, and the diameter of discharge point all increase with increasing
pulse on time and discharge current. However, they vary very little under normal
conditions of voltage and pulseoff time. Discharge current has more important
affection on the material removal rate and the discharge point diameter; pulseon time
has more important affection on surface roughness and the thermal affected layer. With
longer pulseon time, the surface roughness and the diameter of discharge become
larger, a thicker resolidification layer formed on the machined surface, and some micro
cracks vertical to the machined surface formed in subsurface. This will become very
vertical when pulseon time is too long. With the increase of discharge current, the
diameters of the discharge points increase, but there is no great change in
resolidification layers and thermal affected layers.
Das et al. [6] developed a finite element based model for electrical
discharge machining process. The model uses the process parameters such as power
input, pulse duration, etc. to predict the transient temperature distribution, liquid and
solid state material transformation, and residual stresses that are induced in the
workpiece as a result of a singlepulse discharge. An attractive feature of the model was
its ability to predict the shape of the crater that is formed as a result of the material
removal. The model has been validated using the experimental data, wherever possible.
Yadav et al. [7] studied the high temperature gradients generated at the
gap during EDM that results in large localized thermal stresses in a small heataffected
zone. These thermal stresses can lead to microcracks, decrease in strength and fatigue
life and possibly catastrophic failure. A finite element model has been developed to
estimate the temperature field and thermal stresses due to Gaussian distributed heat flux
of a spark during EDM. First, the developed code calculates the temperature in work
piece and then the thermal field is estimated using this temperature field. The effects of
various variables (current and duty cycle) on temperature distribution and thermal stress
distribution have been reported. The results of analysis show high temperature gradient
zones and the regions of large stresses where, sometimes, they exceed the material yield
strength.
P.M. Lonardo and A.A. Bruzzone [10] experienced that the most important
parameters of EDM were the material removal rate, electrode wear, accuracy and
surface texture. In this paper the influence of electrode material, flushing, electrode
dimension, depth of cut and planetary motion on EDM performance was been
discussed. An experimental analysis was carried out on a Cr, Mo, V steel for die casting
by using both copper and graphite electrodes. Roughing and finishing operations were
considered, by adopting for each condition the parameters commonly recommended in
industrial production. The observed resuhs show the importance of electrode material,
injection flushing and geometry of cutting on removal rate, electrode wear and surface
quality.
J.A. McGeough and H. Rasmussen [13] developed a model for shaping of
metal by EDM. A key feature of this model was the replacement of timedependent
electric field, with a solution of complete Maxwell's equations that produce, by an
electrostatic field, a macroscopic theory was formulated on the basis of experimental
observations (i) the electric field needed for the production of sparks in the inter
electrode gap must exceed some critical value, (ii) spark occur over electrode regions at
which the local field is highest and (iii) the rate of material removal is proportional to
the energy transmitted by the sparks. The model was applied to the onedimensional
case in which plane parallel electrodes were used.
H. Hocheng, W.T. Lei and H.S. Hsu [14] studied the material removal in EDM
of SiC/Al. The fundamental analysis is started from the material removal of metal
matrix composite (MMC) by a single spark. The paper presents the correlation between
the major machining parameters, electrical current and ontime, and the crater size
produced by a single spark for the representative material SiC/Al. The experimental
results not only show the predicted proportionality based on heat conduction model, but
are also compared with common steels regarding the material removal rate. Though the
crater size SiC/Al is larger than steel, the SiC particles can interfere the discharge. For
effective EDM, large electric and short ontime are recommended.
PieJan Wang and KuoMing Tsai [4] developed a semiempirical model of
material removal rate on the work and the tool in electrical discharge machining by
employing dimensional equations based on peak current, pulse duration, electric
polarity, and properties of the materials for the screening experiments and the
dimensional analysis. The coefficients and power indexes of the model have been data
fitted based on the experimental data generated with the help of the DOE procedure.
The final results have indicated that the model is dependent on the material and
therefore cannot be represented by a set of universal coefficients and power indexes for
10
various materials. The model proposed was mainly based on the thermal, physical,
electrical, and material properties of the work and the tool plus relevant process
parameters. Once the coefficients and power indexes of the model had been determined
experimentally for given work and tool, the model should be able to give reliable
predictions when the process parameters are changed. Of course the model is not based
on some fundamental theories, but the potential of this model could be largely explored
if the basic phenomena in EDM were better understood.
C.H. Kahng and K.P. Rajurkar [11] studied the surface characteristic
behavior of the EDM eroded surface utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),
metallography and stylus profilometer. The increment in pulse duration one of many
influencing parameters, results not only in the increase of surface roughness but also in
the increment of depth of crack in particular and increase in depth of heat affected in
general. The authors, on the basis of their investigation suggested that the discharge
time for the application of fine cutting conditions to improve the surface characteristic
should not be estimated on the basis Of surface geometry improvement only because the
removal of white layer and heat affected zone including cracks requires considerable
discharge time.
A. Erden [12] studied the role of dielectric flushing on EDM performance
and the importance and influence of dielectric fluid flushing are discussed. It was found
by him after experimentation that, by changing dielectric fluid pressure, it is possible to
obtain 2030% change in erosion rates of both workpiece and tool electrodes. Meth6d
of flushing does not affect machining performance. Circulation of dielectric fluid by
tool electrode vibration is also studied. A dependence of erosion rate on vibration
amplitude is observed. Maximum erosion rate is obtained at 510 /jm peak to peak
amplitudes for all machining conditions. A simple mathematical model for the influence
of dielectric pressure on machining rate is also developed.
F. Van Dijck [15] conducted multiple discharge tests on tool steel workpieces
with a copper tool to verify the results of theoretical predictions on metal erosion
obtained using a thermal model. He explained change in metal erosion with pulse
duration on the basis of current density variations in spark channel. For each
combination of workpiece and tool, constant metal erosion graphs can be derived to
determine appropriate machine settings. Wide variation in results reported is indicative
of uncertainties involved in the EDM process.
11
Heng Xia and Masanori Kunieda [16] studied the waveform of the discharge
pulse in EDM process influences the machining characteristics greatly. For the
rectangular pulse waveform, in order to obtain a lower tool erosion ratio, the workpiece
is usually set positive when the pulse duration is shorter, while the workpiece is set
negative when the pulse duration time becomes longer. One reason for the change of
tool erosion ratio is explained as variance in the energy distribution. For example,
indicated that the discharge column in EDM propagated rapidly after the discharge
ignition. Therefore, that the energy distribution into the anode and cathode changes
during the pulse duration time according to the electron emission theory, as the result of
the plasma expansion.
H.C. Tsai, B.H. Yan and F.Y.Huang [17] studied EDM performance Of
Cr/Cubased composite electrodes. Electrode materials for EDM are usually graphite,
copper and copper alloys because these materials have high melting temperature, and
excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The electrodes made by using powder
metallurgy technology from special powders have been used to modify EDM surfaces
in recent years, to improve wear and corrosion resistance. However, electrodes are
normally fabricated at high temperatures and pressures, such that fabrication is
expensive. This paper proposed a new method of blending the copper powders
contained resin with chromium powders to form tool electrodes. Such electrodes are
made at low pressure (20 MPa) and temperature (200 °C ) in a hot mounting machine.
The results showed that using such electrodes facilitated the formation of modified
surface layer on the workpiece after EDM, with remarkable corrosion resistant
properties. The optimal mixing ratio, appropriate pressure, and proper machining
parameters (such as polarity, peak current, and pulse duration) were made to investigate
the effect of material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), surface
roughness, the thickness of the recast layer on usability of these electrodes. According
to the experimental results, a mixing ratio of CuCr and sinter pressure of 20 MPa
obtained a higher MRR. Moreover, this work reveals that the composite electrodes
obtained a higher MRR than Cu metal electrodes; the recast layer was thinner and
cracks were present on the machined surface.
Ajit Singh and Amitabh Ghosh [18] studied the process of melting in EDM.
However, for short pulses (discharge duration < 5 // s), mehing does not account for the
results as shown by experiments reported. For short pulses, metal does not get enough
12
time to get adequately heated and almost no melting takes place. The electrostatic force
acting on the surface is very important factor in removal of metal for short pulses. For
long pulses (discharge duration < 100//s), this electrostatic force becomes very small
and does not play a significant role in the removal of metal. In the model proposed, the
electrostatic force acting on the metal surface and the stress distribution inside the metal
due to this electrostatic force has been estimated. The variation of yield strength with
depth inside the metal has also been found out and finally the 'crater depth' due to this
electrostatic force has been calculated.
R. Karthikeyan, P.R. Lakshmi Narayanan and R.S. Naagarazan [19] made
an attempt in there paper to develop a mathematical models for optimizing electric
discharge machining (EDM) characteristics such as the metal removal rate (MRR), the
tool wear rate (TWR) and the surface roughness (CLA value). The process parameters
taken in to consideration were the current, the pulse duration and the percent volume
fraction of SiC (25// size) present in LM25 aluminium matrix. A three level full
factorial design was chosen for experimentation and mathematical models with linear,
quadratic and interactive effects of the parameters chosen were developed. Finally the
significance of the model is checked using the analysis of variance technique
(ANOVA). The MRR was found to decrease with an increase in present volume of SiC,
where the TWR and the surface roughness increase in the volume of SiC.
Li Li, Y.S. Wong, J.Y.H. Fuh and L. Lu [20] studied the effect of titanium
carbide (TiC) on the performance of sintered copperbased materials as EDM
electrodes. The aim of study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of EDM electrodes
fabricated by laserbased sintering using rapid prototyping technology. Six batches of
titanium carbide with content from 5% to 45% were fabricated by mixing, ball milling,
pressing, and liquid phase sintering with coppertungsten (CuW) and copper (Cu),
respectively. The performance of the newly formed material is compared with
commercial electrodes. The densification of TiC/CuW system was improved by
addition of nickel (Ni), as Ni shows good solubility in both Cu and W. The distribution
of particle size becomes narrow as the proportion of TiC is increased. A uniform
dispersion of small TiC particles in the CuW system and narrow particle size
distribution provide the possibility of obtaining dense electrodes. With increasing TiC,
the relative density first increased and then decreased, whereas the electrical resistivity
first decreased and then increased. EDM electrodes, with addition of TiC, show good
13
performance in surface finishing. This is an important characteristic as rapid
prototyped sintered EDM electrodes are expected to be used as finishing electrodes.
The surface roughness of most specimens is less than those machined using commercial
electrodes. Electrodes with 15% TiC show the highest relative density, lowest electrical
resistivity, good EDM performance, i.e. lowest tool wear rate and highest material
removal rate at low current, and the best surface finish not only at low current, but also
at high current.
F. Kaldes (1983) [21] states the effectiveness of flushing on MRR, tool
wear and accuracy, especially in finishing operations when pulse energies are low and
small local products can quickly develop causing short circuits and generally impairing
working efficiency. If the dielectric fluid is forced at low velocity through the gap, these
local products are flushed. However, higher velocity of flushing hinders the formation
of ionized bridges across the gap and result in higher ignition delay. The relationships
of inlet pressure of dielectric fluid with MRR and TWR have been given in the study.
Masanori Kunieda and Masahiro Yoshida [22] experimented with copper
as tool electrode and steel as workpiece by using high pressure air flow supplied
through a thinwalled pipe electrode and found that workpiece material can be removed
and flushed out of the working gap without reattached to the electrode surfaces. The
tool electrode wear ratio is almost zero for any pulse duration. Hence a 3D shape can be
machined very precisely using a special NC tool path, which can supply uniform high
velocity airflow over the working gap. The planetary motion with radius onetenth of
the wall thickness of tool electrode was superimposed in the XY plane perpendicular
the axis of the tool electrode because short circuits occurred frequently without this
planetary motion. It was found that in the case of EDM in air, the tool electrode wear
ratio is much lower and MRR much higher when tool electrode is negative. In contrast,
in case of EDM in a liquid, there is less tool electrode wear and higher MRR when
polarity of tool electrode is positive.
Fritz Klocke, Thorsten Beck, Stefan Hoppe, Tilo Krieg, Nobert MuUer,
Tobias Nothe, HansWilli Raedt, and Kevin Sweeney [23] gave that the technological
and economical pressure in production engineering requires an optimization of existing
production processes. The finite element method (FEM) is appropriate tool to gain the
necessary knowledge of these processes. The paper presents some examples of the
application of FEM in different branches of manufacturing technology: cutting with a
14
geometrically defined and an undefined cutting edge; electroerosion technology; metal
forming processes; tribology, after the presentation of the problem, the simulation set
up for each example. The paper provides an overview of the current possibilities for the
application of FEM in manufacturing technology.
P.C. Pandey and S.T. Jilani [5] developed a two dimensional heat source
model which is used to compute the metal removal per pulse, crater shape and the depth
of resolidification layer in EDM of range of tungsten carbides with different chemical
compositions and properties. It has been shown that the presence of cobalt has a
significant influence on the machining behaviour of the carbides. Tungsten carbides
with a high cobalt percentage when machined electrically are more susceptible to
surface cracking and surface defects, such as pin holes and honeycombs, as compared
with carbides with a low cobalt percentage. From the view point of maximum MRR and
relative electrode wear it has been found that pulse durations of 250 // s and 467 // s
respectively and cobalt binders percentage of 20% and 6% respectively are best suited.
A carbide with a high cobalt content minimizes the resolidified layer thickness at lower
pulse durations and yields a better surface finish.
15
Chapter 3
ElectricDischarge Machining
3.1 GENERAL
The use of electric discharge machining process has greatly helped in
achieving an economic machining of extremely low machinability materials and
difficuh jobs. The close view of the EDM process is illustrated in the Figure 3.1. When
a discharge takes place between two points of anode and the cathode, the intense heat
generated near the zone melts and evaporates the material in the sparking zone. This
process is typically used for material such as tool steels, die steels, ceramics, etc., which
are hard to machine using a more traditional approach.
Tool
Dielectric Pulse
generator
;tncal
Elecl
workpiece
Discharge
16
3.2 TYPES OF ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHININING METHODS
Electric discharge machining enables the machining operation in several
ways. Some of these operations are similar to conventional operations such as milling
and die sinking others have its own characteristic. Different classifications are possible
and also it should be kept in mind that, current developments in its technology add
different types of operations. But a simple and general classification can done by
considering famous applications such as,
1. Die Sinking EDM
2. Wire EDM
3. EDM Milling
4. Wire Electric Discharge Grinding
3.2.1 Die Sinking EDM
The tool electrode has the complementary form of finished workpiece and
literally sinks into the rough material. Corhplex shapes are possible, but needs more
machining time but dimensional accuracy is high when compared with wire EDM.
3.2.2 Wire EDM
The electrode is a wire that cuts through the workpiece and renewed constantly
to avoid rapture. The wire is cheaper than the complex electrodes used in die sinking
electric discharge machining. Less material should be removed, which leads short
machining time and electrode wear. But, the operation is possible only for ruled
surfaces and the wire may bend during machining, cause substantial shape errors.
3.2.3 EDM Milling
Usually a rotating cylindrical electrode follows a path through the workpiece,
yielding the desired final geometry. It is advantageous when large holes or complex
geometries are required.
3.2.4 Wire Electric Discharge Grinding
In the case where small holes are needed, a relatively large electrode may be
reversibly eroded against a sacrificial workpiece. In this case the polarity between the
electrode and the workpiece is reversed, so that the material removal predominantly
takes place on the electrode.
17
3.3 MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL
A perfect general theory for EDM can not constructed since each machining
condition has its own particular aspects and involves numerous phenomena, i.e., heat
conduction and radiation, phase changes, electrical forces, bubble formation and
collapse, rapid solidification. In addition, theories of how sparks eroded the workpiece
and electrode have never been completely supported by the experimental evidence since
it is very difficult to observe the process scientifically. Thus, most of the published
studies are mostly concerned with simplified models of different events of EDM.
Development of highspeed computers and comprehensive numerical techniques
enabled scientist to involve more parameters in their models than before, but still many
aspects of the process can not be explained in detail
Many mechanisms of material removal are being attributed to the process of EDM the
two are given below.
3,3.1 Melting and Evaporation
Figure 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 shows the most accepted mechanism of material removal
named as melting and evaporation [1]. This occurs in three stages, they are:
Stage 1.
When a pulse of d.c. electricity is delivered to the electrode and the workpiece ,
an intense electric field is generated between the narrowest gap between the workpiece
and the electrode due to the irregularities. Because of this field, all the contaminants
(microscopic) in the dielectric fluid concentrate in the centre which is the strongest in
the field area. Together with this the negative charges are emitted from the workpiece,
together both of them form a bridge (highly conductive) across the gap.
Stage 2.
As the current increases, the temperature of the material increases hence material
mehs forming a bubble of gaseous material and the liquid material is below the bubble.
Stage 3.
When the electricity is terminated these volatile material bubble blasts causing a
discharge of material from both electrode and the workpiece, hence a cavity is
generated.
18
Figure 3.2 Stage 1
19
It has also been reported the materials with melting points below 2800 °C are
EDMed by the melting mechanism [24] explained above.T.C. Lee and W.S. Lau [25]
have found that the removal mechanism consists of not just the melting and evaporation
but also others such as thermal spalling explained below.
3.3.2 Thermal Spalling
Thermal spalling of a material is usually defined as a mechanical failure of the
material due to the creation of internal stresses which overcome the bond strength. This
occurs as a material expands or contracts during a sudden temperature change, resulting
in tension or compression sufficient to cause tensile or shear failure, respectively. In the
EDM process, the material goes through thermal cycling, so a complex temperature
gradient is established based on the properties and flow rate of the dielectric fluid, and
most importantly, the properties of the material. On sudden heating, local compressive
shear stresses develop because the expanding material is prevented from doing so by the
cooler interior material. At the same time, this places the interior material in tension as
it is pulled by the outer material as it tries to expand. This situation is reversed on
sudden cooling. Material with high thermal expansions and low thermal conductivity
are subjected to higher stress due to more severe gradients.
20
conductive, and provide good surface finish. All the materials that are used for this
purpose are listed below with there advantages and disadvantages,
a) copper and brass 
Advantages 1. Easily machinable
2. Electrically conductive.
3. High material removal rate
4. Good surface finish.
Disadvantages 1. High wear rate (low wear ratio).
b) Copper tungsten it has all the advantage of that of copper and brass but have a
only disadvantage that, it is difficult to machine.
c) Graphite and copper graphite
Advantages 1. Easily machinable.
2. Can be used for all types of workpiece.
3. Wear rate of electrode is very low.
4. Fine grain electrode (graphite) gives excellent surface finish.
Disadvantages 1. Brittleness of graphite electrode
2. Not used for drilling small holes.
3.4.3 Dielectric Fluid
The E D M setup consists of a tank in which the dielectric fluid is filled and the
electrode and the workpiece is immersed in that. The dielectric fluid serves many
purposes in EDM process
The main functions of dielectric fluid are:
a) It acts as an insulator between the electrode and workpiece.
b) Acts as a coolant to draw away the small amount of heat generated by the
sparks.
c) Acts as a flushing medium.
Some important properties are also there which are required in a dielectric for
excellent performances of the process .They are:
a) Must remain electrically nonconducting until the required breakdown voltage
is reached that is, they should have high dielectric strength.
b) Must have low viscosity.
c) Must have high flash point.
d) Must have lower specific gravity.
21
e) Must be transparent in colour.
f) Must be nontoxic.
g) Must be cheap.
h) Must be readily available.
The most popular dielectric fluids are hydrocarbon oils, transformer oils, paraffin
oils kerosene, silicon based oils, and deionized water.
3.4.4 The Servo System
The servosystem is commanded by signals from gap voltage sensor system in
the power supply and controls the infeed of the electrode or workpiece to precisely
match the rate of material removal. If the gap voltage sensor system determines that a
piece of electrically conductive material is bridged the gap between the electrode and
workpiece, the servosystem will react by reversing direction until the dielectric fluid
flushes the gap clear. When the gap is clear, the infeed resumes and cutting continues.
3.4.5 Power Supply
The power supply is an important part of any EDM system. It transforms the
alternating current (AC) from the main utility electrical supply into the pulsed direct
current (DC) required to produce the spark discharges at the machining gap.
To facilitate the selection of the optimum for a wide range Of cutting
conditions, EDM power supplies must be able to control pulse voltage, current, pulse
duration, duty cycle, pulse frequency, and electrode polarity.
22
C3
2<AMP 3*AIVIP
23
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS
The EDM machining process is very useful for the process of fine and accurate
machining. The following are the advantages of the process:
> EDM is relatively simple manufacturing process to set up and to perform.
> There is no direct contact between the electrode and workpiece, hence no
cutting forces are generated. Due to this advantage this advantage we can
process extremely fragile workpiece without damage.
> Its most important advantage is that its effectiveness is independent of the
hardness and strength of workpiece materials.
> By this process we can drill holes at very high incident angles on curved
surfaces without experiencing the tool slippage.
> This process is used for shaping alloy steel and tungsten carbide dies, used
for moulding, forging, extrusion, wire drawing or suitable mould cavities,
press tools and to give any intricate shape or profile.
> Internal threads and internal helical gears can be cut in hardened materials
by using a rotary spindle and suitable attachments.
> It can be used for machining carbides, ceramic carbides.
> Surface finish obtained by this process is very good. As tool and work do not
come in contact so no cutting force act on the work and consequent error due
to elastic deformation is eliminated.
> This process is also used to machine very thin sections.
> Tool materials need not to be harder than work material, therefore, that
material must be used which can be easily shaped. It is due to this reason
that any complicated shape can be made on the tool can be reproduced on
the workpiece.
> Fine slits can be made by using a wire electrode.
> A hole as small as 0.1 mm in diameter can be made easily.
> This process is very useful for making hole for nozzles, other holes, shapes,
profiles and embossing, engraving operations on harder materials.
> It is also used for production work for special applications where the oil
retention properties of the work surface are important.
> Accuracy up to 0.005 mm can be obtained easily.
> High aspect ratio.
24
> It is a burrless process.
25
Chapter 4
Finite Element Method and ANSYS
4.1 GENERAL
A brief overview of general concepts of linear FEM was discussed in
chapter one. Here whole FEM analysis is elaborated in detail and ANSYS are discussed
briefly in this chapter. Finite element method is a powerful tool in structural analysis of
simple to complicated geometries uses discretization of a continuum into finite numbers
of elements. Nodes of elements are assigned finite degree of freedom of movement.
Simple displacement functions are chosen for appropriate distribution of displacements
over each element in conformity with compatibility at element boundaries. This
powerful and analytical tool can account for different geometries of structures and
different properties of each element. Banded stiffness matrix permits economical
computations.
In recent years with the coming of super computers the job of performing
finite element analysis of a complicated geometry has become easy. ANSYS is one of
such powerful tools in finite element method of analysis. Any complicated geometry
can be analyzed easily using ANSYS. ANSYS is more flexible and wide reach. It has
options to perform analysis in the fields like structural, thermal, fluid mechanics, and
electrical magnetics; also it performs different types of analysis such as static, modal,
spectrum, transient, harmonic, eigen buckling and substructuring in structural field.
mo4«l
CONTINnnCATIOX I sOLtTlON
A I
/
IDEALISATION A MJOnCATlON
DISCTlETIZATIO>' ^i„ri««.„or
Uintiliiilon cnor: inod»ling& foliition <>i(or
VALIDATION
FiR.4.1
Figure also shows a ideal mathematical model. This may be presented as a continuum
limit or "continuification" of the discrete model. For some physical systems, notably
those well modeled by continuum fields, this step is useful. Indeed Physical FEM
discretizations may be constructed and adjusted without referenc to mathematical
models, simply from experimental measurements. The concept of error arises in the
Physical FEM in two ways. These are known as verification and validation,
respectively. Verification is done by replacing the discrete solution into the discrete
model to get the solution error. This error is not generally important. Substitution in the
ideal mathematical model in principle provides the discretization error. This step is
rarely useful in Complex engineering systems, however, because there is no reason to
expect that the mathematical model exists, and even if it does, that it is more physically
relevant than the discrete model. Validation tries to compare the discrete solution
against observation by computing the simulation error, which combines modeling and
solution errors. As the latter is typically unimportant, the simulation error in practice
can be identified with the modeling error.One way to adjust the discrete model so that it
represents the physics better is called model updating. The discrete model is given free
parameters. These are determined by comparing the discrete solution against
experiments, as illustrated in Figure 1.3. Inasmuch as the minimization conditions are
generally nonlinear (even if the model is linear) the updating process is inherently
27
iterative Figure 1.2 also shows a ideal mathematical model. This may be presented as a
continuum limit or "continuifrcation" of the discrete model. For some physical systems,
notably those well modeled by continuum fields, this step is useful. For others, such as
complex engineering systems, it makes no sense. Indeed Physical FEM discretizations
may be constructed and adjusted without referenceto mathematical models, simply from
experimental measurements.The concept of error arises in the Physical FEM in two
ways. These are known as verification and validation, respectively. Verification is done
by replacing the discrete solution into the discrete model to get the solution error. This
error is not generally important. Substitution in the ideal mathematical model in
principle provides the discretization error. This step is rarely useful in complex
engineering systems, however, because there is no reason to expect that the
mathematical model exists, and even if it does, that it is more physically relevant than
the discrete model. Validation tries to compare the discrete solution against observation
by computing the simulation error, which combines modeling and solution errors. As
the latter is typically unimportant, the simulation error in practice can be identified with
the modeling error. One way to adjust the discrete model so that it represents the
physics better is called model updating. The discrete mode! is given free parameters.
These are determined by comparing the discrete solution against experiments, as
illustrated in Figure 4,2. Inasmuch as the mirtimization conditions are generally
nonlinear (even if the model is linear) the updating process is inherently iterative.
iPAifuntfrizfrtl
modfl I
EXPERIJIEMS ^iuinlAtlon n\w
Fig. 4.2
28
4.2 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Following are the steps [26] involved in finite element method of analysis
1. Discretization of the continuum.
2. Calculate the element stiffness matrices.
3. Assemble the element stiffness matrices.
4. Calculate the element load vectors.
5. Assemble the element load vectors.
6. Impose boundary conditions.
7. Impose external forces.
8. Calculate the displacement vectors.
9. Calculate the strain field and
10. Calculate the stress field.
4.3 CONSIDERATIONS IN FEM MODEL FORMULATION
Following are the considerations to be taken care of while formulating a model in finite
element method
1.
29
2.
(a) (b)
Figure 4.4: Comparable grids of (a) Linear and (b) Quadratic elements
In modeling a curved shell using either a linear (flat) or quadratic (curved)
shell elements (Figure 4.4), the majority of problems can be solved to a high degree of
accuracy in a minimum amount of computer time using flat elements. To ensure curved
surface adequately use enough flat elements. The smaller the element, the better is the
accuracy of the analysis.
1/2 1/2
l"—'•^^^J^LJ
(a)
1/e 2/3 1/6
CD
(c)
0' 1/3
Figure 4.5 (a) Equivalent nodal allocation of a unit uniform surface load on 2D elements
(b) Equivalent nodal allocation of a unit uniform surface load on 3D elements
As the load distribution on the mid side node is greater than that on the corner
nodes (Figure 4.5), in dynamic analysis where wave propagation is of interest, mid side
node elements are not recommended because of the non uniform distribution of mass.
30
i^—»—^*
1r T 1
it 1
" • — » — '
31
v,
"M —T **
x"**—"^—"~
x: —V p l a n e
Xi
© KI
X
32
•^x
L ( V 1 U
_ L L L L /^
Orientation parallel to orientation parallel to orientation parallel to
Global Cartesian system local cylindrical system global cylindrical
system
u= [ui{ls)(\t)+uji\+s){lt)+uki^+s){\+t)+24fls)i\+t)
1
v=—
4
33
Y
( or Axial)
*^ K (or Radial)
Figure 4.10 Shape Function For the 2D, 4 Noded Quadrilateral Element
]]f{x,y)dxdy =ttH,H.fix,y)
11 ./=i '=1
#4 k
•7 #3
s
• ' #9 A6
V
34
Table 4.1: Gauss Numerical Integration Constants
4.7 MESHING
Before meshing the model, and even before building the model, it is important
to think about whether a free mesh or a mapped mesh is appropriate for the analysis. A
free mesh has no restrictions in terms of element shapes, and has no specified pattern
applied to it. Figure 4.12 shows the pattern of free and mapped meshing.
Compared to a free mesh, a mapped mesh is restricted in terms of the element
shape it contains and the pattern of the mesh. A mapped area mesh contains either only
quadrilaterals or only triangular elements, while a mapped volume mesh contains only
hexahedron elements. In addition, a mapped mesh typically has a regular pattern, with
obvious rows of elements. To obtain such type of mesh, one must build the geometry as
a series of fairly regular volumes and/or areas that can accept a mapped mesh.
4.8 LOADS
, The word loads in FEM terminology includes boundary conditions and
externally or internally applied forcing functions such as displacements, forces,
pressure, temperatures (for thermal analysis), and gravity. Loads are divided into five
35
categories: DOF constraints, forces (concentrated loads), surface loads, body loads,
inertia loads.
1. A DOF constraint fixes a degree of freedom (DOF) to known value. Examples
of constraints are specified displacement and symmetry boundary conditions.
2. A force is a concentrated load applied at a node in the model. Examples are
forces and moments.
3. A surface load is distributed load applied over a surface such as pressures.
4. A body load is a volumetric or field load. Example is temperature.
5. Inertia loads are those attributable to the inertia (mass matrix) of a body, such as
gravitational acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration.
In ANSYS the loads can be applied either on the solid model (on keypoints, lines,
and areas) or on the finite element model (on nodes and elements). For example, forces
can be specified at a key point or at a node. No matter how you specify the loads, the
solver expects all loads on the solid model, the program automatically transfers them to
the nodes and elements at the beginning of solution.
36
{v} = Vy = Velocity vector for mass transport of heat
Where:
Where:
m={L]{Nj
37
vT&^ and id Xe \ arc nodal quantities and do not vary over the element, so that they
also may be removed from the integral. Now, since all quantities are seen to be
premultiplied by the arbitrary vector \o Te ' ^^'^^ ^^^"^ '^^ dropped from the resulting
Where:
C^ ) "^ J TB hf{^} d{SJ = element convection surface heat flow vector
, = p 4 H 4.12
vol df
Where:
p = density
t = time
The displacements within the element are related to the nodal displacements by
39
{w} = [N] {U} 4.13
Pressure applied to the outside surface of each element and are normal to the curved
surfaces
Nodal forces applied to the element can be accounted for by
W,  {5U]\F1]
Where; [ p ' '  = nodal forces applied to the element
area
40
Chapter 5
Modeling and Analysis
dT k d ( ^T^^
r — +k
dt r dr K dr J dy'
Where
T = temperature
t = time
k = thermal conductivity
p = density
C = specific heat
r and y are coordinate axes as shown in Figure 5.4.
41
5.1.1.2 Steps involved in finite element modeling:
1. Planning the analysis:
In this step a compromise between the computer time and accuracy of the
analysis is made. The various parameters set in this step of analysis are given below:
Temperature modeling
> Analysis type  thermal hmethod.
> Steady state or Transient? Transient
> Thermal or Structural? Thermal
> Properties of the material? Isotropic
> Objective of analysis to find out the temperature distribution in the workpiece
when the process of EDM is done.
> UnitsSI
2. Determine the problem domain:
to define the geometry of the problem, a 3D isometric view of the workpiece is
created and is shown in Figure 5.2. But as the problem is axisymetric the final geometry
is reduced to a 2D diagram. The 2D model is shown in Figure 5.3. The problem is
axisymetric about Y axis.
3. Creating a finite element mesh:
Element type: the element type used is plane solid plane 55
Dimensions: 2D
Shape: quadrilateral, four nodes
Degrees of freedom: TEMPERATURE
42
Figure 5.2 3Dviewofworkpiece
43
The element used in this analysis with its degree of freedom is shown in the Figure 5.1.
The finite element analysis provides results only on the nodes, hence, the geometry of
the problem is meshed keeping in view that the nodes can be found on the locations
where the values of the degree of freedom (temperature in thermal analysis and xy
translation in stress analysis) are required. To meet all the requirements mapped
meshing is used. Figure 5.5 shows a 3D meshed model and the Figure 5.6 shows a 2D
meshed model. The analysis of the process has been performed on the above models.
4. Applying the boundary conditions:
A small half plane cut from the workpiece with negligible thickness has been
considered as the domain (Figure 5.4). On the domain for a single spark the heat flux is
applied on the surface F, up to a distance of R using Gaussian distribution. Convection
is used for the other region on F, surface which is caused due to the cooling by the
dielectric. On r2 & Tj as they are very far from the spark radius and also the spark has
been made to strike for very little time, no heat transfer condition has been assumed.
For r^ as it is the axis of symmetry the heat flux has been taken as zero as there is no
net heat gain or lost from this region.
R
h AT T ,)
r, dT
dT
=0 dn
dn
r.
= 0
dn
Figure 5.4 Thermal Model of Electric Discharge Machining
44
Figure 5.6 2D meshed model
rm •.
'4 #''i^>:^' f I.
:*A^r?i * •  }• ^
* " * / I
"',
'W
<*.sr •fr^'' 
• ;•'« 
'?? .'.J
* ^  * : ll ',,1
•*A
. I
£ra
^flf'll^
. > *!<SS
when t>0
q^ ifr<R onf,
0 for off  time
—=oonr ,r, r
5„ i2'i3'i4
Spark radius
Electrode materials influence the spark radius during edm. But the measurement
of spark radius is extremely difficuh due to high frequency of pulse. The spark radius is
taken as 125x10'^ meters as taken in paper by Yadav et al.[7].
4.45/? VI
4.5
Where
V •= breakdown voltage
/ = current
^^ = energy partition to the work piece
It is the percentage of heat input obtained by the workpiece by one pulse in EDM. It is
taken as 0.08 as by Yadav et al. [7].
The following loads and the boundary conditions are applied on the model.
5. Convergence monitor
Overall convergence of the segregated solver is measured through the convergence
monitor parameters. A convergence monitor is calculated for each degree of freedom at
46
each global iteration. It is loosely normalized rate of change of the solution from one
global iteration to the next iteration and is calculated for each degree of freedom as
follows.
Z(^:r'
convergence monitor=^
uW
(=1
I
f Degree of freedom
'K' is current global iteration number
6. Solve the problem
The frontal solver is used for its solution. It involves:
a. After the individual element matrices are calculated, the solver reads in the
degree of freedom (DOF) for the first element.
b. The program eliminates any degrees of freedom that can be expressed in terms
of the other DOF by writing an equation to the .TRI file. This process repeats for
all the elements until all the degree of freedom have been eliminated and a
complete triangularized matrix is left on the .TRI file.
c. The term frequently used is the frontal solver is wave front. The wave front is
the number of degrees of freedom retained by the solver while triangularization
of the matrix.
7 Examine the results:
In this results are reviewed. For the problem the following results are obtained
a. The nodal solution plot of temperature distribution in thermal analysis.
b. Graph of the temperature variation with respect to the radial distance from the
point of application of the heat flux.
c. Graph of the temperature variation with respect to the depth of the workpiece
The extreme temperature gradients that occur during EDM results in extreme
nonuniformities in the local thermal expansion of work piece material which leads to
thermal stresses.
47
Assuming plain strain condition
The stress strain relationship due to temperature rise M is given by
Where
E = Young's modulus
v=Poisson's ratio
(21  Coefficient of thermal expansion
As r, & Fj are free hence both has the force component in both direction as
zero
/7^ = 0 and f =0
5. Convergence monitor
The convergence monitor for displacement is selected as 1 .Oe08 for accuracy in the
resuhs. The solution is achieved whenever the convergence monitor reaches at 1 .Oe08.
6. Solve the problem
7 examine the results:
In this results are reviewed. For the problem the following results are obtained
a) The nodal solution plot of the Von Mises stresses.
b) The principle stresses and the shear stresses.
c) Graph of the stress variation with respect to the radial distance from the point of
application of the heat flux of the wOrkpiece.
d) Graph of the stress variation with respect to the depth Of the workpiece.
49
1. In the analysis it has been taken that which ever element has three nodes with
temperature greater than the melting point HSS will fail due to melting
2. For the results of stress analysis it has been set that which ever element has three
nodes with stresses more then the yield stress of HSS will fail due to the
yielding of the metal due to the stresses.
5.2.1 program algorithm:
A C++ program is developed which takes the resuh of the FEM program and do
the necessary calculations. This developed program gives the results in the form of
amount of material removal per second. The algorithm followed for this analysis is as
follows.
1. Taking following inputs from the data files generated by the FEM program.
a) Element number and its coordinates.
b) Nodal coordinates with respect to global coordinate system.
c) Nodal temperature values.
d) Nodal principle stresses.
2. Take element nodes, and corresponding temperature and principle stresses.
3. Find the elements for which the temperature is more then the melting point.
4. Find the elements for which the failure criterion for the stresses is satisfied.
5. Add the areas of all those elements with temperature greater then melting
temperature and the elements which follow the failure criterion.
6. Since the plane strain is considered, the volume of material removed by a single
spark is given by the product of the area and the circumference of the spark area.
7. Now the material removal rate is calculated by dividing the material removed by
the total duty cycle of the pulse.
50
Chapter 6
Results and Discussion
Midi fiilliji
Ffeorc 6.1 Tcmperatore Isotherms tfne To Sinsle Spark for the Half Section Of
HSS Workpiece for Current^ 12 Amp, Voltaee^lOO Vohs. Poise Ontime^lOO
//Sec
A better picture of temperature distribution is obtained by plotting the
temperature along the radial and vertical direction (that is alojig depth) from point of
application of Spark.. Following graphs present the distribution of temperature over the
whole model at time 100 microseconds along radial and vertical directions.
'si
i " • 
POST.,, AN.'.". :•
STSPJ.
SUE = i X
•ri,'<.K=. J O O E  0 3
PATH I'LOT
.5456. >53S
1301.034,
4.U. 5. !.•;;:
\
\
\
0
^*^ EKXO^S;: 1
siTiyle spark
Figure 6.2 Temperature variation in Radial Direction Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
.1
.POSTl AN
JUL 4 ZOOS
3TEr=l
'  " • ' •  ' ' • ; < •  "
SUB =.!.!
T I K E  . .).00E03
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6 8 5 6 . fIS..
NOT'Z^l
TEHP
5if! 6 . <•*!?.
1
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1
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1
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1
l;;71.7«4. 1
sss.stz.
ft
I i ' i ' 1 • i ' 1
Uiin' •«• 2 )
?iric/.l.e .'r.pa..r.)t
Figure 6.3 Temperature variation Along Depth Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
52
6.1.1 Variation of Temperature with Current
Figure 6.4 shows the variation of temperature along the upper surface of the
workpiece. It can be seen from the Figure 6.4 as the current is increasing the
temperature is also increasing due to the heat flux input increase.
AN
STF,? 1
stJE
Ti>,
rvCH
r
.:c'.iF,():;
PIOT
Temperature Distributions for the Different "^i«
lap
(xlO*
Current Values along the Radial Direction from
1053.333
947.997
A i=12 amps
642.664
n m 737.331
O i=6 amps
m £31.998
526.665
C
421.332
315.999
210.666
105.333
r.iriyle ';;>;3rk
Figure 6.4 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values Along The
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec, Voltage= 100 Volts
Figure 6.5 shows the variation of temperature along the depth of the workpiece.
Results indicate that temperature is increases with the increase in current. Similar
results have been been obtained by Yadav et al. [29].
By comparing both the curves for different values of current in Figures 6.2 and
6.5 it can be said that the gradient of curve is steep along the depth. And the gradient
along the depth is high up to 0.00008m. The temperature variation along the radial
direction is present up to the distance of 0.00022m. From this it can be said that the
material removal will be more along the radial direction then along the depth.
53
POSTl
STEP1
AN
JUL 4 2005
SIB =11 V'..Vy.?.!
IIME=.lC0E03
PATH PLOT
Temperature Distributions for the PLcrr m. i
lEMP
Different Current Values along the Depth
A i=12 amps
0
^ i=6 amps
.7;
c
single spark
Figure 6.5 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values Along
Depth at Pulse Ontime=100 ju Sec, Voltage=100 Volts
6.1.2 Variation of Temperature with Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.6 and Figure 6.7 shows the variation of temperature along the radial
distance and along the depth of the work piece. From these curves it can be concluded
that as the pulse ontime is increased the temperature also increases. Same trend has
been obtained by Yadav et al. [29]. The trend for some particular initial radius
(somewhat equal to the spark radius i.e. 0.000125m) is large but after a particular radius
the trend is uniform. It can be supported by the reason that for as the heat flux is given
for a longer time the temperature near the centre will be high but after that there will be
uniform heat dissipation will occur.
For the curve along the depth of the workpiece we can say that, the curve is
steeper then the radial distance curve. As we will go deeper the gradient for the larger
pulse ontime curve is less as compared to the gradient of the lower pulse ontime curve,
this can be supported by the reason that for a longer pulse ontime, time left for heat
dissipation is less in each duty cycle. So it can be said that the temperature decrease
along the depth is less for longer pulse ontime.
54
wsn. APt
SSSM. jiz, i man
ISP
ValiKS aloi^ tlie Radial DiiBction fromtlw ceiire
uss.n
.0003 s
.0001s
aitiffia leisA
Figure 6.6 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
?CST1 AN
.9TEF=1 ,JUI. 4 200,')
SUE =11 14:46:37
TIffi=,lC0E03
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Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse PLOT NO. 1
13*
Time Values along the Depth
t=.OO03 s
H
m t=.0001s
7^
4)
:;ingle spark
Figure 6.7 Temperature Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.000lsec
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
55
6.1.3 Variation of Temperature with Voltage
As the discharge voltage is increased the temperature of the workpiece at a
particular point will increase both along the radial direction and along the depth as
shown in Figure 6.8 and Figure 6.9. It must be because of the of the increase of heat
flux value. The trend for voltage is similar as for current.
From all the above results of temperature analysis it can be concluded that, an
increase of temperature with increase of current is less as than with increase of pulse
ontime. By this we can say that more material will be removed with the increase of
current. But for the voltage we can say that the effect of discharge voltage and that of
the current is same. The gradients of voltage and the current curves are very much
similar.
1083.3»
^ 100 volts
Q 50 volts
n — 3 0 volts
(x10*'4)
1.2S
1.125
aiogXg g^aarjc
Figure 6.8 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontirae= 100// Sec
56
Bcsn AN
JUL 4 aoas
SIM? x10"4
I M S .333
M7.»!r7
£91.990^ 0  — 5 0 volts
521.££S
S
^31.333
•^ ^OvnlK
315.999
21D.CSC'
10S.333
0 .x10"4
.29 .9 .79 1 1.Z9
Sas .379 «'• ,979 1.129
DISTANCE
(M.)
aiwtlfr apaot
Figure 6.9 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec
57
Figure 6.10 Equivalent Stress Distribution Due To Single Spark for the Half
Section of HSS Workpiece: Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse
Ontime=100 /u Sec
1
POSTl AN
STEP=1 JUL 4 200S
. SUB = i 02:33:41
TIHK=1
PATH PLOT
N0D1=202
HS8.334^   
HQD2=102
S 1078.J06.
SEQV
958.572
838.836
719.004
599.17,

479.336,
3S9.S0Z.
239.658,
119.834.
(xl0»»3)
0 .25 .5 .75 1 1.25
.12i .375 .625 .875 1.125
DI S T
Fig 6.11 Von mises Stress variation in Radial Direction Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
58
1
POSTl AN
STEP=1 JUL 4 ZOOS
SUB =1 02:34:58
TIMK=1
PATH PLOT
N0D1=20Z
1198.334,
N0D2=1
a 1 0 7 8 . ,506 1
SEQV
958.672.
) 1
838 .838.
719.004.
;
599.17. 4
479.336.
359.502.
239.668
119.834
] (J:10**3)
0 .25 .5 •75 1 1.25
.125 .375 .625 .875 1.125
DIST
Figure 6.12 Von mises stress variation Along Depth Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 ju Sec
Figure 6.13 shows the stress components Sx, Sy, shear component Sxy and the Sequi
distributions along radial distance from the centre and along the depth have been shown.
By this figure we can say that there is a very large variation in the Sx component as
compared to the Sy and shear component Sxy. The curve for Sx is showing the similar
trend as given by Yadav et al.[7]. The equivalent stress distribution curve along the
depth of the workpiece is also showing a similar trend as of the results of Das et al. [6].
The curves for Sy and Sxy components of stress are also showing the exact trend as of the
results of Yadav et al.[7].
59
stress distribution along radial distance from
the centre
4.00E+09
3.00&«)9 
2.00E+09
0.00&K30
1.OO&09
— Sx
Sy
2.00e+09 — Sxy
 Sequt
4.OO&09
N N N rt n ^
r a d i a l tHatanttm (m)
(a)
4.00E<O9 +
(b)
FHsare 6.13 Stress Components Distribntion Dae To Sin$(le Spark at Carrent=12
Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse OntimcF^lOO // Sec (a) Along Radial Distance,
0 i =6 amps
.37.'; .(,25
DISTANCE
(M)
Figure 6.14 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values Along The
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=100 ^ Sec, Voltage= 100 Volts
Figure 6.15 shows the equivalent stress variation along the depth for different
values of current. From the curve it can be concluded that as the current value is
increase the stresses are also increasing. In the Figure 6.10 it is very clear that the
gradient of stress distribution curve along the depth is steeper then the curve along the
radial distance from the centre.
61
HHIL
JXHTKB. 1
s
StiBss Distiibudoiis tar Urn DiffeiBiit
surf CiuiBiit ValiBS ^hug tlie DepHi
A i =12 amps
0 i =6 amps
[^j«Ht)
I.IZS
i.za
DISTANCE
(M)
^\vi;^s o. ^^.
t/ /
it :if,;V
,v^. of Pulse Ontime
6.2.2 Equivalent Stress Variatipn^pr Differeat^akies
Figure 6.16 shows the equivaleht ^^ressjdistnbution along the radial direction for
different values of pulse ontime. Similar trend has been obtained for the temperature
distribution curve for different values of pulse ontime. Figure 6.17 shows the stress
distribution along the depth of the workpiece. The trend for the depth is same with the
trend that has been obtained by Das et al. [6]. From these figures it can be said that the
stress value have increased with the increase of pulse ontime but the increase is less as
compared to the increase with current. Hence it can be concluded that the value of stress
increases more with current then with the pulse ontime.
the increase is less as compared to the increase with current.
62
PCSTl AN
JUL 4 20C5
:;
Stress Distributions for the Different Pulse Time '"'^ " '
Values along the Radial Direction
Figure 6.16 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along
Radial Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
Ksa Mir ^
ijiattss
wsHnsm stress Distributions fbrflte Different Pulse Time Values
BSD along the Depth
t = 0.003 s
t = 0.001 s
1,»
.125
DISTANCE fM)
Figure 6.17 Stress Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.OO0lsec
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, VoItage= 100 Volts
63
6.2.3 Equivalent Stress Variation for Different Values of Voltages
Figure 6.18 shows the variation of stress along the radial direction for different
values of voltage. The trend shows that as the value of voltage increases the stresses are
also increasing and the trend has somewhat equal gradient as that for the curve for the
current.
Figure 6.19 shows the variation of stress along the depth of the work piece for
different values of voltages. By this it can be concluded that as the voltage is increased
there is an increase in the stress value at a particular point. This curve also has
somewhat same gradient as of the curve for current.
POSTl AN
.';TE.P=I
SUB =1 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltage Values '^uso?!
•TmE=i " PLOT MO. 1
P?IH PLOT
SEQV
Along the Radial Direction
^ — . . 100 volts
O 50 volts
D 30 volts
(xl0«*4)
DISTANCE
(M)
Figure 6.18 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec
64
POSTl AN
S1EP=1 .TtJi.
'i zoo;:.
SUB =1 Stress Distributions for the Different 14.51.56
PLOT W. 1
TIt'E=l
PATH PLOT Voltage Values along the Depth
SEQV
^ 100 volts
Q 50 volts
D 30 volts
,v c/> 838.25
875 1.125
DISTANCE
(M)
Figure 6.19 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec
1 30 12 100 0.006.42
2 50 12 100 0.008.08
3 100 12 100 0.06.55
4 100 12 300 0.03.49
5 100 6 100 0.01.95
65
All the results obtained are well below the maximum MRR given in literature [32] for
given process parameters. This is due fact of several assumptions made and other
simplification during analysis.
6.3.1 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Current.
Figure 6.20 shows the variation of the data obtained by the theoretical model
developed, and the experimental results for different values of current. As seen from all
the figure the value of material removal rate from theoretical model is less as compared
to the experimental. The error ranges from 30% 50%. It is because we have taken the
heat flux as the input for material removal, which is assumed to be linearly dependent
on the current. But in real situation the relation is not linear but nonlinear as stated by
Wang et al. [4]. Hence when the current value increases the error increases.
7E11
6E11 
t =0.0001 sec. ^ ^
5E11 1
V=100volt / ^
a: 4E11 
S 3E11 
2E11 i
1E11 1
i _,—^
0 4^^^r::^ —
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CURRENT
Figure 6.20 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Current.
By the Figure 6.20 we can also Conclude that the as the current value is
increased the material removal rate is also increasing both by experimentally and
theoretically. This can also be verified from the literature. The increase of material
removal rate with the increase of current can be explained by the reason that higher
current leads to higher discharge energy and energy density, thus increasing the material
removal rate.
66
6.3.2 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.21 show the variation of the data obtained by the theoretical model
developed, and the experimental results for different values of pulse ontime for different
conditions.
Figure 6.21 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Pulse Ontime
As seen from the trend, the theoretical modeling results and the experimental
results are both showing an increase of material removal rate with the pulse ontime.
This trend has also been seen in the results of Jilani et al. [5]. But the rate of increase of
the material removal rate is less as compared to the material removal rate results for
increase of current. The increase of material removal rate with the increase of pulse
ontime can be explained by the reason that when the pulse ontime is long, the large
discharge energy with low energy density will causes most of the material in the
discharge area to be removed in the form of melting. During pulse offtime, the crater is
partly smeared by the liquid phase, which leads to a thick resolidified layer. On the
other hand, the thermal affected layer, in which micro cracks formed, is also thick
because of the long time conduction of heat. Longer pulse ontime leads a deeper and
wider melting, thus increasing the material removal rate.
67
6.3.3 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Discharge Voltages
Figure 6.22 shows the variation of the experimental results with the theoretical
results of the model developed. From the Figure 6.18 it can be concluded that as the
voltage is increased the material removal rate also increases. The trend is showing that
as the voltage is increased the error between the theoretical and the experimental values
are increasing. The cause of this is that the voltage is not related to the MRR by a linear
relationship, but with a nonlinear relationship. It has been reported by Delpretti et al.
[30]. It has also been reported by Delpretti that the material removal increases more
with the increase of voltage then with the current.
Figure 6.22 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Discharge Voltage
68
Chapter 7
Conclusion and Future Scope
The aim of the present work was to develop a finite element model for the electro
discharge machining process and to analyze the temperature and stress distribution
pattern inside the workpiece in EDM process. To study the effects of current, pulse
ontime and discharge vohage on the machining rate. To predict the material removal
rate considering a failure criterion for the material failure and FEM data.
Based on the investigations carried out the following conclusions can be drawn.
:=^ The model also shows that the material removal is more due to melting then due
to the thermal spalling.
=> The developed model also predicts that the material removal is more along the
radial direction then along the depth.
:=> The developed model also shows that as the current is increasing the material
removal rate is increasing.
^ The developed model also shows that as the pulse ontime is increasing the
material removal rate is increasing.
=^The finite element model developed for single spark for EDM process is
predicting the temperature variation with reasonable accuracy.
=> The finite element model developed for single spark for EDM process is
predicting the stress variation with reasonable accuracy.
:=> The developed model also shows that as the discharge voltage is increasing the
=:> As this analysis is for single spark and the assumption made, that the total
energy of the pulse is within one spark, the stresses and temperature that are
obtained are less and thus, the material removal rate is less as compared to the
experimental results.
=> The temperature and stress analysis confirms that the mechanisms of material
removal in High Speed Steel are melting and evaporation due to the
temperature increase and thermal spalling due to high stresses developed.
69
=> The developed model shows that the increase in material removal rate with the
increase of current and discharge voltage is more as compared to the increase of
material removal rate with the increase of pulse ontime.
=> As the material removal rate is not linearly dependent on the voltage, hence the
model developed is showing low material removal rate as compared to the
experimental results.
Future Scope of Work
"^ Study can be carried out by developing a model for multiple sparks to
accommodate the discrepancies of the present developed model.
=^ Study can be carried out to investigate the effects of various parameters like,
type of dielectric, pulse frequency, etc., on the material removal rate.
=> The heat affected zone should be calculated and should be analyzed to obtain its
effect on the material removal in the further studies.
=> Though in this study, thermal conductivity and specific heat have been taken as
different at different temperatures and all other material properties have been
taken as a constant value. Further work can be done by considering variation of
other material properties with temperature. Also material properties can be
taken in the functional form i.e. a function of field variable (here a function of
temperature) instead of taking their discrete values at different temperatures to
obtain more accurate results.
70
REFERENCES
71
12. A. Erden, "Role Of Dielectric Flushing On Electric Discharge Machining
Performance", Proceedings Of The TwentyThird International Machine Tool
Design & Research Conference, Birmingham, 283289, 1982.
13.J.A. McGeough and H. Rasmussen, "A Macroscopic Model of Electro
Discharge Machining", International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture,
22,333339,1982.
14. H. Hocheng, W.T. Lei and H.S. Hsu, "Preliminary Study Of Material Removal
In Electrical Discharge Machining Of Sic/Al", Journal Of Material Processing
Technology, 63, 813818,1997.
15. F. Van Dijck, "PhysicoMathematical Analysis Of EDM Process", Ph.D thesis,
Katholieke university, Netherlands ,1973.
16. Heng Xia and Masanori Kunieda, "Research On Machining Characteristics Of
PolarityChanged Pulse In EDM", Proceedings Of The Xf' ISEM, 1995.
17. H.C. Tsai, B.H. Yan and F.Y.Huang, "EDM Performance Of Cr/Cu Based
Composite Electrodes", International Journal Of Machine Tools & Manufacture,
43,245252,2003.
18. Ajit Singh and Amitabh Ghosh, " A ThermoElectric Model Of Material
Removal During Electric Discharge Machining", International Journal Of
Machine Tools & Manufacture, 39, 669682,1998.
19. R. Karthikeyan, P.R. Lakshmi Narayanan and R.S. Naagarazan, "Mathematical
Modeling For Electric Discharge Machining Of Aluminium Silicon Carbide
Particulate Composites", Journal Of Material Processing Technology, 87, 5963,
1999.
20. Li Li, Y.S. Wong, J.Y.H. Fuh And L. Lu, " EDM Performance Of Tic/Copper
Based Sintered Electrodes", Materials And Design, 22, 669678, 2001.
21. F. Kaldes, "Flushing The Gap In EDM", Personal Communication.
22. Masanori Kunieda And Masahiro Yoshida, " EDM In Gas", Annals Of CIRP,
46, 143146, 1997.
23. Fritz Klocke, Thorsten Beck, Stefan Hoppe, Tilo Krieg, Nobert MuUer, Tobias
Nothe, HansWilli Raedt, And Kevin Sweeney, " Examples Of FEM
Application In Manufacturing Technology", Journal Of Material Processing
Technology, 120, 450457, 2002.
72
24. A.M. Gagalla And N.F. Petrofes, Materials And Manufacturing Processes,
Vol.5, No.2, 253, 1991.
25. T.C. Lee And W.S. Lau, Materials And Manufacturing Processes, Vol.5, No.4,
635, 1991.
26. Robert D Cook, David S. Malker, Michael E. Plesha, Concepts And
Applications Of Finite Element Analysis {3"^ Edition), John Wiley And Sons,
1989.
27. Desai, Abel, Introduction To Finite Element Method, A Numerical Method For
Engineering Analysis, CBS Publishers And Distributors, 1987.
28. P. Shankar, V.K.Jain, T.Sundarajan, "Analysis Of Spark Profile During EDM
Process", Machining Scienceand Technology, 1(2), 195217, 1997.
29. Vinod Yadav, Vijay K. Jain, And Prakash M. Dixit, " Temperature Distribution
During ElectroDischarge Abrasive Grinding", Machining Science And
Technology, 6(1), 97127,2002.
30. R. Delpretti, Dr. D.F. Dauw, " Geometrical Simulation Of The EDM Die
Sinking Process", Annals Of The CIRP, Vol 37(1), 191196,1988.
31. Operating manual for Electric Discharge Machine Model T3822 , Electronica
Engineering, Mukund Nagar , Pune
32. F.T. Weng , M.G. Her, "Study of the Batch Production of Micro Parts Using
the EDM process", Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2002) 19:266270 2002
SpringerVerlag London Limited.
73
APPENDIX A
PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
This example demonstrates the coupled field analysis (a transient thermal
analysis follwed by static structural analysis) of single spark EDM process.
An axis symmetric model is considered and the whole analysis is carried
out on the 2D surface equivalent of the model. While defining the material
properties the variable heat conductivity and the variable specific heat is
considered with each of them varying with the temperature hitherto.
The material properties used in the analysis are listed in Appendix C.
SOLUTION APPROACH
A thermal analysis using Quad 4 node 55 element will be performed first.
The results of this thermal analysis stored in the "*.rth" file are the applied
as input to the structural analysis (using Quad4 node 42 element) and stress
results are obtained. The overall material removal is due to effect of both
the melting of work piece and due thermal spalling of material. An
important step in the analysis is to apply the complex equation based heat
flux and convection loads. The results of the analysis are listed down in a
file and results obtained from analysis are used to calculate the material
removal rate (MRR) of model by using them in a computer programme.
SUMMARY OF STEPS
PREPROCESSING
74
1. Specify the title
2. Set preferences
3. Define element type and options
4. Define material properties
5. Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
6. Mesh the model
7. Apply the Heat flux and Convection loads 
8. Apply the boundry conditions
SOLUTION
1. Set the analysis type
2. Set output controls
3. Define load step options for transient analysis
4. solve
POST PROCESSSSSING
1. Read the result set
2. Plot the dof Temp and Von mises stress solution for nodal
solution
3. List the nodal dof solution
4. Plot temperature &stress on depth and radial paths defined on
graph
5. Exit ANSYS programme.
75
INTERACTIVE STEP BY STEP SOLUTION
> PREPROCESSING
1.Specify title
Utility menu ^file ^ change title
[ i 1 Change Title
S;:iII
[/TITLE] Enler new title \ .: Thermal analysis of single spark EDt^l prJDcess
c 1 I
I, . ^ t »
T MagneticEdge
F Electric
Note If no indu'iduaj disciplines arc selected they v'lil all shoiv. yi nJ:^ ^5s'.^v ^&.
i _ _
^ Discipline options , ,
' * ^ hMethod
C pI'lethod struct
> 'i 
Defined Element Types;
.ype 1 PLANE55
! s
'/\
77
5 5 Conductivity for Material Number I
s^:i.
^••'B .»—J filSpeclRc Heat for Material Number 1
ft: ill
Conductivity (Isotropic) for Material Number 1 Specific Heat for Material Number 1
IjVl
Add Temperature Delete .Temperature Graph ; Add Temperature Delete Temperature 'Graph I
fr»
if OKc?ff¥calcel. l' .Help OK Cancel Help 1
ANS^
JUH 29 2005
11:33:23
78
f. Click 'Graph' on conductivity and specific heat window
to see the graphical variation of respective properties with
temperature
g. Material> Exit
fllRectangle by 2 Comet's %M
P/,Pick '•<";
S A *.*."•
UP X
5 .Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
Mainmenu ^Preprocessor ^Modeling ^
Create ^Area ^Rectangle ^By 2 corners >Globa.l<jX?=,
1 *"« 1^,*
a. Give x,y=0 Y
Width, height =.00125 Z
b. OK "P X
6. Mesh the model ""P *V
M(3/« menu^Preprocessor ^Meshing^Mesh tool ji/idth .0^25
a. Click on 'set' button in front of "AREA" inci^hti * .QQ125I
t V ^ *
b.Select the area and click apply
C.Enter the Element edge length=.0000125 OK •
d.OK Reset { Cancel
Main menu^Preprocessor>Meshing^Mesh tool Help
a.Click Mesh
b. Select area and apply
c.OK
d.Close Mesh tool
^ E l e m e n t Size a t Picked Areas 2<1
. i ••,
[ AESIZE] Element size at picked areas
N ^f'
^^IL Sff^ [ Help
!^t"^lr:r«f*^'
7. Apply Heat flux and convection
•t* M(3z« menu^Preprocessor^Load^Define
Load^Apply ^Thermal ^Function ^Define/Edit
a. Click on 'multivalued function based on regime variable'
b. In box designate 'x' as regime variable
c. Click on 'Regime 1' tab
d. Set the range for x from 0 to .000125
e. Write the expression for heat flux in result box
79
f. Write comment and save file.
<* Main menu"^Preprocessor>Load>Defme Load> Apply
•^Thermal^Function>Read file
a. Browse for the saved file (saved in last step) and open it
b. In function loader opened give title
c. Input values of any constant quantities asked by function loader
d. OK
FnFunction Editor QlFunction Loader
• File Edit Help  t Jtu • f7 Commentj .
I *
I' heal f'jxFinal
Fundfon Regime 1 iReg me Z (Reg me 3 I Reg rre 4  Regime S ] Regime 6 
r^AX \ SIN
I ' I g 1' I ' I~ I •
Ra Acqs.', jp'^x r Constait Va'ues',—^
1J_A^
80
[fPDC] Boundary condition symbol
ISs'l •
fS" All ESC+Reaution d
C" All Applird BCs
r^ All Reactions
r^* None
f^ Tor ZndividLial
IniliMrlunI symhol \ch dl ilnn(s)
1 ^ Applied EJC'i
to Ln d i s p l ^ / r d
17 Pfictions
1 7 (Miscellaneous
r/P'>VMn] o t h e r SymhoKt
CS ,,ocal coordnato sj^stem
  jk I~)OfF
NDIR Nodal coordinate%ystim
. njOfF
E S / S Elfmint coord'nato s><s ^
' r~,OtF
. LDIV Line element divisions ft
 '*•. . ,''v«t."
LDIR I inc direction. » V»
• [wf i,hfd
3:
. r~.OfF
K*' '  . . • ? » ,
Help
Single spark
82
> SOLUTION
<V Transient
(^Substructuring
'l"
'V I
Help
/!.'*•:%,'i,
C Reset
C None
C At time points
C Last substep
(* Every substep
4 i f f A ^ •'fl
"V
T5 Apply Cancel Help
OK
•v •'f ¥f
J
83
3. Define load step options for transient analysis
Main menu ^ solution ^Load step options ^
Time/Frequency^Time and sub steps
a. Enter .0001 for 'Time at the end of load step'
b. Enter 15 for 'No. of substeps'
c. Select' stepped'
d. Enter 50 for ' Max no. of sub steps'
e. Enter 10 for 'Min no. of sub steps'
f. OK
MTime and Substep Options
, 1*
, f» h j  i . r 1 r
i * 1 1 *» .
[NSUBST]lli n T • • M >• f f t .•' •>
fT
trritSZ  '  3 
t *•
r •
4V IV
F > « « I
4. SOLVE
Main menu> solution^solve^ Current LS
a. Close any warning messages appearing
b. Press OK when solution is done
84
> POSTPROCESSING
i s m "Sp'SW^?':
Temperature TEMP
^ r"!>Def + undeformed
^ABf§#srdre
s
iOrneConfe
::^%:J^^
'^,5^"if.V*.4 % { § ^  ^ » ^ j , 0 ^ 2 Corner^ inidsfdeM^ •
7 " '•"t^'^'^'^.'rrtAllap'pllcabte
i^i t^^i
85
iAiit:i«mRn.mm?fi7ii .^^
[PRNSOL] List^Nodal Solution
ii i^ T „ ^ _c"2'"jre
„„,t TEMP
.>* .
OK , AppI/ .j:r
 "^•:)".
i'o ''S^i'¥^kS^iil^'^iP^.i*if'^ !Z 1 a^
r ~ T !• r 1 1 •• rr .  kr . ^ •. ^ 'I

^ir *,'H r r
•r'i
2 •• ?
X,Y,Z."Locati 1'
csl;;inte?f.' .
..v5ii«"«ip> "'
NOTE: The r r L1 '
•Ti ' It 1
•' V ' the nurrr*
* •A
" • • *
«
• • • 'VL  h
**t^ _
H
f. Enter path point no= 1
g. Give its location in Global coordinate system as
0,.00125,0
h. OK
i. Now enter path point no=2
j . Give global coordinates as .00125,.00125,0
k. OK
1. Cancel
OK Cancel Help
87
Now the structural anlysis is carried out with results from
thermal analysis as input.
> PREPROCESSING
2. Set preferences
Main menu ^preferences
'.'i.r:ANS¥S Fluid
'I. rfaOTRANCFD
Electroroagnettci
P.MagnetlcNodal
P:MaonetlcEdQe
r •• •
* r^r'i^3.i
•' •^»' I
88
e. Close
4.Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
Mainmenu^Preprocessor^ Modeling^
Created Area^Rectangle^By 2 comers
a. Give x,y=0
Width, height = 00125
b.OK
5. Mesh the model
Main menu>Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh tool
a. Click on 'set' button in front of "AREA"
b.Select the area and click apply
C.Enter the Element edge length=.0000125
d.OK
Main menu>Preprocessor^Meshing>Mesh tool
a.ClickMesh IMBuSSSHlSSHMHIHIMH^ ...2d
b. Select area and apply [RESIZE] Ele,rents,ze.tp,ck,da'ea^ ^.*. W
C.OK • SIZE_Eleirent edgeIsnsth ; .  i.25e005
> SOLUTION
89
1.Set analysis type
Main menu> solution^ Analysis Type> New Analysis
e. Select 'staticiiSINew Analysis
[ATJTrTrJ  _ T V ' p * ' o r " c ' m l y a s ^ ' ' ' ^ ^^
lu
f. OK
rjKterirSirlic
rz Spa'ctrum
r.ElgonBucklhg
91
">"'!r5i I iij I 11 inM.
92
APPENDIX B
93
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, 0.3000000E+03, 0.8000000E+03, 0.1200000E+04,
0.1500000E+04,
MPDATA,C , 1, l,0.4770000E+03,0.5820000E+03,
0.6400000E+03, 0.6820000E+03,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.3000000E+03,
MPDATA,PRXY, 1, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.2900000E+00,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1,0.OOOOOOOE+00,
MPDATA,ALPX, 1, 1, 0.1780000E04,
94
APPENDIX C
/PREP7
!*
ET,1,PLANES 5
!*
I*
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP,1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
MPDATA,DENS,1„
MPDATA,DENS,1„7900
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPDE,DENS,1
MPDATA,DENS,1„7900
95
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP,1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
MPDATA,EX,1„
MPDATA,EX,l„.l93el2
MPDATA,PRXY,1„
MPDATA,PRXY,1,,29
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,3 00
MPDE,EX,1
MPDE,PRXY,1
MPDATA,EX, 1 „ 1.93E+011
MPDATA,PRXY,1„0.29
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
UIMP,1,REFT„,
MPDATA,ALPX,1„
MPDATA,ALPX, 1 „. 178e4
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,3 00
UIMP,1,REFT„,
MPDE,ALPX,1
MPDATA,ALPX, 1 „ 1.78E005
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPTEMP,2,800
MPTEMP,3,1200
MPTEMP,4,1500
MPDATA,KXX,1„14.9
MPDATA,KXX,1„22.6
MPDATA,KXX,1„28
MPDATA,KXX,1„31.7
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPTEMP,2,800
MPTEMP,3,1200
MPTEMP,4,1500
MPDATA,C,1„477
MPDATA,C,1„582
MPDATA,C,1„640
MPDATA,C,1„682
96
BLC4,0,0,.00125,.00125
FLST,2,l,5,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
AESIZE,P51X,.0000125,
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0
!*
CM,_Y,AREA
CM,_Y1,AREA
CHKMSH,'APIEA'
CMSEL,S,_Y
!*
AMESH,_Y1
!*
CMDELE,_Y
CMDELE,_Y1
CMDELE,_Y2
!*
!*
ANTYPE,4
!*
TRNOPT,FULL
LUMPM,0
!*
FLST,2,3,4,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,1
FITEM,2,2
FITEM,2,4
/GO
!*
SFL,P51X,HFLUX,0,
FLST,2,90,1,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,203
FITEM,2,291
/GO
!*
SF,P51X,CONV,500,350
/STAT,GLOBAL
FLST,2,2,l,ORDE,2
FITEM,2,291
97
FITEM,2,292
/GO
!*
SF,P51X,CONV,500,350
/STAT,GLOBAL
SAVE,start from here,db,F:\FROMC~l\YOGITH~l\MODELS~l\
*DEL,_FNCNAME
*DEL,_FNCMTID
*DEL,_FNC_C1
*DEL,_FNC_C2
*DEL,_FNC_C3
* SET,_FNCNAME,'fluxing'
*DIM,_FNC_C1„2
*DIM,_FNC_C2„2
*DIM,_FNC_C3„2
*SET,_FNC_C1(2),100
*SET,_FNC_C2(2),12
*SET,_FNC_C3(2),.000125
!/INPUT,.\WORK\eqn.000125\heatflu.func
*DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,22,2
I
! Begin of equation: {X}
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1), 0.0, 999
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1), 1.0, 99, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,4,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,5,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,6,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,7,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,8,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,9,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,10,1), 0
* SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,11,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,12,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,13,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,14,1), 0
98
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,15,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,16,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,17,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,18,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,19,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,20,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,21,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,22,1), 0
End of equation: {X}
99
nsel,s,loc,y,.00125
nsel,R,loc,x,0,.000125
sf,all,HFLUX,%fluxing%
/STAT,GLOBAL
FINISH
/SOL
!*
TIME,.0001
AUTOTS,!
NSUBST,15,20,10,1
KBC,1
!*
TSRES,ERASE
/STAT,GLOBAL
/STATUS,SOLU
SOLVE
FINISH
/POSTl
SET,LIST,999
SET,LAST
/EFACE,!
!*
PLNSOL,TEMP, ,0,
PRNSOL,TEMP,
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,102
!*
PATH,radial,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
!*
PDEF, ,TEMP, ,AVG
/PBC,PATH, ,0
100
PLPATH,S,TEMP
/UI,COPY,S AVE,JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,1
!*
PATH,vertical,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
I
PDEF,STAT
!*
PDEF, ,TEMP, ,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,TEMP
/UI,COPY,S AVE, JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 1 GO
/DIST,1,1.08222638492,1
/REP,FAST
/BATCH
/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 8.0 UP20030930 02:25:05 07/04/2005
!*
/NOPR
/PMETH,OFF,0
KEYW,PR_SET,1
KEYW,PR_STRUC,1
KEYW,PR_THERM,0
KEYW,PR_FLUID,0
KEYW,PR_ELMAG,0
KEYW,MAGNOD,0
101
KEYW,MAGEDG,0
KEYW,MAGHFE,0
KEYW,MAGELC,0
KEYW,PR_MULTI,0
KEYW,PR_CFD,0
/GO
!*
/COM,
/COM,Preferences for GUI filtering have been set to display:
/COM, Structural
I*
/PREP7
!*
ET,1,PLANE42
!*
MPREAD,'stressmodelpropertiesVmp','F:\from c\yogithesis\textresultsV
!*
BLC4,0,0,.00125,.00125
FLST,2,l,5,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
AESIZE,P51X,.0000125,
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0
!*
CM,_Y,AREA
CM,_Y1,AREA
CHKMSH,'AREA
CMSEL,S,_Y
!*
AMESH,_Y1
!*
CMDELE,_Y
CMDELE,_Y1
CMDELE,_Y2
!*
!*
ANTYPE,0
FLST,2,2,4,ORDE,2
FITEM,2,1
FITBM,2,4
1*
102
/GO
DL,P51X, ,UX,0
FLST,2,l,4,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
!*
/GO
DL,P51X, ,UY,0
FLST,2,301,1,ORDE,4
FITEM,2,1
FITEM,2,2
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,400
!*
/GO
F,P51X,FX,0
FLST,2,201,1,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,2
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,301
!*
/GO
F,P51X,FY,0
ALLSEL,ALL
SAVE,start here stress,db,F:\FROMC~l\YOGITH~l\MODELS~l\
LDREAD,TEMP,„.0001, /startfromhere'/rth',''
FINISH
/SOL
!*
ANTYPE,0
/STATUS,SOLU
SOLVE
FINISH
/POSTl
SET,LAST
/EFACE,!
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PRNSOL,S,PRIN
NPLOT
103
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,102
!*
PATH,radial,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
AVPJaN,0,,
!*
PDEF, ,S,EQV,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,SEQV
/UI,COP Y,S AVE,JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,1
!*
PATH,veritica,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PDEF, ,S,EQV,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,SEQV
AJI,COPY,S AVE, JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
FINISH
! /EXIT,ALL
104
APPENDIX D
The Visual BASIC programme for finding out the overall material
removal rate (MRR) due to temperature is as follows:
r=0
Forp = l To 100
Forq=lTolOO
xTempl = Xcor(Element(q + r, 1))
COUNT1=0
C0UNT2 = 0
For I = 1 To 4
NodeTemp = Tmpt((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTemp(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTemp(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
Nodestress  stress((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTempl(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTempl(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, I)))
If IsNumeric(Textl .Text) Then
If NodeTemp >= CDbl(Textl.Text) Then
C0UNT1=C0UNT1+1
End If
IfC0UNTl>2Then
If XCorTemp(l) > xTempl Then
Radius(p) = XCorTemp(l)
Else
Radius(p) = xTempl
End If
'Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))
106
End If
Else
res = MsgBoxC'PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL
TEMPERATURE", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
If IsNumeric(Text2.Text) Then
If Nodestress >= CDbl(Text2.Text) Then
C0UNT2 = C0UNT2 + 1
End If
IfCOUNT2>2Then
If XCorTempl(l) > xTempl Then
If XCorTempl(l) > Radius(p) Then
Radiusstress(p) = XCorTempl(l)
Else
Radiusstress(p) = 0
End If
End If
End If
'Textboxl .Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl .Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))
Else
res = MsgBox("PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL stress
value", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
Nextl
Next q
r = r+ 100
Area = 3.14 * Radius(p) * Radius(p)
VolTemp(p) = Area * H
Volstress(p) = ((3.14 * Radiusstress(p) * Radiusstress(p) * H) 
VolTemp(p))
If(Volstress(p)<0)Then
Volstress(p) = 0
End If
Nextp
107
Fors = l To 100
TotalTempVol = TotalTempVol + VolTemp(s)
TotalstressVol = TotalstressVol + Volstress(s)
Next s
Totalvol = TotalTempVol + TotalstressVol
Textbox2. Visible = True
Labels .Visible = True
Textbox2.Text = "VOL REMOVED =" + CStr(Totalvol)
TextBox3. Visible = True
Label4.Visible = True
TextBox3.Text  "VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS =" +
CStr(TotalstressVol)
Textbox4.Visible = True
Textbox4.Text = "VOL REMOVED dUE TO temp =" +
CStr(TotalTempVol)
End Sub
Private Sub Text3_Change()
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()
End Sub
108
THE USER INTERFACE FOR EXECUTING THIS PROGRAMME IS
GIVEN BELOW IN PICTORIAL FORM.
SI.PR03ECT uHisl
ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL VOLUME BEMOVEO dUE TO STRESS
.TEMPERATURE IN BOX
VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS
*1600 '34114G4S7125E10
VERSION 5.00
Begin VB.Form Forml
Caption = "PROJECT"
ClientHeight = 3465
ClientLeft = 60
ClientTop =450
ClientWidth = 8940
LinkTopic = "Forml"
ScaleHeight = 3465
ScaleWidth = 8940
StartUpPosition = 3 'Windows Default
Begin VB.TextBox Textbox4
Height =735
Left = 4995
Tablndex = 9
Top = 1350
Width =3915
End
Begin VB.TextBox TextBox3
Height =615
Left = 4905
109
MuItiLine = 1 True
Tablndex = 8
Top  315
Width = 3960
End
Begin VB.TextBox Text2
Height = 735
Left = 90
Tablndex = 5
Top = 1620
Width = 3420
End
Begin VB.TextBox Textl
Height = 615
Left  45
Tablndex  2
Top = 495
Width = 3495
End
Begin VB.TextBox Textbox2
Height = 615
Left = 4995
MuItiLine = 1 'True
Tablndex = 1
Top = 2520
Width = 3780
End
Begin VB.CommandButton Commandl
Caption = "START"
Height = 735
Left = 90
Tablndex = 0
Top = 2520
Width = 2055
End
Begin VB.Label Label5
Caption = "VOLUME REMOVED DUE TO
TEPMPERATURE"
Height = 285
Left = 4995
Tablndex = 10
Top = 1035
110
Width =3615
End
Begin VB.Label Label4
Caption = "VOLUME REMOVED dUE TO STRESS"
Height =315
Lejft = 4905
Tablndex = 7
Top = 0
Width =3165
End
Begin VB.Label Label2
Caption = "ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL STRESS AND
PRESS START"
Height = 495
Left = 0
Tablndex = 6
Top =1125
Width = 3405
End
Begin VB .Label Label3
Caption = "MRR="
Height =255
Left = 4275
Tablndex = 4
Top = 2760
Visible = 0 Talse
Width =735
End
Begin VB.Label Label 1
Caption = "ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL TEMPERATURE
IN BOX"
Height = 495
Left = 90
Tablndex = 3
Top = 0
Width = 3390
End
End
Attribute VB_Name = "Forml"
Attribute VB_GlobalNameSpace = False
Attribute VB_Creatable = False
Attribute VB_PredeclaredId = True
111
Attribute VB_Exposed = False
Dim Element(l To 10000, 1 To 4) As Integer, i As Integer, j As Integer, k
As Integer, _
1 As Integer, m As Integer, n As Integer, p As Integer, q As Integer, _
r As Integer, s As Integer, t As Integer, TempoElem As Integer
112
res = MsgBox("reading elements", vbOKOnly, "msg")
F o r i = l To 10000
Forj = l T o 4
Input #1, Element(i, j)
Next j
Next i
res = MsgBox("press ok to start reading TEMPERATURE & stress values
for nodes", vbOKOnly, "CONFIRM")
F o r k = l To 10201
Input #2, Tmpt(k)
Input#3,Xcor(k),Ycor(k)
Input #4, stress(k)
Nextk
Close #1
Close #2
Close #3
Close #4
r=0
Forp= 1 To 100
F o r q = l To 100
xTempl = Xcor(Element(q + r, 1))
COUNT 1 = 0
C0UNT2 = 0
For 1 = 1 To 4
NodeTemp = Tmpt((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTemp(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTemp(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
Nodestress = stress((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTempl(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTempl(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
If IsNumeric(Textl.Text) Then
If NodeTemp >= CDbl(Textl.Text) Then
COUNT 1 = COUNT 1 + 1
End If
IfC0UNTl>2Then
If XCorTemp(l) > xTempl Then
Radius(p) = XCorTemp(l)
Else
113
Radius(p) = xTempl
End If
'Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible  True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))
End If
Else
res = MsgBoxC'PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL
TEMPERATURE", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
If IsNumeric(Text2.Text) Then
If Nodestress >= CDbl(Text2.Text) Then
C0UNT2 = C0UNT2 + 1
End If
IfCOUNT2>2Then
If XCorTempl(l) > xTempl Then
If XCorTemp 1 (1) > Radius(p) Then
Radiusstress(p) = XCorTemp 1 (I)
Else
Radiusstress(p) = 0
End If
End If
End If
Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))
Else
res = MsgBox("PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL stress
value", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
Nextl
Next q
r = r+100
Area = 3.14 * Radius(p) * Radius(p)
VolTemp(p) = Area * H
Volstress(p) = ((3.14 * Radiusstress(p) * Radiusstress(p) * H) 
VolTemp(p))
114
If(Volstress(p)<0)Then
Volstress(p) = 0
End If
Next p
Fors= 1 To 100
TotalTempVol = TotalTempVol + VolTemp(s)
TotalstressVol = TotalstressVol + Volstress(s)
Next s
Totalvol = TotalTempVol + TotalstressVol
Textbox2.Visible = True
Label3. Visible = True
Textbox2.Text  "VOL REMOVED =" + CStr(Totalvol)
TextBoxS .Visible  True
Label4.Visible = True
TextBox3.Text = "VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS =" +
CStr(TotalstressVol)
Textbox4,Visible = True
115