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FEM MODELING AND COUPLED FILLED ANALYSIS OF

EDM PROCESS USING ANSYS

A DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the award of the degree
of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
' IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

i By
PRAMENDRA KUMAR BAJPAI
Roll No: 776/03
Registration No: 2K3-NITK-542

Under the Esteemed Guidance of


Dr.K.C.GOYAL . MV+AI--^^^^
Professor ^ } ^ ^ ^ ^'^ ^

^C^t^

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA
(DEEMED UNIVERSITY)
KURUKSHETRA-136119 (INDIA)
Session 2004-05
OS

-.---^^^v^

^>.

' V ^ , IK • ^ - '
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Deemed University)
KURUKSHETRA -136 119 (Haryana) INDIA

Dated.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled "FEM MODELING AND


COUPLED ANALYSIS OF EDM PROCESS USING ANSYS" which is
submitted by Mr. PRAMENDRA KUMAR BAJPAI, towards partial
fulfillment of the requirements, for the award of the degree of MASTER
OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OF
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KURUKSHETRA,
KURUKSHETRA, is a record of student's own work carried out by him
under my supervision and guidance. The matter contained in this
dissertation has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.

.^
'\'
5-
Dated: (Dr. K. C. GOYAL)
Place : Kurukshetra Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
N.I.T. Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra
Haryana-136119 (India)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. K. C.


Goyal, Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, N.I.T. Kurukshetra,
Kurukshetra, for his inspirational guidance and whole hearted cooperation
throughout the duration of this work. His valuable suggestions and help in
writing this manuscript are unparalleled, without which this dissertation
report could not have come into its present form. I would also wish to thank
him for showing interest and grooming my interest in this topic. I am highly
indebted in this regard and submit my sincere thanks for making his
guidance a pleasant experience.
I also place on record my sincere thanks to Dr. S. K. Sharma,
Chairman of Mechanical Engineering Department, N.I.T. Kurukshetra for
giving me an opportunity to undertake this dissertation work.
At last but not least I would like to thank my friends who have helped
me one way or other for the successful completion of my dissertation work.

Place . Kurukshetra (PRAMENDRA KUMAR BAJPAI)


Dated: ZS/oj/oS Roll No: 772/03
ABSTRACT

Due to the continuous developments in the field of engineering and technology,


there have been many advances made up to date in the field of manufacturing. The
result has been the introduction of new manufacturing processes used for material
removal, forming, and joining, known as non-conventional manufacturing processes.
Among all the non conventional methods Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process
is considered to be one of the most important and most useful one. EDM is a thermal
process that uses spark discharges to erode electrically conductive materials. When a
discharge takes place between two points of the anode and the cathode, the intense heat
generated near the zone melts and evaporates the materials in the sparking zone.
Electric Discharge Machining is very useful machining process as far as the electrically
conductive brittle and hard material is concerned.

A lot of work has been done to enhance the understanding of EDM process,
modeling efforts are far fewer in comparison. There are several reasons for this: the
complex phenomenon inside a plasrna channel is not well understood, the stochastic
nature of the Electric discharge machining process, and unlike many other traditional
manufacturing processes, the length and time scale of single discharges. The effective
process analysis and modeling help in understanding the influence of the parameters on
the material removal rate. The computer aided Finite Element Analysis can be
considered as the best available tool to get a clear insight in the process as well as to
analyze the process.
The present work is a step to venture into understanding of the intricacies of
EDM process. A CAE software (ANSYS 8.0) is used for modeling the EDM process
with real time process parameters like the variable heat flux from the spark, are used. A
transient thermal analysis in conjunction with a static structural analysis (using the
results from thermal analysis) is performed .The material removal due to both melting
and thermal stress induced in the structure is calculated from a VISUAL BASIC
program and hence the on going material removal rate is established and compared
with the work from the literature. The effects of process parameters like current,
discharge voltage, and pulse duration on the material removal rate have been studied.

HI
NOTATIONS
p Density
c Specific heat
T Temperature
t Time

k Thermal conductivity
5'

w=< 5Fd Vector operator

F;
{V}- •Vr • Velocity vector for mass transport of he
y z.
kl Heat flux vector

¥ Heat generation rate per unit volume

{N] Element shape functions

Ijj Nodal temperature vector

[D] Conductivity matrix

fci Elemental specific heat matrix

k;i Elemental mass transport conductivity matrix

fe! Element mass flux vector

tel Element convection surface heat flow vector

b:l Element heat generation load

u Strain energy (internal work)


V External work
s Virtual operator

{e} Strain vector

IV
[a] Stress vector
Vol Volume of element
[B] Strain-displacement matrix, based on the element shape functions
{u} Displacement vector
[N] Matrix of shape functions
[w] Vector of displacements of a general point
[F] Acceleration (D' Aiembert) force vector
[p] The applied pressure vector
|j^ J Element stiffness matrix

|j\^ J Element mass matrix

[a] Acceleration vector

j/?'" I Element pressure vector

V Breakdown voltage
/ Current
J^^ Energy partition to the work piece

0 Degree of freedom

E Young's modulus
V Poisson's ratio
^^ Coefficient of thermal expansion
LIST OF FIGURES

Page No:
Figure 1.1 Basic scheme of EDM 4
Figure 1.2 The basic process of E D M 5
Figure 3.1 A Close View of EDM Machining Region 16
Figure 3.2 Mechanism of material removal-Stage 1 19
Figure 3.3 Mechanism of material removal-Stage 2 19
Figure 3.4 Mechanism of material removal-Stage 3 19
Figure 3.5 Effect of Current on EDM Process 23
Figure 3.6 Effect of spark frequency on surface finish 23
Figure 4.1 The FEM Model 27
Figure 4.2 The Error Verification Model 28
Figure 4.3 Element Models 29
Figure 4.4 Elemental Grids 30
Figure 4.5 Surface Load Allocation On Elements 30
Figure 4.6 Position Of Mid Side Node 31
Figure 4.7 Local Co ordinate Systems 32
Figure 4.8 Rotation in XY Plane 32
Figure 4.9 Nodal Coordinate System 33
Figure 4.10 Shape Function For the 2-D, 4 Noded Quadrilateral Element 34
• Figure 4.11 2-D Quadrilateral Integration Point Locations 34
Figure 4.12 Free and Mapped Meshes 35
Figure 5.1 Thermal Solid Plane 55 42
Figure 5.2 3-D viewofworkpiece 43
Figure 5.3 2-D view of workpiece 43
Figure 5.4 Thermal Model of Electrical Discharge Machining 44
Figure5.5 3-D meshed model 45
Figures.6 2-D meshed model 45

VI
Figure 6.1 Temperature Isotherms Due To Single Spark 51
Figure 6.2 Temperature variation in Radial Direction 52
Figure 6.3 Temperature variation Along Depth 52
Figure 6.4 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values 53
Along The Radial Direction
Figure 6.5 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values 54
Along Depth
Figure 6.6 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime 55
Along Radial Distance
Figure 6.7 Temperature Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime 55
Along Depth
Figure 6.8 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along 56
Radial Distance from the Centre
Figure 6.9 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth 57
Figure 6.10 Equivalent Stress Distribution Due to Single Spark for the Half 58
Section of HSS Workpiece
Figure 6.11 Von Mises stress variation Along Radial Direction Due to Single 58
Spark for Current= 12 Amp, V=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
Figure 6.12 Von Mises stress variation Along Depth Due to Single Spark for 59
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
Figure 6.13 Stress Components Distribution Due To Single Spark at Current 60
= 12 Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse Ontime^lOO // Sec (a) Along
Radial Distance, (b) Along Depth
Figure 6.14 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values Along the 61
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=lOO // Sec, Voltage= 100 Vohs
Figure 6.15 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values 62
Along Depth at Pulse Ontime=100 JJ. Sec, Voltage=100 Volts
Figure 6.16 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along 63
Radial Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
Figure 6.17 Stress Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.0001sec 63
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts

vn
Figure 6.18 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial 64
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100 n Sec
Figure 6.19 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At 65
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec
Figure 6.20 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 66
of Model for Different Values of Current.
Figure 6.21 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 67
of Model for Different Values of Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.22 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results 68
of Model for Different Values of JDischarge Voltage

vui
CONTENTS

Page No:
CERTIFICATE 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii
ABSTRACT iii
GENERAL NOTATIONS iV

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES vi

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1-7


1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 NON-CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF MACHINING 2
1.3 ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING 3
1.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5
1.5 PROBLEM FORMULATION 6

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8-15

CHAPTER-3 ELECTRO-DISCHARGE MACHINING 16 25


3.1 GENERAL 16
3.2 TYPES OF ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINING METHODS 17
3.2.1 Die Sinking EDM 17
3.2.2 Wire EDM 17
3.2.3 EDM Milling 17
3.2.4 Wire Electro Discharge Grinding 17
3.3 MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL 18
3.3.1 Melting and Evaporation 18
3.3.2 Thermal Spalling 20

3.4 COMPONENTS OF ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINING 20


3.4.1 Work-Piece 20

3.4.2 Tool Electrode 20

IX
3.4.3 Dielectric Fluid 21
3.4.4 The Servo System 22
3.4.5 Power Supply 22
3.5 PROCESS PARAMETERS 22
3.5.1 Current 22
3.5.2 Spark Voltage 23
3.5.3 Spark Frequency 23
3.5.4 Gap between Work-Piece and Electrode 23
3.5.5 Pulse Duration 23
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS 24
3.7 DISADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS 25
3.8 APPLICATIONS OF EDM 25

CHAPTER - 4 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANS YS 26 40

4.1 GENERAL 26
4.2 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 29
4.3 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 29
4.4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS 31
4.4.1 Global Co-ordinate System 31
4.4.2 Local Co-ordinate Systems 31
4.4.3 Nodal Co-ordinate Systems 32
4.5 SHAPE FUNCTION 33
4.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 33
4.7 MESHING 35
4.8 LOADS 35
4.9 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND 36
Chapter 5 MODELING AND ANALYSIS 41-50
«
5.1 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING ' 41
5.1.1 Temperature Modeling 41
5.1.1.1 Governing Equation 41
5.1.1.2 Steps Involved In Finite 42
Element Modeling

5.2 MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE DETERMINATION FROM 49


FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
5.2.1 Program algorithm 50

CHAPTER-6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 51-68

6.1 THERMAL ANALYSIS 51


6.1.1 Variation of Temperature with Current 53
6.1.2 Variation of Temperature with Pulse Ontime 54
6.1.3 Variation of Temperature with Voltage 56
6.2' MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE 57
6.2.1 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Current 61
6.2.2 Material Removal Rate for 62
Different Values of Pulse Ontime
6.2.3 Material Removal Rate for 64
Different Values of Discharge Voltages

CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE 69-70

REFERENCES 71
APPENDIX A 74
APPENDIX B 93
APPENDIX C 95
APPENDIX D 106

XI
Chapter 1
Introduction

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Due to the continuous developments in the field of engineering and
technology, the scientists and the researchers are facing more and more challenging jobs
in these fields. Any new development comes after excessive efforts in the fields of
designing and manufacturing. There have been many advances made up to date in the
field of manufacturing. Since 1940, a revolution has been taking place that once again
allows manufacturers to meet the demands imposed by increasingly sophisticated
designs, but in many cases unmachinable, materials. This manufacturing revolution is
now, as it has been in the past, centered on the use of new tools and new forms of
energy. The result has been the introduction of new manufacturing processes used for
material removal, forming, and joining, known as non-conventional manufacturing
processes.
Based on the following drawbacks in the conventional methods of machining
development of non-conventional machining processes took place:
1. Many new materials and alloys that have been developed for specific uses
posses a very low machinabilty.
2. Producing complicated geometries with dimensional accuracy become
extremely difficult with the traditional processes. Some of the examples include
machining a complicated turbine blade made of super alloys, producing holes
and slots (both through and blind) in materials such as glass and
semiconductors, drilling a non circular hole or a micro hole.
3. Higher production rate and economy requirements may demand the use of non-
conventional methods of machining.
4. Large amount of energy is lost in the form of unwanted products (chips).
5. Many a times, lost heat often produces a problem of distortion and surface
cracking, as well as micro structural changes.
The main aim of all machining operations is to remove the excess material to
obtain the desired shape and size. The unconventional methods have many advantages
over convemional ones. They are not bounded by the boundaries of hardness,

1
toughness, brittleness etc. of the material and can be used for producing any type of
shape on any workpiece material. However, non conventional methods of machining
are not the substitute for conventional methods of machining, but are only
complementing them.

1.2 NON-CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF MACHINING


The non conventional methods of machining can be classified on the basis of
the foUowing:-
> Type of energy required to shape materials - mechanical, thermal,
electrochemical, chemical, and thermo electric;
> Basic mechanism involved in the process in the processes - erosion, ionic
dissolution, vaporization;
> Source of energy required for material removal - hydrostatic pressure, high
current density, high voltage, ionized material;
> Medium for transfer of these energies - high velocity particles, electrolytes,
electrons, hot gases.
In thermal and thermo electric methods, heat energy is concentrated on a small area of
the workpiece to melt and vaporize the tiny bits of work material. The required shape is
machined by repetition of this process. In chemical and electrochemical processes, the
workpiece material in contact with a chemical solution is etched in a controlled manner.
In mechanical methods, the material is removed by mechanical erosion phenomenon of
the workpiece material. Some of the non-conventional methods of machining methods
are:
1. Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
2. Electro Chemical Machining (ECM)
3. Electro Chemical Grinding (ECG)
4. Electro Chemical Honing (ECH)
5. Electro Chemical Deburring (ECD)
6. Chemical Machining (CHM)
7. Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
8. Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
9. Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM)
10. Water Jet Machining (WJM)
11. Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
12. Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
13. Plasma Arc Machining (PAM)
14. Ion Beam Machining (IBM)
All methods are not suitable for every kind of work. Depending upon the material to be
machined and on the type of job to be done, these methods are used. The application of
the non conventional methods is also influenced by the shape and size of the workpiece
to be produced.

1.3 ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING


Among all the non conventional methods Electric Discharge Machining
(EDM) process is considered to be one of the most important and most useful one. It
has many advantages over all other non conventional methods. Electric discharge
machining (EDM) was first used in practice in U.S.S.R. around 1943. EDM was first
applied to metal machining by Lazarenko in 1946. In and after World War II, when
there is a huge demand of war planes and sophisticated weapons, electric discharge
machining (EDM) played an important role.

EDM is a thermal process that uses spark discharges to erode electrically


conductive materials. A shaped electrode defines the area in which spark erosion will
occur, thus determining the shape of resulting cavity [1]. The basic scheme of EDM is
illustrated in the Figure 1.1. In this method, workpiece and the tool are submerged into
an electrolytic solution and the electric current is passed. When a discharge takes place
between two points of the anode and the cathode, the intense heat generated near the
zone melts and evaporates the materials in the sparking zone. The spark occurs at the
spot where the tool and the workpiece surfaces are the closest and since the spot
changes after each spark (because of the material removal after each spark), the spark
travels all over the surface. This result in uniform removal of material, hence the exact
shape is reproduced on the work-piece.
Die]Mfic

Eiecirode^
FilMr
Tanic
Wdifc|A0K

pump
33
(FIG.1.1)

The basic process of £ D M is illustrated below graphically.

1. An arc jumps between t\VD points


along the path of least resistance.
• • •^^'A7>^ •:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•: 2. The e n e i ^ of tlue arc is so concentrated
that it causes the electrode, and the work
to melt. But the electrode material is
chosen so that it melts less.

^ ^ ^
3, The metal and diebctric fluid are partly
vaporised, causing sudden expansion.

4. The blast from the expandiiig vapors


knocks some molten particles bose, and
the remaining molten metal hardens.

(FIG.1.2)

1.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


Finite element analysis is "the simulation of physical system (geometry and
loading environment) by using a mathematical approximation of the real system. Using
simple, interrelated building blocks called elements; a real system with infinite
unknowns is approximated with finite numbers of unknowns". This method has its
origin, for the application to structural problems.Because of the flexibility involved in
this process, soon it had extended application in diversified fields of engineering.
This method involves the following steps
1. Discretization of the problem domain: - First, the domain is represented as a
coUecfion of finite number of subdomains, namely, line segments. This is
called 'discritization of the domain'. Each subdomain is called 'element'. The
collection of elements is called the 'finite element mesh'. The elements are
connected to each other at points called 'nodes'.
2. Derivation of elemental equations: - A typical element is isolated and its
required properties are computed by some appropriate means. Hence by taking
all the properties the elemental equations are obtained.
3. Assembling of elemental equations for whole body: - All the elemental
equations together are used to calculate the required unknowns of the whole
body.
4. Apply all boundary conditions involved to get the final assemblage of elemental
aquations.
5. Solve the assembled equations
In summary, in the finite element method, a given domain is divided into sub domains,
called finite elements, and an approximate solufion to the problem is developed over
each of these [2]. The subdivision of whole domain into parts has two advantages:
1. It allows accurate representation of complex geometries and inclusion of
dissimilar materials.
2. It enables accurate representation of the solution within each element, to bring
out local effects.
Finite element method is laborious by hs nature. There is a need for computer
based programs for the purpose of solving these huge and complex problems. There are
number of state-of-the-art softwares available to model complex problems such as
IDEAS, ANSYS, and LSDYNA etc.
ANSYS is an interactive general-purpose package having capability to handle
problems comprising structural, thermal, electromagnetic, computational fluid
dynamics, etc. In spite of having hs own geometry generafion module, which allows the
generafion of 2-D and 3-D models of geometry, ANSYS interfaces with some CAD
packages like Pro-E and AutoCAD, to allow the geometry exchange. The ANSYS has
the capability to handle problems which are highly Non-Linear [3]. In this work
ANSYS software is used for FEM modeling of Electro Discharge Machining (EDM)
process.
1.5 PROBLEM FORMULATION
Electric Discharge Machining is very useful machining process as far as the
electrically conductive brittle and hard material is concerned. The surface finish
obtained by using EDM process is better as compared to the other conventional
methods. Studies show that the input parameters that affect the material removal rate in
electrical discharge machining are power input and the pulse duration. A lot of work has
been done to enhance the understanding of EDM process, modeling efforts are far fewer
in comparison. There are several reasons for this: the complex phenomenon inside a
plasma channel is not well understood, the stochastic nature of the Electrical discharge
machining process, and unlike many other traditional manufacturing processes the
length and time scale of single discharges. A semi-empirical model has been developed
by Wang, et al. [4] by employing dimensional equations. Another model has also been
developed by Jilani et al. [5] to determine the material removal per pulse but not the
material removal rate. Das et al. [6] and Yadav et al. [7] have attemted to model the
stresses developed by the electrical discharge machining in the work material.
Inspite of all the improvements made by various researchers there is a need
for understanding of material removal mechanism more closely. The effective process
analysis and modeling help in understanding the influence of the parameters on the
material removal rate. The computer aided finite element analysis can be considered as
the best available tool to get a clear insight in the process as well as to analyze the
process.
The present work is an attempt to model the EDM process using finite element
method and to analyze the temperature and stresses to predict basic mechanism
involved in the material removal of high speed steel. The present also aims to study the
effects of process parameters like current, discharge voltage, and pulse duration on the
material removal rate. The main objectives of the present work are as follows:
1. (a) Understanding of the process, effects of various parameters on the quality of
the machined surface produced by Electro-Discharge Machining process
through the review of the literature, (b) To get accustomed with the various
modules of finite element method software package.
2. To model the Electric-Discharge Machining process for determining the various
stresses by FEM modeling by ANSYS package.
3. Theoretical calculation of MRR and Validation with literature available.
Chapter 2
Literature Review

F.-T. Weng and M.-G. Her [31] had studied the micro machining of
copper plates by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Tungsten carbide
was selected as the material for the electrode. Experiments were carried out on a
conventional CNC-EDM machine to investigate machining of micro holes, and micro
slots. The results show that micro holes, and micro slots can be successfully processed
on a conventional CNC-EDM machine. To improve the productivity of micro parts
using the EDM process, a batch production method of micro EDM using multi-
electrodes had been studied. A new technique for preparing multi electrodes had been
developed. Resuhs also showed that the batch production of micro parts using EDM
was feasible.
J.R. Crookall and B.C. Khor [8] had given earlier that metal removal in
EDM is primarily on a thermal basis. The physical strength of the work-piece material
is of minor consequence, it has been widely found that the thermal properties in general
correlate with metal-removal ability and the erosive action is essentially 'force free'.
But the force free nature of the process should not, however, be taken to imply that the
surface produced is stress-free. Both of them had concluded that high tensile stresses are
generated by EDM, which can approach the ultimate tensile strength of the material
near the surface, but fall rapidly with depth to low values, or to zero. The work-piece
material, and particularly its thermal properties, influences the distribution of residual
stress. However, neither the tool electrode material nor the dielectric fluid appears to
affect significantly the residual stress distribution in work-piece. They also concluded
that residual stresses cannot be avoided altogether and machining conditions for
minimizing their extent almost inevitably conflicts (as in the case of surface roughness)
with rapid metal removal required.
J.H. Zhang et al. [9] studied the effect Of EDM on hot pressed aluminium
oxide based ceramic and concluded that using Ax J'^^ as an indication of the material
machinabilty in EDM is suitable. Although the fusion temperature of ceramics is high,
as the thermal conductivity of them is very small, the product of thermal conductivity
and fusion temperature ( I x J ' ^ J of them is lesser than most metals, so that EDM is
8
suitable for conductive ceramics. They also concluded that the material removal rate,
the surface roughness, and the diameter of discharge point all increase with increasing
pulse on time and discharge current. However, they vary very little under normal
conditions of voltage and pulse-off time. Discharge current has more important
affection on the material removal rate and the discharge point diameter; pulse-on time
has more important affection on surface roughness and the thermal affected layer. With
longer pulse-on time, the surface roughness and the diameter of discharge become
larger, a thicker resolidification layer formed on the machined surface, and some micro-
cracks vertical to the machined surface formed in subsurface. This will become very
vertical when pulse-on time is too long. With the increase of discharge current, the
diameters of the discharge points increase, but there is no great change in
resolidification layers and thermal affected layers.

Das et al. [6] developed a finite element based model for electrical
discharge machining process. The model uses the process parameters such as power
input, pulse duration, etc. to predict the transient temperature distribution, liquid- and
solid- state material transformation, and residual stresses that are induced in the
workpiece as a result of a single-pulse discharge. An attractive feature of the model was
its ability to predict the shape of the crater that is formed as a result of the material
removal. The model has been validated using the experimental data, wherever possible.
Yadav et al. [7] studied the high temperature gradients generated at the
gap during EDM that results in large localized thermal stresses in a small heat-affected
zone. These thermal stresses can lead to micro-cracks, decrease in strength and fatigue
life and possibly catastrophic failure. A finite element model has been developed to
estimate the temperature field and thermal stresses due to Gaussian distributed heat flux
of a spark during EDM. First, the developed code calculates the temperature in work-
piece and then the thermal field is estimated using this temperature field. The effects of
various variables (current and duty cycle) on temperature distribution and thermal stress
distribution have been reported. The results of analysis show high temperature gradient
zones and the regions of large stresses where, sometimes, they exceed the material yield
strength.
P.M. Lonardo and A.A. Bruzzone [10] experienced that the most important
parameters of EDM were the material removal rate, electrode wear, accuracy and
surface texture. In this paper the influence of electrode material, flushing, electrode
dimension, depth of cut and planetary motion on EDM performance was been
discussed. An experimental analysis was carried out on a Cr, Mo, V steel for die casting
by using both copper and graphite electrodes. Roughing and finishing operations were
considered, by adopting for each condition the parameters commonly recommended in
industrial production. The observed resuhs show the importance of electrode material,
injection flushing and geometry of cutting on removal rate, electrode wear and surface
quality.
J.A. McGeough and H. Rasmussen [13] developed a model for shaping of
metal by EDM. A key feature of this model was the replacement of time-dependent
electric field, with a solution of complete Maxwell's equations that produce, by an
electrostatic field, a macroscopic theory was formulated on the basis of experimental
observations (i) the electric field needed for the production of sparks in the inter-
electrode gap must exceed some critical value, (ii) spark occur over electrode regions at
which the local field is highest and (iii) the rate of material removal is proportional to
the energy transmitted by the sparks. The model was applied to the one-dimensional
case in which plane parallel electrodes were used.
H. Hocheng, W.T. Lei and H.S. Hsu [14] studied the material removal in EDM
of SiC/Al. The fundamental analysis is started from the material removal of metal
matrix composite (MMC) by a single spark. The paper presents the correlation between
the major machining parameters, electrical current and on-time, and the crater size
produced by a single spark for the representative material SiC/Al. The experimental
results not only show the predicted proportionality based on heat conduction model, but
are also compared with common steels regarding the material removal rate. Though the
crater size SiC/Al is larger than steel, the SiC particles can interfere the discharge. For
effective EDM, large electric and short on-time are recommended.
Pie-Jan Wang and Kuo-Ming Tsai [4] developed a semi-empirical model of
material removal rate on the work and the tool in electrical discharge machining by
employing dimensional equations based on peak current, pulse duration, electric
polarity, and properties of the materials for the screening experiments and the
dimensional analysis. The coefficients and power indexes of the model have been data-
fitted based on the experimental data generated with the help of the DOE procedure.
The final results have indicated that the model is dependent on the material and
therefore cannot be represented by a set of universal coefficients and power indexes for

10
various materials. The model proposed was mainly based on the thermal, physical,
electrical, and material properties of the work and the tool plus relevant process
parameters. Once the coefficients and power indexes of the model had been determined
experimentally for given work and tool, the model should be able to give reliable
predictions when the process parameters are changed. Of course the model is not based
on some fundamental theories, but the potential of this model could be largely explored
if the basic phenomena in EDM were better understood.
C.H. Kahng and K.P. Rajurkar [11] studied the surface characteristic
behavior of the EDM eroded surface utilizing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),
metallography and stylus profilometer. The increment in pulse duration one of many
influencing parameters, results not only in the increase of surface roughness but also in
the increment of depth of crack in particular and increase in depth of heat affected in
general. The authors, on the basis of their investigation suggested that the discharge
time for the application of fine cutting conditions to improve the surface characteristic
should not be estimated on the basis Of surface geometry improvement only because the
removal of white layer and heat affected zone including cracks requires considerable
discharge time.
A. Erden [12] studied the role of dielectric flushing on EDM performance
and the importance and influence of dielectric fluid flushing are discussed. It was found
by him after experimentation that, by changing dielectric fluid pressure, it is possible to
obtain 20-30% change in erosion rates of both work-piece and tool electrodes. Meth6d
of flushing does not affect machining performance. Circulation of dielectric fluid by
tool electrode vibration is also studied. A dependence of erosion rate on vibration
amplitude is observed. Maximum erosion rate is obtained at 5-10 /jm peak to peak
amplitudes for all machining conditions. A simple mathematical model for the influence
of dielectric pressure on machining rate is also developed.
F. Van Dijck [15] conducted multiple discharge tests on tool steel work-pieces
with a copper tool to verify the results of theoretical predictions on metal erosion
obtained using a thermal model. He explained change in metal erosion with pulse
duration on the basis of current density variations in spark channel. For each
combination of work-piece and tool, constant metal erosion graphs can be derived to
determine appropriate machine settings. Wide variation in results reported is indicative
of uncertainties involved in the EDM process.

11
Heng Xia and Masanori Kunieda [16] studied the waveform of the discharge
pulse in EDM process influences the machining characteristics greatly. For the
rectangular pulse waveform, in order to obtain a lower tool erosion ratio, the work-piece
is usually set positive when the pulse duration is shorter, while the work-piece is set
negative when the pulse duration time becomes longer. One reason for the change of
tool erosion ratio is explained as variance in the energy distribution. For example,
indicated that the discharge column in EDM propagated rapidly after the discharge
ignition. Therefore, that the energy distribution into the anode and cathode changes
during the pulse duration time according to the electron emission theory, as the result of
the plasma expansion.
H.C. Tsai, B.H. Yan and F.Y.Huang [17] studied EDM performance Of
Cr/Cu-based composite electrodes. Electrode materials for EDM are usually graphite,
copper and copper alloys because these materials have high melting temperature, and
excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The electrodes made by using powder
metallurgy technology from special powders have been used to modify EDM surfaces
in recent years, to improve wear and corrosion resistance. However, electrodes are
normally fabricated at high temperatures and pressures, such that fabrication is
expensive. This paper proposed a new method of blending the copper powders
contained resin with chromium powders to form tool electrodes. Such electrodes are
made at low pressure (20 MPa) and temperature (200 °C ) in a hot mounting machine.
The results showed that using such electrodes facilitated the formation of modified
surface layer on the work-piece after EDM, with remarkable corrosion resistant
properties. The optimal mixing ratio, appropriate pressure, and proper machining
parameters (such as polarity, peak current, and pulse duration) were made to investigate
the effect of material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), surface
roughness, the thickness of the recast layer on usability of these electrodes. According
to the experimental results, a mixing ratio of Cu-Cr and sinter pressure of 20 MPa
obtained a higher MRR. Moreover, this work reveals that the composite electrodes
obtained a higher MRR than Cu metal electrodes; the recast layer was thinner and
cracks were present on the machined surface.
Ajit Singh and Amitabh Ghosh [18] studied the process of melting in EDM.
However, for short pulses (discharge duration < 5 // s), mehing does not account for the
results as shown by experiments reported. For short pulses, metal does not get enough

12
time to get adequately heated and almost no melting takes place. The electrostatic force
acting on the surface is very important factor in removal of metal for short pulses. For
long pulses (discharge duration < 100//s), this electrostatic force becomes very small
and does not play a significant role in the removal of metal. In the model proposed, the
electrostatic force acting on the metal surface and the stress distribution inside the metal
due to this electrostatic force has been estimated. The variation of yield strength with
depth inside the metal has also been found out and finally the 'crater depth' due to this
electrostatic force has been calculated.
R. Karthikeyan, P.R. Lakshmi Narayanan and R.S. Naagarazan [19] made
an attempt in there paper to develop a mathematical models for optimizing electric
discharge machining (EDM) characteristics such as the metal removal rate (MRR), the
tool wear rate (TWR) and the surface roughness (CLA value). The process parameters
taken in to consideration were the current, the pulse duration and the percent volume
fraction of SiC (25// size) present in LM25 aluminium matrix. A three level full
factorial design was chosen for experimentation and mathematical models with linear,
quadratic and interactive effects of the parameters chosen were developed. Finally the
significance of the model is checked using the analysis of variance technique
(ANOVA). The MRR was found to decrease with an increase in present volume of SiC,
where the TWR and the surface roughness increase in the volume of SiC.
Li Li, Y.S. Wong, J.Y.H. Fuh and L. Lu [20] studied the effect of titanium
carbide (TiC) on the performance of sintered copper-based materials as EDM
electrodes. The aim of study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of EDM electrodes
fabricated by laser-based sintering using rapid prototyping technology. Six batches of
titanium carbide with content from 5% to 45% were fabricated by mixing, ball milling,
pressing, and liquid phase sintering with copper-tungsten (Cu-W) and copper (Cu),
respectively. The performance of the newly formed material is compared with
commercial electrodes. The densification of TiC/Cu-W system was improved by
addition of nickel (Ni), as Ni shows good solubility in both Cu and W. The distribution
of particle size becomes narrow as the proportion of TiC is increased. A uniform
dispersion of small TiC particles in the Cu-W system and narrow particle size
distribution provide the possibility of obtaining dense electrodes. With increasing TiC,
the relative density first increased and then decreased, whereas the electrical resistivity
first decreased and then increased. EDM electrodes, with addition of TiC, show good

13
performance in surface finishing. This is an important characteristic as rapid
prototyped- sintered EDM electrodes are expected to be used as finishing electrodes.
The surface roughness of most specimens is less than those machined using commercial
electrodes. Electrodes with 15% TiC show the highest relative density, lowest electrical
resistivity, good EDM performance, i.e. lowest tool wear rate and highest material
removal rate at low current, and the best surface finish not only at low current, but also
at high current.
F. Kaldes (1983) [21] states the effectiveness of flushing on MRR, tool
wear and accuracy, especially in finishing operations when pulse energies are low and
small local products can quickly develop causing short circuits and generally impairing
working efficiency. If the dielectric fluid is forced at low velocity through the gap, these
local products are flushed. However, higher velocity of flushing hinders the formation
of ionized bridges across the gap and result in higher ignition delay. The relationships
of inlet pressure of dielectric fluid with MRR and TWR have been given in the study.
Masanori Kunieda and Masahiro Yoshida [22] experimented with copper
as tool electrode and steel as work-piece by using high pressure air flow supplied
through a thin-walled pipe electrode and found that work-piece material can be removed
and flushed out of the working gap without re-attached to the electrode surfaces. The
tool electrode wear ratio is almost zero for any pulse duration. Hence a 3D shape can be
machined very precisely using a special NC tool path, which can supply uniform high
velocity airflow over the working gap. The planetary motion with radius one-tenth of
the wall thickness of tool electrode was superimposed in the X-Y plane perpendicular
the axis of the tool electrode because short circuits occurred frequently without this
planetary motion. It was found that in the case of EDM in air, the tool electrode wear
ratio is much lower and MRR much higher when tool electrode is negative. In contrast,
in case of EDM in a liquid, there is less tool electrode wear and higher MRR when
polarity of tool electrode is positive.
Fritz Klocke, Thorsten Beck, Stefan Hoppe, Tilo Krieg, Nobert MuUer,
Tobias Nothe, Hans-Willi Raedt, and Kevin Sweeney [23] gave that the technological
and economical pressure in production engineering requires an optimization of existing
production processes. The finite element method (FEM) is appropriate tool to gain the
necessary knowledge of these processes. The paper presents some examples of the
application of FEM in different branches of manufacturing technology: cutting with a

14
geometrically defined and an undefined cutting edge; electro-erosion technology; metal
forming processes; tribology, after the presentation of the problem, the simulation set-
up for each example. The paper provides an overview of the current possibilities for the
application of FEM in manufacturing technology.

P.C. Pandey and S.T. Jilani [5] developed a two dimensional heat source
model which is used to compute the metal removal per pulse, crater shape and the depth
of resolidification layer in EDM of range of tungsten carbides with different chemical
compositions and properties. It has been shown that the presence of cobalt has a
significant influence on the machining behaviour of the carbides. Tungsten carbides
with a high cobalt percentage when machined electrically are more susceptible to
surface cracking and surface defects, such as pin holes and honeycombs, as compared
with carbides with a low cobalt percentage. From the view point of maximum MRR and
relative electrode wear it has been found that pulse durations of 250 // s and 467 // s
respectively and cobalt binders percentage of 20% and 6% respectively are best suited.
A carbide with a high cobalt content minimizes the resolidified layer thickness at lower
pulse durations and yields a better surface finish.

15
Chapter 3
Electric-Discharge Machining

3.1 GENERAL
The use of electric discharge machining process has greatly helped in
achieving an economic machining of extremely low machinability materials and
difficuh jobs. The close view of the EDM process is illustrated in the Figure 3.1. When
a discharge takes place between two points of anode and the cathode, the intense heat
generated near the zone melts and evaporates the material in the sparking zone. This
process is typically used for material such as tool steels, die steels, ceramics, etc., which
are hard to machine using a more traditional approach.

Tool

Dielectric Pulse
generator

;tncal
Elecl
workpiece
Discharge

Figure 3.1 A Close View of EDM Machining Region

16
3.2 TYPES OF ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHININING METHODS
Electric discharge machining enables the machining operation in several
ways. Some of these operations are similar to conventional operations such as milling
and die sinking others have its own characteristic. Different classifications are possible
and also it should be kept in mind that, current developments in its technology add
different types of operations. But a simple and general classification can done by
considering famous applications such as,
1. Die Sinking EDM
2. Wire EDM
3. EDM Milling
4. Wire Electric Discharge Grinding
3.2.1 Die Sinking EDM
The tool electrode has the complementary form of finished workpiece and
literally sinks into the rough material. Corhplex shapes are possible, but needs more
machining time but dimensional accuracy is high when compared with wire EDM.
3.2.2 Wire EDM
The electrode is a wire that cuts through the workpiece and renewed constantly
to avoid rapture. The wire is cheaper than the complex electrodes used in die sinking
electric discharge machining. Less material should be removed, which leads short
machining time and electrode wear. But, the operation is possible only for ruled
surfaces and the wire may bend during machining, cause substantial shape errors.
3.2.3 EDM Milling
Usually a rotating cylindrical electrode follows a path through the workpiece,
yielding the desired final geometry. It is advantageous when large holes or complex
geometries are required.
3.2.4 Wire Electric Discharge Grinding
In the case where small holes are needed, a relatively large electrode may be
reversibly eroded against a sacrificial workpiece. In this case the polarity between the
electrode and the workpiece is reversed, so that the material removal predominantly
takes place on the electrode.

17
3.3 MECHANISM OF MATERIAL REMOVAL
A perfect general theory for EDM can not constructed since each machining
condition has its own particular aspects and involves numerous phenomena, i.e., heat
conduction and radiation, phase changes, electrical forces, bubble formation and
collapse, rapid solidification. In addition, theories of how sparks eroded the work-piece
and electrode have never been completely supported by the experimental evidence since
it is very difficult to observe the process scientifically. Thus, most of the published
studies are mostly concerned with simplified models of different events of EDM.
Development of high-speed computers and comprehensive numerical techniques
enabled scientist to involve more parameters in their models than before, but still many
aspects of the process can not be explained in detail
Many mechanisms of material removal are being attributed to the process of EDM the
two are given below.
3,3.1 Melting and Evaporation
Figure 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 shows the most accepted mechanism of material removal
named as melting and evaporation [1]. This occurs in three stages, they are:-
Stage 1.
When a pulse of d.c. electricity is delivered to the electrode and the work-piece ,
an intense electric field is generated between the narrowest gap between the work-piece
and the electrode due to the irregularities. Because of this field, all the contaminants
(microscopic) in the dielectric fluid concentrate in the centre which is the strongest in
the field area. Together with this the negative charges are emitted from the work-piece,
together both of them form a bridge (highly conductive) across the gap.
Stage 2.
As the current increases, the temperature of the material increases hence material
mehs forming a bubble of gaseous material and the liquid material is below the bubble.
Stage 3.
When the electricity is terminated these volatile material bubble blasts causing a
discharge of material from both electrode and the work-piece, hence a cavity is
generated.

18
Figure 3.2 Stage 1

Figure 3.3 Stage 2

Figure 3.4 Stage 3

19
It has also been reported the materials with melting points below 2800 °C are
EDMed by the melting mechanism [24] explained above.T.C. Lee and W.S. Lau [25]
have found that the removal mechanism consists of not just the melting and evaporation
but also others such as thermal spalling explained below.
3.3.2 Thermal Spalling
Thermal spalling of a material is usually defined as a mechanical failure of the
material due to the creation of internal stresses which overcome the bond strength. This
occurs as a material expands or contracts during a sudden temperature change, resulting
in tension or compression sufficient to cause tensile or shear failure, respectively. In the
EDM process, the material goes through thermal cycling, so a complex temperature
gradient is established based on the properties and flow rate of the dielectric fluid, and
most importantly, the properties of the material. On sudden heating, local compressive
shear stresses develop because the expanding material is prevented from doing so by the
cooler interior material. At the same time, this places the interior material in tension as
it is pulled by the outer material as it tries to expand. This situation is reversed on
sudden cooling. Material with high thermal expansions and low thermal conductivity
are subjected to higher stress due to more severe gradients.

3.4 COMPONENTS OF ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING


The basic components of EDM are:-
1. Work-Piece
2. Tool Electrode
3. Dielectric Fluid
4. Servo System
5. Power Supply
3.4.1 Work-Piece
All the conducting material can be worked by EDM.
3.4.2 Tool Electrode
The EDM electrode is the tool that determines the shape of the cavity to be
produced. The most important consideration pertaining to electrode selection are the
electrode material and design. The main requirement of the tool electrode are that they
should be readily available, easily machinable, exhibit low wear, be electrically

20
conductive, and provide good surface finish. All the materials that are used for this
purpose are listed below with there advantages and disadvantages,
a) copper and brass -
Advantages- 1. Easily machinable
2. Electrically conductive.
3. High material removal rate
4. Good surface finish.
Disadvantages- 1. High wear rate (low wear ratio).
b) Copper tungsten- it has all the advantage of that of copper and brass but have a
only disadvantage that, it is difficult to machine.
c) Graphite and copper graphite-
Advantages- 1. Easily machinable.
2. Can be used for all types of work-piece.
3. Wear rate of electrode is very low.
4. Fine grain electrode (graphite) gives excellent surface finish.
Disadvantages- 1. Brittleness of graphite electrode
2. Not used for drilling small holes.
3.4.3 Dielectric Fluid
The E D M setup consists of a tank in which the dielectric fluid is filled and the
electrode and the work-piece is immersed in that. The dielectric fluid serves many
purposes in EDM process
The main functions of dielectric fluid are:-
a) It acts as an insulator between the electrode and work-piece.
b) Acts as a coolant to draw away the small amount of heat generated by the
sparks.
c) Acts as a flushing medium.
Some important properties are also there which are required in a dielectric for
excellent performances of the process .They are:-
a) Must remain electrically non-conducting until the required breakdown voltage
is reached that is, they should have high dielectric strength.
b) Must have low viscosity.
c) Must have high flash point.
d) Must have lower specific gravity.

21
e) Must be transparent in colour.
f) Must be non-toxic.
g) Must be cheap.
h) Must be readily available.
The most popular dielectric fluids are hydrocarbon oils, transformer oils, paraffin
oils kerosene, silicon based oils, and deionized water.
3.4.4 The Servo System
The servosystem is commanded by signals from gap voltage sensor system in
the power supply and controls the infeed of the electrode or work-piece to precisely
match the rate of material removal. If the gap voltage sensor system determines that a
piece of electrically conductive material is bridged the gap between the electrode and
work-piece, the servosystem will react by reversing direction until the dielectric fluid
flushes the gap clear. When the gap is clear, the infeed resumes and cutting continues.
3.4.5 Power Supply
The power supply is an important part of any EDM system. It transforms the
alternating current (AC) from the main utility electrical supply into the pulsed direct
current (DC) required to produce the spark discharges at the machining gap.
To facilitate the selection of the optimum for a wide range Of cutting
conditions, EDM power supplies must be able to control pulse voltage, current, pulse
duration, duty cycle, pulse frequency, and electrode polarity.

3.5 PROCESS PARAMETERS


Selection of process parameters in EDM is important in determining the
accuracy and surface finish. Effect of various process parameters on the material
removal rate and surface finish are as follows:
3.5.1 Current
As current is increased; each individual spark removes a large crater of
metal from the work-piece see Figure 3.5. Although net effect is increase in material
removal rate, but it also increases surface roughness.

22
C3
2<-AMP 3*AIVIP

Figure 3.5 Effect of Current on EDM Process

3.5.2 Spark Voltage


As spark voltage increases, energy available at each spark increases while
leads to increase in material removal rate but deteriorates surface finish.
3.5.3 Spark Frequency
Increasing spark frequency and holding all pareimeters constant result in a
decrease in surface roughness see Figure 3.6. This is because energy available for
material removal during a given period is shared by large number of sparks; hence the
corresponding crater size reduces.

Figure 3.6 Effect of spark frequency on surface Hnish

3.5.4 Gap between Work-Piece and Electrode


The smaller the gap the closer the accuracy with a better finish and slower
material removal rate
3.5.5 Pulse Duration
Increasing the pulse duration of the spark has the effect of increasing material
removal rate, increasing surface roughness and decreasing electrode wear. Pulse
duration can range from few microseconds tO several milliseconds.

23
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS
The EDM machining process is very useful for the process of fine and accurate
machining. The following are the advantages of the process:-
> EDM is relatively simple manufacturing process to set up and to perform.
> There is no direct contact between the electrode and work-piece, hence no
cutting forces are generated. Due to this advantage this advantage we can
process extremely fragile work-piece without damage.
> Its most important advantage is that its effectiveness is independent of the
hardness and strength of work-piece materials.
> By this process we can drill holes at very high incident angles on curved
surfaces without experiencing the tool slippage.
> This process is used for shaping alloy steel and tungsten carbide dies, used
for moulding, forging, extrusion, wire drawing or suitable mould cavities,
press tools and to give any intricate shape or profile.
> Internal threads and internal helical gears can be cut in hardened materials
by using a rotary spindle and suitable attachments.
> It can be used for machining carbides, ceramic carbides.
> Surface finish obtained by this process is very good. As tool and work do not
come in contact so no cutting force act on the work and consequent error due
to elastic deformation is eliminated.
> This process is also used to machine very thin sections.
> Tool materials need not to be harder than work material, therefore, that
material must be used which can be easily shaped. It is due to this reason
that any complicated shape can be made on the tool can be reproduced on
the work-piece.
> Fine slits can be made by using a wire electrode.
> A hole as small as 0.1 mm in diameter can be made easily.
> This process is very useful for making hole for nozzles, other holes, shapes,
profiles and embossing, engraving operations on harder materials.
> It is also used for production work for special applications where the oil
retention properties of the work surface are important.
> Accuracy up to 0.005 mm can be obtained easily.
> High aspect ratio.

24
> It is a burrless process.

3.7 DISADVANTAGES OF EDM PROCESS


The following are the limitations of the process that we encounter with respect to the
conventional machining processes.
> It has low removal rate. Therefore, this process should only be used where
other conventional machining processes are not suitable as machining costs
are very high.
> Power requirement is very high.
> Reproduction of sharp corners is the limitation of the process.
> Surface cracking may take place in some materials owing to their affinity to
become brittle at room temperature especially when higher energy per pulse
is used. Also the distortion of surface microstructure by this process is
detrimental to some cases and necessitates subsequent etching.
> Work-piece material must be an electrical conductor.
> A thermal recast layer is generated. And heat affected zone is also generated.
> The fabrication of complex shape on the tool electrode is very time taking
task.
> There is lack of flexibility in the process.

3.8 APPLICATIONS OF EDM


Because of the ability of EDM to machine hardened materials without producing
distortion, to machine the fragile workpieces without breakage, and to drill holes of
various shapes into curved surfaces at steep angles without drill "wander", EDM is the
process most often selected by industries confronted with challenging materials or
design problems.
The automotive industry currently employs EDm drilling to produce precision
injector nozzle holes. Another example for EDM drilling in the automotive industry is
to drill holes in small-throttle body injection director nozzles. A large amount of die
work is performed by EDM.

25
Chapter 4
Finite Element Method and ANSYS

4.1 GENERAL
A brief overview of general concepts of linear FEM was discussed in
chapter one. Here whole FEM analysis is elaborated in detail and ANSYS are discussed
briefly in this chapter. Finite element method is a powerful tool in structural analysis of
simple to complicated geometries uses discretization of a continuum into finite numbers
of elements. Nodes of elements are assigned finite degree of freedom of movement.
Simple displacement functions are chosen for appropriate distribution of displacements
over each element in conformity with compatibility at element boundaries. This
powerful and analytical tool can account for different geometries of structures and
different properties of each element. Banded stiffness matrix permits economical
computations.
In recent years with the coming of super computers the job of performing
finite element analysis of a complicated geometry has become easy. ANSYS is one of
such powerful tools in finite element method of analysis. Any complicated geometry
can be analyzed easily using ANSYS. ANSYS is more flexible and wide reach. It has
options to perform analysis in the fields like structural, thermal, fluid mechanics, and
electrical magnetics; also it performs different types of analysis such as static, modal,
spectrum, transient, harmonic, eigen buckling and substructuring in structural field.

The FEM Analysis Process


Processes using FEM involve carrying out a sequence of steps in some way. Those
sequences take two canonical configurations, depending on
1. The environment in which FEM is used and
2. The main objective: model-based simulation of physical systems, or numerical
approximation to mathematical problems

The FEM Model:


A canonical use of FEM is simulation of physical systems. This must done by using
models. Therefore the process is often called model-based simulation. The process is
illustrated in Figure 4.1. The centerpiece is the physical system to be modeled.
Accordingly, this configuration is called the Physical FEM.
26
The processes of idealization and discretization are carried Out concurrently to produce
the discrete model- The solution step is handled by an equation solver often customized
to FEM, which delivers a discrete solution.

mo4«l

CONTINnnCATIOX I sOLtTlON

A I
/
IDEALISATION A MJOnCATlON
DISCTlETIZATIO>' ^i„ri««.„or
Uintiliiilon cnor: inod»ling& foliition <>i(or
VALIDATION
FiR.4.1
Figure also shows a ideal mathematical model. This may be presented as a continuum
limit or "continuification" of the discrete model. For some physical systems, notably
those well modeled by continuum fields, this step is useful. Indeed Physical FEM
discretizations may be constructed and adjusted without referenc to mathematical
models, simply from experimental measurements. The concept of error arises in the
Physical FEM in two ways. These are known as verification and validation,
respectively. Verification is done by replacing the discrete solution into the discrete
model to get the solution error. This error is not generally important. Substitution in the
ideal mathematical model in principle provides the discretization error. This step is
rarely useful in Complex engineering systems, however, because there is no reason to
expect that the mathematical model exists, and even if it does, that it is more physically
relevant than the discrete model. Validation tries to compare the discrete solution
against observation by computing the simulation error, which combines modeling and
solution errors. As the latter is typically unimportant, the simulation error in practice
can be identified with the modeling error.One way to adjust the discrete model so that it
represents the physics better is called model updating. The discrete model is given free
parameters. These are determined by comparing the discrete solution against
experiments, as illustrated in Figure 1.3. Inasmuch as the minimization conditions are
generally nonlinear (even if the model is linear) the updating process is inherently
27
iterative Figure 1.2 also shows a ideal mathematical model. This may be presented as a
continuum limit or "continuifrcation" of the discrete model. For some physical systems,
notably those well modeled by continuum fields, this step is useful. For others, such as
complex engineering systems, it makes no sense. Indeed Physical FEM discretizations
may be constructed and adjusted -without referenceto mathematical models, simply from
experimental measurements.The concept of error arises in the Physical FEM in two
ways. These are known as verification and validation, respectively. Verification is done
by replacing the discrete solution into the discrete model to get the solution error. This
error is not generally important. Substitution in the ideal mathematical model in
principle provides the discretization error. This step is rarely useful in complex
engineering systems, however, because there is no reason to expect that the
mathematical model exists, and even if it does, that it is more physically relevant than
the discrete model. Validation tries to compare the discrete solution against observation
by computing the simulation error, which combines modeling and solution errors. As
the latter is typically unimportant, the simulation error in practice can be identified with
the modeling error. One way to adjust the discrete model so that it represents the
physics better is called model updating. The discrete mode! is given free parameters.
These are determined by comparing the discrete solution against experiments, as
illustrated in Figure 4,2. Inasmuch as the mirtimization conditions are generally
nonlinear (even if the model is linear) the updating process is inherently iterative.

jlvt i ' - * * i i . ' u r « ~ « ' %•


•»'»'j

iPAifuntfrizfrtl
modfl I
EXPERIJIEMS ^iuinlAtlon n\w

Fig. 4.2

28
4.2 STEPS IN FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Following are the steps [26] involved in finite element method of analysis
1. Discretization of the continuum.
2. Calculate the element stiffness matrices.
3. Assemble the element stiffness matrices.
4. Calculate the element load vectors.
5. Assemble the element load vectors.
6. Impose boundary conditions.
7. Impose external forces.
8. Calculate the displacement vectors.
9. Calculate the strain field and
10. Calculate the stress field.
4.3 CONSIDERATIONS IN FEM MODEL FORMULATION
Following are the considerations to be taken care of while formulating a model in finite
element method
1.

(a? (b) (c)

Figure 4.3: (a) Linear isoparametric,


(b) Linear isoparametric with extra shapes
(c) Quadratic
For structural analysis, the corner nodded elements with extra shape
functions (Figure 4.3) will often yield an accurate solution in a reasonable amount of
computer time. When using these elements, it is important to avoid their degenerate
forms in critical regions. That is, avoid using the triangular form of 2-D linear elements
and the wedge or tetrahedral forms of 3-D linear elements in high results-gradient
regions, or other regions of special interest.

29
2.

(a) (b)

Figure 4.4: Comparable grids of (a) Linear and (b) Quadratic elements
In modeling a curved shell using either a linear (flat) or quadratic (curved)
shell elements (Figure 4.4), the majority of problems can be solved to a high degree of
accuracy in a minimum amount of computer time using flat elements. To ensure curved
surface adequately use enough flat elements. The smaller the element, the better is the
accuracy of the analysis.

1/2 1/2
l-"—'•^^^J^LJ

(a)
1/e 2/3 1/6

CD

(c)

0' 1/3

Figure 4.5 (a) Equivalent nodal allocation of a unit uniform surface load on 2-D elements
(b) Equivalent nodal allocation of a unit uniform surface load on 3-D elements

As the load distribution on the mid side node is greater than that on the corner
nodes (Figure 4.5), in dynamic analysis where wave propagation is of interest, mid side
node elements are not recommended because of the non uniform distribution of mass.

30
i^—»—^*

1r T 1

it 1

" • — » — '

Not recommended Recommended

Figure 4.6 Position of mid side node


The corner node of element should only be connected to the corner node, and not
the mid side node of an adjacent element. Adjacent elements should have connected (or
common) midside nodes (Figure 4.6).
5. Connecting elements should have the same number of nodes along the common side.
6. Two connecting elements must have the same number of DOF's; they must both have
the same number and type of displacement DOF's and the same number and type of
rotational DOF's. The DOF's must overlay each other and must be continuous across
the elements boundaries at the interface.
4.4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS
In ANS YS we can work in the following types of Coordinate system for finite
element analysis [27]. These coordinate systems are described below.
4.4.1 Global Co-ordinate System:
A global co-ordinate system (Figure 4.7) can be thought of as an absolute
reference frame. The ANSYS program provides three predefined global systems:
Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical. All the three of these types are right handed and,
by definition, share the same origin.

31
v,

"M —T **

Z Cartesian Z' cylindrical 1/ spherical


(X, Y, Z components) (R, q, Z components) (R, q, f components)
Figure 4.7
4.4.2 Local Co-ordinate Systems:
In many cases, it may be necessary to establish our own coordinate system, whose
origin is offset from the global origin, or whose orientation differs from that of the
predefined global systems (Figure 4.8)
V 1

x"**—"^—"~

x: —V p l a n e

Xi
© KI
X

Figure 4.8 Rotation, .0 xy


in X-Y plane (X towards Y, about Z)

4.4.3 Nodal Co-ordinate Systems:


While global and local coordinate systems locate geometry items, the nodal
coordinate system (Figure 4.9) orients the degree of freedom directions at each node.
Each node has its own nodal coordinate system, which is parallel to global Cartesian
system.

32
•^-x
L ( V 1 U
_ L L L L /^
Orientation parallel to orientation parallel to orientation parallel to
Global Cartesian system local cylindrical system global cylindrical
system

Figure 4.9 Nodal coordinate systems

4.5 SHAPE FUNCTION


The FEM gives the displacement of nodes. To obtain the displacement of the
element an interpolating function is defined which is called as the shape function. This
shape function is defined in terms of nodal values. The shape function of the plane, four
nodded 2-D element is given in the following section
4.5.1 Plane 42 and Plane 55 (2-D, 4 noded quadrilateral element)
The shape function for the 2-D, 4 noded quadrilateral element are derived on the
based on the Figure 4.10

u= -[ui{l-s)(\-t)+uji\+s){l-t)+uki^+s){\+t)+24fl-s)i\+t)

1
v=—
4

33
Y
( or Axial)

*^ K (or Radial)
Figure 4.10 Shape Function For the 2-D, 4 Noded Quadrilateral Element

4.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION


The numerical integration [3] that ANSYS uses is given below. 4-noded
quadrilateral element (2x2 or 3x3)
The numerical integration of 2-D quadrilaterals is given by

]]f{x,y)dxdy =ttH,H.fix,y)
-1-1 ./=i '=1

f{x,y) = function to be integrated

H i' H," weighting factor

Xi'V. ~ locations to evaluate functions (see Table 4.1)

1, m = number of integration (Gauss) points


The integration point locations are shown in Figure 4.11 and the Gauss integration
constants are given in Table 4.1 i

#4 k
•7 #3
s
• ' #9 A6
V

• ' • ' • '


J

Figure 4.11 2-D Quadrilateral Integration Point Locations

34
Table 4.1: Gauss Numerical Integration Constants

Number of Integration point locations (Xj) Weighting factors


integration points
2 ±0.57735' ±0.02691 ±0.89626 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 ±0.77459 ±0.66692 0.41483 0.5555 0.5555 0.55556
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8888 0.8888 0.8888

4.7 MESHING
Before meshing the model, and even before building the model, it is important
to think about whether a free mesh or a mapped mesh is appropriate for the analysis. A
free mesh has no restrictions in terms of element shapes, and has no specified pattern
applied to it. Figure 4.12 shows the pattern of free and mapped meshing.
Compared to a free mesh, a mapped mesh is restricted in terms of the element
shape it contains and the pattern of the mesh. A mapped area mesh contains either only
quadrilaterals or only triangular elements, while a mapped volume mesh contains only
hexahedron elements. In addition, a mapped mesh typically has a regular pattern, with
obvious rows of elements. To obtain such type of mesh, one must build the geometry as
a series of fairly regular volumes and/or areas that can accept a mapped mesh.

Figure 4.12 Free and Mapped Meshes

4.8 LOADS
, The word loads in FEM terminology includes boundary conditions and
externally or internally applied forcing functions such as displacements, forces,
pressure, temperatures (for thermal analysis), and gravity. Loads are divided into five

35
categories: DOF constraints, forces (concentrated loads), surface loads, body loads,
inertia loads.
1. A DOF constraint fixes a degree of freedom (DOF) to known value. Examples
of constraints are specified displacement and symmetry boundary conditions.
2. A force is a concentrated load applied at a node in the model. Examples are
forces and moments.
3. A surface load is distributed load applied over a surface such as pressures.
4. A body load is a volumetric or field load. Example is temperature.
5. Inertia loads are those attributable to the inertia (mass matrix) of a body, such as
gravitational acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration.
In ANSYS the loads can be applied either on the solid model (on keypoints, lines,
and areas) or on the finite element model (on nodes and elements). For example, forces
can be specified at a key point or at a node. No matter how you specify the loads, the
solver expects all loads on the solid model, the program automatically transfers them to
the nodes and elements at the beginning of solution.

4.9 MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND


4.9.1 Thermal matrices relationship [3]
The first law of thermodynamics states that thermal energy is conserved.
Specializing this to a differential control volume:
dT_
pc • + {vJ{L]T\{L}{^}=i 4.1
dt
Where:
p = density
c = specific heat
T = temperature
t = time
' d'
dX
d_
{L}- Vector operator
dY
d_
dZ

36
{v} = Vy = Velocity vector for mass transport of heat

{q} = heat flux vector


^ = heat generation rate per unit volume
The variable T is allowed to vary in both space and time. This dependency is
separated as:

Where:

IN} = element shape functions

\fj = nodal temperature vector

Thus, the time derivatives of equation 4.2 may be written as:

ST = has the form as T:

The combination {L}T is written as


{L]T = [5]{7 j 4.5

Where:

m={L]{Nj

Now, the variational statement comes to

+ LMTef[B][D] [B] {TMVOI)' l{STefM <1' d(S,) ".6


Where:
[B] = shape function derivative matrix evaluated at the integration points
[D] = conductivity matrix

37
vT&^ and id Xe \ arc nodal quantities and do not vary over the element, so that they

also may be removed from the integral. Now, since all quantities are seen to be

premultiplied by the arbitrary vector \o Te |' ^^'^^ ^^^"^ '^^ dropped from the resulting

equation. Thus the equation 4.6 reduces to:

P £ c {N] {N]\f^ d{vol)+ p I c {N] {VJ ( r j d{vol)

+ L [ ^ n ^ ) [^] {rJ^(^«0 =\{N]q* diS,) 4.7

Equation 4.7 can be rewritten as:

Where:

|j(^j = p \ c {N} \N\ d{vol) = elemental specific heat matrix

\K^"\ ~ P\ ^ { ^ ) Y \ ^(^^0 ^slsmental mass transport conductivity matrix

L/^C'J "^ J 1 5 [^] [^]^(w/) = element diffusion conductivity matrix

[^'j ~ J LSM-C)] [5]c?(vo/) = element convection surface conductivity matrix

| 0 J = J [N] q * d{^^ = element mass flux vector

|C^ ) "^ J TB hf{^} d{SJ = element convection surface heat flow vector

IQ J = J {N}^{VOI) = element heat generation load

4.9.2 Structural Matrices Relationship [28]


The principle of virtual work states that a virtual (very small) change of the
internal strain energy must be offset by an identical change in external work due to the
applied load.
SU = SV
Where:
U = strain energy (internal work)
V = external work
38
S = virtual operator
The virtual strain energy is

SU = \[ds] [<y] d{vol) 4.9


vol

[E] - strain vector


[a] = stress vector
Vol - volume of element
Assuming linear materials and geometry

SU= \{5s]{D]{s}d{yol) 4.10


vol

The strains may be related to the nodal displacements by


[E] = [B] {u)
[B] - strain-displacement matrix, based on the element shape functions
{u} = displacement vector

SU = [Suf 1{B} [D] {B} d{vol) {u}


vol

SU = [du]k \[N"( m d{vol) [u]


vol

[N'l = matrix of shape functions


Next, the external virtual work will be considered. The inertial effects will be studied
first

dV = -\\dw] — divol) 4.11


•"• ^ vol

{w} = vector of displacements of a general point


[F] = acceleration (D' Alernbert) force vector
According to Newton's second law

-, = p 4 H 4.12
vol df
Where:
p = density
t = time
The displacements within the element are related to the nodal displacements by

39
{w} = [N] {U} 4.13

SV, ^-{Sujp \[N] [N] divol) ^M


L

The pressure force vector formulation starts with

Where; [p] = the applied pressure vector


area = area over which pressure acts

5V^ = [5u] \{lS[^ {p} d {area)


area

Pressure applied to the outside surface of each element and are normal to the curved
surfaces
Nodal forces applied to the element can be accounted for by

W, - {5U]\F1]
Where; [ p ' ' | = nodal forces applied to the element

\{5s] [D] {e} d (vol) = {SuJ P J[N] lN]d{vol)^lu}


'"' ^"1 ^t 4.14

area

\K} {"} = \M} {-}+\F:\+{F:1 4.15


[ATJ = \ { B ] {D][B} d{vol) = element stiffness matrix
vol

\M} " P J[A^] [^] d{vol) = element mass matrix


vol

rl ~ —2"r} = acceleration vector

[ p f 1"" J [A/^/IJ ^P^ "^ {area) = element pressure vector

40
Chapter 5
Modeling and Analysis

5.1 FINITE ELEMENT MODELING


the following assumptions are made to model to model the EDM process:
1. The work-piece is considered as homogeneous and isotropic.
2. The material properties of the work-piece are independent of temperature.
3. The domain is considered as axisymetric.
4. Conduction is assumed as the method of heat transfer.
5. Inertia and body force effects are negligible during the analysis.
6. The work piece material is elastic- perfectly plastic and yield stress in tension is
same as that in compression.
7. The work-piece is stress free before the application of EDM.
8. The analysis is done for one spark.
9. The energy of the one spark is taken full at the instance of analysis.
5.L1 Temperature Modeling
5.L1.1 Governing equation
The domain is considered as axisymetric and a single spark is assumed.
The domain will be governed by the following differential equation

dT k d ( ^T^^
r — +k
dt r dr K dr J dy'

Where
T = temperature
t = time
k = thermal conductivity
p = density
C = specific heat
r and y are coordinate axes as shown in Figure 5.4.

41
5.1.1.2 Steps involved in finite element modeling:
1. Planning the analysis:-
In this step a compromise between the computer time and accuracy of the
analysis is made. The various parameters set in this step of analysis are given below:
Temperature modeling
> Analysis type - thermal h-method.
> Steady state or Transient? Transient
> Thermal or Structural? Thermal
> Properties of the material? Isotropic
> Objective of analysis- to find out the temperature distribution in the workpiece
when the process of EDM is done.
> Units-SI
2. Determine the problem domain:
to define the geometry of the problem, a 3-D isometric view of the workpiece is
created and is shown in Figure 5.2. But as the problem is axisymetric the final geometry
is reduced to a 2-D diagram. The 2-D model is shown in Figure 5.3. The problem is
axisymetric about Y axis.
3. Creating a finite element mesh:
Element type: the element type used is plane solid plane 55
Dimensions: 2-D
Shape: quadrilateral, four nodes
Degrees of freedom: TEMPERATURE

-*^ X <ar Radial;)

Figure 5.1 Thermal Solid Plane 55

42
Figure 5.2 3-Dviewofworkpiece

Figure 5J 2-t) view of the region (axisymetric model)

43-
The element used in this analysis with its degree of freedom is shown in the Figure 5.1.
The finite element analysis provides results only on the nodes, hence, the geometry of
the problem is meshed keeping in view that the nodes can be found on the locations
where the values of the degree of freedom (temperature in thermal analysis and x-y
translation in stress analysis) are required. To meet all the requirements mapped
meshing is used. Figure 5.5 shows a 3-D meshed model and the Figure 5.6 shows a 2-D
meshed model. The analysis of the process has been performed on the above models.
4. Applying the boundary conditions:-
A small half plane cut from the workpiece with negligible thickness has been
considered as the domain (Figure 5.4). On the domain for a single spark the heat flux is
applied on the surface F, up to a distance of R using Gaussian distribution. Convection
is used for the other region on F, surface which is caused due to the cooling by the
dielectric. On r2 & Tj as they are very far from the spark radius and also the spark has
been made to strike for very little time, no heat transfer condition has been assumed.
For r^ as it is the axis of symmetry the heat flux has been taken as zero as there is no
net heat gain or lost from this region.
R

h AT -T ,)
r, dT
dT
=0 dn
dn

r.
= 0
dn
Figure 5.4 Thermal Model of Electric Discharge Machining

44
Figure 5.6 2-D meshed model

rm •.
'4 #''i|^>:^' f I.

:*A^r?i * • - }• ^
* " * / I
"',
'W
<-*.sr •fr^'' -
• -;•-'« -
'-?? -.'.J
* ^ - * : ll ',,1

•*A

. I
£ra
^f-lf'll^
. > *!<SS

Figure5.5 3-D meshed model


Thus the boundary conditions are:

when t>0

q^ ifr<R onf,
0 for off - time

—=oonr ,r, r
5„ i2'i3'i4
Spark radius
Electrode materials influence the spark radius during edm. But the measurement
of spark radius is extremely difficuh due to high frequency of pulse. The spark radius is
taken as 125x10'^ meters as taken in paper by Yadav et al.[7].

Heat flux due to a single spark


A Gaussian heat flux distribution is assumed. The heat flux qw (r) at radius r is
given by (assuming the total power of each pulse is to be used only by one spark)

4.45/? VI
-4.5

Where
V •= breakdown voltage
/ = current
^^ = energy partition to the work piece

Energy partition (7^^)

It is the percentage of heat input obtained by the workpiece by one pulse in EDM. It is
taken as 0.08 as by Yadav et al. [7].
The following loads and the boundary conditions are applied on the model.
5. Convergence monitor
Overall convergence of the segregated solver is measured through the convergence
monitor parameters. A convergence monitor is calculated for each degree of freedom at
46
each global iteration. It is loosely normalized rate of change of the solution from one
global iteration to the next iteration and is calculated for each degree of freedom as
follows.

Z(^:-r'
convergence monitor=-^
uW

(=1
I

Where N- total number of finite element nodes

f Degree of freedom
'K' is current global iteration number
6. Solve the problem
The frontal solver is used for its solution. It involves:
a. After the individual element matrices are calculated, the solver reads in the
degree of freedom (DOF) for the first element.
b. The program eliminates any degrees of freedom that can be expressed in terms
of the other DOF by writing an equation to the .TRI file. This process repeats for
all the elements until all the degree of freedom have been eliminated and a
complete triangularized matrix is left on the .TRI file.
c. The term frequently used is the frontal solver is wave front. The wave front is
the number of degrees of freedom retained by the solver while triangularization
of the matrix.
7 Examine the results:
In this results are reviewed. For the problem the following results are obtained
a. The nodal solution plot of temperature distribution in thermal analysis.
b. Graph of the temperature variation with respect to the radial distance from the
point of application of the heat flux.
c. Graph of the temperature variation with respect to the depth of the workpiece

5.1.2 Stress Modeling


5.1.2.1 Governing equation

The extreme temperature gradients that occur during EDM results in extreme
nonuniformities in the local thermal expansion of work piece material which leads to
thermal stresses.

47
Assuming plain strain condition
The stress strain relationship due to temperature rise M is given by

(7r 1-1/ V 0 Srr


AT
(J.
(l + v)(l-2v)
V 1-v 0 a
l-2v \-2v
L rz
0 0 O rz

Where
E = Young's modulus
v=Poisson's ratio
(21 - Coefficient of thermal expansion

5.1.2.2 Steps involved in finite element modeling:


1. Planning the analysis:-
> Analysis type -structural h-method
> Steady state or Transient? Steady state
> Thermal or Structural? Structural
> Properties of the material? Isotropic
> Objective of analysis - to find out the thermal stress distribution in the
workpiece due to the temperature distribution which we have obtained in our
thermal analysis.
> Units-SI
2. Determine the problem domain:
In this step the geometry of the problem is defined. A 3-D isometric figure of the
problem is made and shown in Figure 5.2. But as the problem is axisymetric and taking
the advantage of that the final geometry is reduced to a 2-D diagram. The 2-D model is
shown in Figure 5.3. The problem is axisymetric about X axis.
3. Creating a finite element mesh
Element type: the element type is structural solid plane 42
Dimensions: 2-D
Shape: quadrilateral, four nodes
Degrees of freedom: Two DOF at each node with translational in the nodal x and y
Direction
48
4. Applying the boundary conditions:-
As Tj is very far and is fixed to the fixture of the EDM machine work piece
holder wise hence the displacement in both the direcfion x and y will be zero
u = 0 and w= 0

As r^ is axis of symmetry there will be no normal force component and there


will be no displacement in x direction.
/T^ = 0 and u = 0

As r, & Fj are free hence both has the force component in both direction as
zero
/7^ = 0 and f =0

5. Convergence monitor
The convergence monitor for displacement is selected as 1 .Oe-08 for accuracy in the
resuhs. The solution is achieved whenever the convergence monitor reaches at 1 .Oe-08.
6. Solve the problem
7 examine the results:
In this results are reviewed. For the problem the following results are obtained
a) The nodal solution plot of the Von Mises stresses.
b) The principle stresses and the shear stresses.
c) Graph of the stress variation with respect to the radial distance from the point of
application of the heat flux of the wOrkpiece.
d) Graph of the stress variation with respect to the depth Of the workpiece.

5.2 MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE DETERMINATION FROM FINITE


ELEMENT METHOD
The results from any FEM analysis will be in the form of temperature and
stresses.
These temperature and stresses are to be interpreted to determine the amount of
material removed. A failure criterion should be selected which correlates the
temperature and stresses with the possibility of failure, to predict which part of the
material is failing due to the heat flux given in the process of EDM.
The failure criterion used in the calculation of material removal are:

49
1. In the analysis it has been taken that which ever element has three nodes with
temperature greater than the melting point HSS will fail due to melting
2. For the results of stress analysis it has been set that which ever element has three
nodes with stresses more then the yield stress of HSS will fail due to the
yielding of the metal due to the stresses.
5.2.1 program algorithm:
A C++ program is developed which takes the resuh of the FEM program and do
the necessary calculations. This developed program gives the results in the form of
amount of material removal per second. The algorithm followed for this analysis is as
follows.
1. Taking following inputs from the data files generated by the FEM program.
a) Element number and its coordinates.
b) Nodal coordinates with respect to global coordinate system.
c) Nodal temperature values.
d) Nodal principle stresses.
2. Take element nodes, and corresponding temperature and principle stresses.
3. Find the elements for which the temperature is more then the melting point.
4. Find the elements for which the failure criterion for the stresses is satisfied.
5. Add the areas of all those elements with temperature greater then melting
temperature and the elements which follow the failure criterion.
6. Since the plane strain is considered, the volume of material removed by a single
spark is given by the product of the area and the circumference of the spark area.
7. Now the material removal rate is calculated by dividing the material removed by
the total duty cycle of the pulse.

50
Chapter 6
Results and Discussion

6,1 THERMAL ANALYSIS


Figure 6.1 shows the temperature isotherms for a single sparlc of an electro
discharge machining process.

Midi fiilliji

Ffeorc 6.1 Tcmperatore Isotherms tfne To Sinsle Spark for the Half Section Of
HSS Workpiece for Current^ 12 Amp, Voltaee^lOO Vohs. Poise Ontime^lOO
//Sec
A better picture of temperature distribution is obtained by plotting the
temperature along the radial and vertical direction (that is alojig depth) from point of
application of Spark.. Following graphs present the distribution of temperature over the
whole model at time 100 microseconds along radial and vertical directions.
'si
i " • -
POST.,, AN.'.". :•
STSP-J.
SUE = i X
•ri,'<.K-=. J O O E - 0 3
PATH I'LOT

,„..,,,- •r- (18 5 8 , 5 1 6 . , _


:
IIKP

.5456. >53S

1301.034,

4.U. 5. !.•;;:
\
\
\
0
^*^ EKXO-^-S-;: 1

i:-'? .1.-72-1. .7S 1.^.'


. 12'' .152;; • fi'?.'; l.iJ..^
1.1 ST

siTiyle spark

Figure 6.2 Temperature variation in Radial Direction Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec
.1
.POSTl AN
JUL 4 ZOOS
3TEr=l
' - " • ' • - ' ' • ; < • - "
SUB =.!.!
T I K E - . .).00E-03
PATH PLOT

6 8 5 6 . f-IS..
NOT'Z^l

TEHP
5-if! 6 . <•*!?.

1
3429. J i .
1
2743. MS
1
20S7.56f
1
l;;71.7«4. 1
sss.stz.
ft
I i ' i ' 1 • i ' 1
Uiin-' •«•- 2 )

) .ZJ .i .74 I 1.•!.:'•

.1^5 -;'.•(,•: .St$ .L'lS l.lif


DI3T

?iric/.l.e .'r.pa..r.)t

Figure 6.3 Temperature variation Along Depth Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec

52
6.1.1 Variation of Temperature with Current
Figure 6.4 shows the variation of temperature along the upper surface of the
workpiece. It can be seen from the Figure 6.4 as the current is increasing the
temperature is also increasing due to the heat flux input increase.

AN
STF,? 1
stJE
Ti>-,
rvCH
r
.:c'.iF,-():-;
PIOT
Temperature Distributions for the Different "^i«-
la-p

(xlO*
Current Values along the Radial Direction from
1053.333

947.997
A i=12 amps
642.664

-n m 737.331
O i=6 amps
m £31.998

526.665
C
421.332

315.999

210.666

105.333

r.iriyle -';;>;3rk

Figure 6.4 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values Along The
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec, Voltage= 100 Volts
Figure 6.5 shows the variation of temperature along the depth of the workpiece.
Results indicate that temperature is increases with the increase in current. Similar
results have been been obtained by Yadav et al. [29].
By comparing both the curves for different values of current in Figures 6.2 and
6.5 it can be said that the gradient of curve is steep along the depth. And the gradient
along the depth is high up to 0.00008m. The temperature variation along the radial
direction is present up to the distance of 0.00022m. From this it can be said that the
material removal will be more along the radial direction then along the depth.

53
POSTl
STEP-1
AN
JUL 4 2005
SIB =11 V'.-.Vy.?.!
IIME=.lC0E-03
PATH PLOT
Temperature Distributions for the PLcrr m. i
lEMP
Different Current Values along the Depth

A i=12 amps
-0
^ i=6 amps
.7;
c

.125 .375 .625 .8-75 1.125


DISTANCE
(M)

single spark

Figure 6.5 Temperature Distributions for the Different Current Values Along
Depth at Pulse Ontime=100 ju Sec, Voltage=100 Volts
6.1.2 Variation of Temperature with Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.6 and Figure 6.7 shows the variation of temperature along the radial
distance and along the depth of the work piece. From these curves it can be concluded
that as the pulse ontime is increased the temperature also increases. Same trend has
been obtained by Yadav et al. [29]. The trend for some particular initial radius
(somewhat equal to the spark radius i.e. 0.000125m) is large but after a particular radius
the trend is uniform. It can be supported by the reason that for as the heat flux is given
for a longer time the temperature near the centre will be high but after that there will be
uniform heat dissipation will occur.
For the curve along the depth of the workpiece we can say that, the curve is
steeper then the radial distance curve. As we will go deeper the gradient for the larger
pulse ontime curve is less as compared to the gradient of the lower pulse ontime curve,
this can be supported by the reason that for a longer pulse ontime, time left for heat
dissipation is less in each duty cycle. So it can be said that the temperature decrease
along the depth is less for longer pulse ontime.
54
wsn. APt
SSSM. jiz, i man

KUBPUn m TeirperatuiB DKiiibiitiomfortlie Differem Pulse Tiite srorsri. i

ISP
ValiKS aloi^ tlie Radial DiiBction fromtlw ceiire
uss.n
.0003 s

.0001s

.3SS .375 -Ssa .ijtl i.v^


DISTANCE fM)

aitiffia leisA

Figure 6.6 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
?CST1 AN
.9TEF=1 ,JUI. 4 200,')
SUE =11 14:46:37
TIffi=,lC0E-03
?A1H PLOT
Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse PLOT NO. 1

13*
Time Values along the Depth

-t=.OO03 s
H
m -t=.0001s

7^

-4)

.375 .625 .875 1.125


DISTANCE (M)

:;ingle spark
Figure 6.7 Temperature Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.000lsec
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts
55
6.1.3 Variation of Temperature with Voltage
As the discharge voltage is increased the temperature of the workpiece at a
particular point will increase both along the radial direction and along the depth as
shown in Figure 6.8 and Figure 6.9. It must be because of the of the increase of heat
flux value. The trend for voltage is similar as for current.
From all the above results of temperature analysis it can be concluded that, an
increase of temperature with increase of current is less as than with increase of pulse
ontime. By this we can say that more material will be removed with the increase of
current. But for the voltage we can say that the effect of discharge voltage and that of
the current is same. The gradients of voltage and the current curves are very much
similar.

Teir|)ei<itm-e Distiibxitiore for llie Different VollJge ValiEs A b i ^ Tlie AN


JUL 4 20DS
am » i i
TIM>-.1C0EW13 Radial Dii^ctionfromtlie cenliie
wsaH Kujr
a

1083.3»

^ 100 volts

Q 50 volts

n — 3 0 volts

(x10*'-4)
1.2S
1.125

aiogXg g^aarjc

Figure 6.8 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontirae= 100// Sec

56
Bcsn AN
JUL 4 aoas

s Deptli Piiir NCJ. I

SIM? x10"-4

I M S .333-

M7.»!r7

MZ.fiM A-—100 volts


737.331-

£91.990^ 0 - — 5 0 volts
521.££S
S
^31.333
•^ -^OvnlK
315.999

21D.CSC'

10S.333

0 .x10"-4
.29 .9 .79 1 1.Z9
-Sas .379 «'• ,979 1.129
DISTANCE
(M.)

aiwtlfr apaot

Figure 6.9 Temperature Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec

6.2 STRESS ANALYSIS


Figure 6.10 shows the variation of equivalent stress (Von Mises) distribution of
the domain which is coming due to the temperature variation. The stress distribution
show the similar trend as shown by Yadav et al.[7] and Das et al.[6]. As given in
chapter 2 there will be residual stresses in the workpiece. The stresses that will be
coming in the domain will be compressive for some of the region and after that there
will be tensile stresses. The presence of residual stresses in the workpiece has been
reported by many researcher but the effect of stresses in the material removal due to
these stresses has not yet been found.
The graphical representation of stress along radial and along vertical direction (ie along
depth from point of application of spark) over the whole model dimensions is also
presened in fig 6.11 and fig. 6.12

57
Figure 6.10 Equivalent Stress Distribution Due To Single Spark for the Half
Section of HSS Workpiece: Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse
Ontime=100 /u Sec
1
POSTl AN
STEP=1 JUL 4 200S
. SUB = i 02:33:41
TIHK=1
PATH PLOT
N0D1=202
HS8.334^ - - -
HQD2=102
S 1078.J06.
SEQV
958.572

838.836

719.004

599.17,
-

479.336,

3S9.S0Z.

239.658,

119.834.
(xl0»»-3)
0 .25 .5 .75 1 1.25
.12i .375 .625 .875 1.125
DI S T

Fig 6.11 Von mises Stress variation in Radial Direction Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 // Sec

58
1
POSTl AN
STEP=1 JUL 4 ZOOS
SUB =1 02:34:58
TIMK=1
PATH PLOT
N0D1=20Z
1198.334,
N0D2=1
a 1 0 7 8 . ,506 1
SEQV
958.672.
) 1
838 .838.

719.004.
;
599.17. 4
479.336.

359.502.

239.668

119.834

] (J:10**-3)
0 .25 .5 •75 1 1.25
.125 .375 .625 .875 1.125
DIST

Figure 6.12 Von mises stress variation Along Depth Due To Single Spark for
Current= 12 Amp, Voltage=100 Volts, Pulse Ontime=100 ju Sec

Figure 6.13 shows the stress components Sx, Sy, shear component Sxy and the Sequi
distributions along radial distance from the centre and along the depth have been shown.
By this figure we can say that there is a very large variation in the Sx component as
compared to the Sy and shear component Sxy. The curve for Sx is showing the similar
trend as given by Yadav et al.[7]. The equivalent stress distribution curve along the
depth of the workpiece is also showing a similar trend as of the results of Das et al. [6].
The curves for Sy and Sxy components of stress are also showing the exact trend as of the
results of Yadav et al.[7].

59
stress distribution along radial distance from
the centre
4.00E+09

3.00&«)9 -

2.00E+09

0.00&K30

-1.OO&-09
— Sx
-Sy
-2.00e+09 — Sxy
- Sequt

-4.OO&-09

N N N rt n ^
r a d i a l tHatanttm (m)

(a)

Stress distribution a l o n g the d e p t h

-4.00E<O9 +

(b)
FHsare 6.13 Stress Components Distribntion Dae To Sin$(le Spark at Carrent=12
Amp, Voltage=50 Volts, Pulse OntimcF^lOO // Sec (a) Along Radial Distance,

(b) Along Depth


6.2.1 Equivalent Stress Variation for Different Values of Current
Figure 6.14 shows the variation of equivalent stress variation along the radial
distance from the centre for two different values of current. The figure shows that when
the current is increased the equivalent stress value at a particular point also increases.
There is a large increase in the stress upto a certain distance, But as we go farther from
the centre the gradient of the curve is falling and approaching the same value. It can be
understood by the temperature variation curve along the radial distance. The
temperature is decreasing gradually after a particular distance because of constant
convection coefficient of the dielectric hence as we go farther from the centre the stress
gradient along the radial distance is also falling gradually.
AN
.•;TEF-I JUL 4 W.
SUB =1 M:50:;
TI^E-l
?AIH PLff: Stress Distributions for the Different PLOT NO.
3
S3QV
current Values along the Radial
A i =12 amps

0 i =6 amps

.37.'; .(,25
DISTANCE
(M)

Figure 6.14 Stress Distributions for the Different Current Values Along The
Radial Direction at Pulse Ontime=100 ^ Sec, Voltage= 100 Volts

Figure 6.15 shows the equivalent stress variation along the depth for different
values of current. From the curve it can be concluded that as the current value is
increase the stresses are also increasing. In the Figure 6.10 it is very clear that the
gradient of stress distribution curve along the depth is steeper then the curve along the
radial distance from the centre.

61
HHIL

JXHTKB. 1
s
StiBss Distiibudoiis tar Urn DiffeiBiit
surf CiuiBiit ValiBS ^hug tlie DepHi

A i =12 amps

0 i =6 amps

[^j«Ht)

I.IZS
i.za
DISTANCE
(M)

^\vi;^s o. ^^.
t/ /

it :if,;V
,v^. of Pulse Ontime
6.2.2 Equivalent Stress Variatipn^pr Differeat^akies
Figure 6.16 shows the equivaleht ^^ressjdistnbution along the radial direction for
different values of pulse ontime. Similar trend has been obtained for the temperature
distribution curve for different values of pulse ontime. Figure 6.17 shows the stress
distribution along the depth of the workpiece. The trend for the depth is same with the
trend that has been obtained by Das et al. [6]. From these figures it can be said that the
stress value have increased with the increase of pulse ontime but the increase is less as
compared to the increase with current. Hence it can be concluded that the value of stress
increases more with current then with the pulse ontime.
the increase is less as compared to the increase with current.

62
PCSTl AN
JUL 4 20C-5

:;
Stress Distributions for the Different Pulse Time '"'^ " '
Values along the Radial Direction

Figure 6.16 Temperature Distributions for the Different Pulse Ontime along
Radial Distance from the Centre at Current=12 Amp, Voltage= 100 Volts

Ksa Mir -^
ijiattss
wsHnsm stress Distributions fbrflte Different Pulse Time Values
BSD along the Depth

t = 0.003 s

t = 0.001 s

1,»
.125

DISTANCE fM)

Figure 6.17 Stress Distributions For The Different Pulse Ontime t=.OO0lsec
And t=.0003 sec Along Depth at Current=12 Amp, VoItage= 100 Volts

63
6.2.3 Equivalent Stress Variation for Different Values of Voltages
Figure 6.18 shows the variation of stress along the radial direction for different
values of voltage. The trend shows that as the value of voltage increases the stresses are
also increasing and the trend has somewhat equal gradient as that for the curve for the
current.
Figure 6.19 shows the variation of stress along the depth of the work piece for
different values of voltages. By this it can be concluded that as the voltage is increased
there is an increase in the stress value at a particular point. This curve also has
somewhat same gradient as of the curve for current.

POSTl AN
.';TE.P=I
SUB =1 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltage Values '^u-so?!
•TmE=i " PLOT MO. 1
P?IH PLOT
SEQV
Along the Radial Direction

^ — . . 100 volts

O 50 volts

D 30 volts

(xl0«*-4)

.125 .375 .625 .875 1.125

DISTANCE
(M)

Figure 6.18 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Radial
Distance from the Centre at Current 12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec

64
POSTl AN
S1EP=1 .TtJi.
'i zoo;:.
SUB =1 Stress Distributions for the Different 14-.51-.56
PLOT W. 1
TIt'E=l
PATH PLOT Voltage Values along the Depth
SEQV

^ 100 volts

Q 50 volts

D 30 volts
,-v c/> 838.25

875 1.125

DISTANCE
(M)

Figure 6.19 Stress Distributions for the Different Voltages along Depth At
Current=12 Amp, Pulse Ontime= 100// Sec

6.3 MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE


The results obtained by this analysis are given in the table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Results of Theoretical Analysis
S.No. Voltage Current Pulse MRR
Volts Ampere ontime (mni3/sec)
//Sec (theoretical)

1 30 12 100 0.006.42
2 50 12 100 0.008.08
3 100 12 100 0.06.55
4 100 12 300 0.03.49
5 100 6 100 0.01.95

65
All the results obtained are well below the maximum MRR given in literature [32] for
given process parameters. This is due fact of several assumptions made and other
simplification during analysis.
6.3.1 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Current.
Figure 6.20 shows the variation of the data obtained by the theoretical model
developed, and the experimental results for different values of current. As seen from all
the figure the value of material removal rate from theoretical model is less as compared
to the experimental. The error ranges from 30% -50%. It is because we have taken the
heat flux as the input for material removal, which is assumed to be linearly dependent
on the current. But in real situation the relation is not linear but nonlinear as stated by
Wang et al. [4]. Hence when the current value increases the error increases.

MRR (m3/sec.) WITH CURRENT VARYING

7E-11
6E-11 -
t =0.0001 sec. ^ ^
5E-11 1
V=100volt / ^
a: 4E-11 -
S 3E-11 -
2E-11 i
1E-11 1
i _,--—^
0 4-^^^r::^- —
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CURRENT

Figure 6.20 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Current.

By the Figure 6.20 we can also Conclude that the as the current value is
increased the material removal rate is also increasing both by experimentally and
theoretically. This can also be verified from the literature. The increase of material
removal rate with the increase of current can be explained by the reason that higher
current leads to higher discharge energy and energy density, thus increasing the material
removal rate.

66
6.3.2 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Pulse Ontime
Figure 6.21 show the variation of the data obtained by the theoretical model
developed, and the experimental results for different values of pulse ontime for different
conditions.

MRR (m3/sec.) WITH PULSE TIME VARYING


V=100 volt
i=12 amps.

0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025 0.0003 0.00035


TIIV1E(SEC.)

Figure 6.21 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Pulse Ontime

As seen from the trend, the theoretical modeling results and the experimental
results are both showing an increase of material removal rate with the pulse ontime.
This trend has also been seen in the results of Jilani et al. [5]. But the rate of increase of
the material removal rate is less as compared to the material removal rate results for
increase of current. The increase of material removal rate with the increase of pulse
ontime can be explained by the reason that when the pulse ontime is long, the large
discharge energy with low energy density will causes most of the material in the
discharge area to be removed in the form of melting. During pulse offtime, the crater is
partly smeared by the liquid phase, which leads to a thick resolidified layer. On the
other hand, the thermal affected layer, in which micro cracks formed, is also thick
because of the long time conduction of heat. Longer pulse ontime leads a deeper and
wider melting, thus increasing the material removal rate.

67
6.3.3 Material Removal Rate for Different Values of Discharge Voltages
Figure 6.22 shows the variation of the experimental results with the theoretical
results of the model developed. From the Figure 6.18 it can be concluded that as the
voltage is increased the material removal rate also increases. The trend is showing that
as the voltage is increased the error between the theoretical and the experimental values
are increasing. The cause of this is that the voltage is not related to the MRR by a linear
relationship, but with a nonlinear relationship. It has been reported by Delpretti et al.
[30]. It has also been reported by Delpretti that the material removal increases more
with the increase of voltage then with the current.

MRR (m3/sec.) WITH VOLTAGE VARYING

7E-11 1=0.0001 sec


i=12 amps.
6E-11
5E-11
K 4E-11
S 3E-11
2E-11
1E-11
0
20 40 60 80 100 120
VOLTAGE

Figure 6.22 Comparisons between the Experimental and the Theoretical Results
of Model for Different Values of Discharge Voltage

68
Chapter 7
Conclusion and Future Scope

The aim of the present work was to develop a finite element model for the electro-
discharge machining process and to analyze the temperature and stress distribution
pattern inside the workpiece in EDM process. To study the effects of current, pulse
ontime and discharge vohage on the machining rate. To predict the material removal
rate considering a failure criterion for the material failure and FEM data.
Based on the investigations carried out the following conclusions can be drawn.

:=^ The model also shows that the material removal is more due to melting then due
to the thermal spalling.

=> The developed model also predicts that the material removal is more along the
radial direction then along the depth.

:=> The developed model also shows that as the current is increasing the material
removal rate is increasing.

^ The developed model also shows that as the pulse ontime is increasing the
material removal rate is increasing.

=^The finite element model developed for single spark for EDM process is
predicting the temperature variation with reasonable accuracy.

=> The finite element model developed for single spark for EDM process is
predicting the stress variation with reasonable accuracy.

:=> The developed model also shows that as the discharge voltage is increasing the

material removal rate is also increasing.

=:> As this analysis is for single spark and the assumption made, that the total
energy of the pulse is within one spark, the stresses and temperature that are
obtained are less and thus, the material removal rate is less as compared to the
experimental results.
=> The temperature and stress analysis confirms that the mechanisms of material
removal in High Speed Steel are melting and evaporation due to the
temperature increase and thermal spalling due to high stresses developed.

69
=> The developed model shows that the increase in material removal rate with the
increase of current and discharge voltage is more as compared to the increase of
material removal rate with the increase of pulse ontime.

=> As the material removal rate is not linearly dependent on the voltage, hence the
model developed is showing low material removal rate as compared to the
experimental results.
Future Scope of Work
"^ Study can be carried out by developing a model for multiple sparks to
accommodate the discrepancies of the present developed model.

=^ Study can be carried out to investigate the effects of various parameters like,
type of dielectric, pulse frequency, etc., on the material removal rate.

^^ Though the temperature and stress pattern is satisfactory in terms of correlation


with the mechanism of material removal, the amount on material removal that
was predicted was deviating to an extent. This is due to lack of consideration in
the assumptions made. So further improvement should be done on this area.

=> The heat affected zone should be calculated and should be analyzed to obtain its
effect on the material removal in the further studies.

=> Though in this study, thermal conductivity and specific heat have been taken as
different at different temperatures and all other material properties have been
taken as a constant value. Further work can be done by considering variation of
other material properties with temperature. Also material properties can be
taken in the functional form i.e. a function of field variable (here a function of
temperature) instead of taking their discrete values at different temperatures to
obtain more accurate results.

70
REFERENCES

1. Gary F. Benedict, "Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes", 207,MARCEL


DEKKERINC, 1987.
2. J. N. Reddy, "AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD",
TATA McGRAW-HILL, 2003.
3. ANSYS Advanced Analysis Procedure Manual, Ansys 5.4, SAP IP (ANSYS
INC.), 1996.
4. Pie-Jan Wang and Kuo-Ming Tsai, "Semi-Emphirical Model On Work Removal
And Tool Wear In Electrical Discharge Machining", Journal of Material
Processing Technology, 114, 1-17,2001.
5. P.C. Pandey and S.T. Jilani, "Electrical Machining Characteristics Of Cemented
Carbides", Wear, 116,77-88,1987.
6. Shuvra Das, Mathias Klotz, And F. Klocke, "EDM Simulation: Finite Element
Based Calculation Of Deformation, Microstructure And Residual Stresses",
Journal Of Material Processing Technology, 142, 434-451, 2003.
7. Vinod Yadav, Vijay K. Jain, and Prakash M. Dixit, "Thermal Stresses Due To
Electrical Discharge Machining", International Journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture, 42, 877-888, 2002.
8. J. R. Crookall and B.C. Khor, "Residual Stresses And Surface Effects In
Electro-Discharge Machining", Proceedings of the Thirteenth International
Machine Tool Design & Research Conference, Birmingham, 331-338,
September 1972.
9. J.H.Zhang, T.C. Lee and W.S. Lau, "Study On The Electro Discharge
Machining Of Hot Pressed Aluminium Oxide Based Ceramic", Journal of
Material Processing Technology, 63, 908-912, 1997.
10. P.M. Lonardo and A.A. Bruzzone, "Effects Of Flushing And Electrode
Materials On Die Sinking EDM", Amials of CIRP, 48(1), 123-130,1999.
11. C.H. Kahng and K.P. Rajurkar, "Surface characteristics behavior due rough and
fine cutting by EDM", Annals of CIRP, 25(1), 77-81, 1977.

71
12. A. Erden, "Role Of Dielectric Flushing On Electric Discharge Machining
Performance", Proceedings Of The Twenty-Third International Machine Tool
Design & Research Conference, Birmingham, 283-289, 1982.
13.J.A. McGeough and H. Rasmussen, "A Macroscopic Model of Electro-
Discharge Machining", International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture,
22,333-339,1982.
14. H. Hocheng, W.T. Lei and H.S. Hsu, "Preliminary Study Of Material Removal
In Electrical Discharge Machining Of Sic/Al", Journal Of Material Processing
Technology, 63, 813-818,1997.
15. F. Van Dijck, "Physico-Mathematical Analysis Of EDM Process", Ph.D thesis,
Katholieke university, Netherlands ,1973.
16. Heng Xia and Masanori Kunieda, "Research On Machining Characteristics Of
Polarity-Changed Pulse In EDM", Proceedings Of The Xf' ISEM, 1995.
17. H.C. Tsai, B.H. Yan and F.Y.Huang, "EDM Performance Of Cr/Cu- Based
Composite Electrodes", International Journal Of Machine Tools & Manufacture,
43,245-252,2003.
18. Ajit Singh and Amitabh Ghosh, " A Thermo-Electric Model Of Material
Removal During Electric Discharge Machining", International Journal Of
Machine Tools & Manufacture, 39, 669-682,1998.
19. R. Karthikeyan, P.R. Lakshmi Narayanan and R.S. Naagarazan, "Mathematical
Modeling For Electric Discharge Machining Of Aluminium- Silicon Carbide
Particulate Composites", Journal Of Material Processing Technology, 87, 59-63,
1999.
20. Li Li, Y.S. Wong, J.Y.H. Fuh And L. Lu, " EDM Performance Of Tic/Copper-
Based Sintered Electrodes", Materials And Design, 22, 669-678, 2001.
21. F. Kaldes, "Flushing The Gap In EDM", Personal Communication.
22. Masanori Kunieda And Masahiro Yoshida, " EDM In Gas", Annals Of CIRP,
46, 143-146, 1997.
23. Fritz Klocke, Thorsten Beck, Stefan Hoppe, Tilo Krieg, Nobert MuUer, Tobias
Nothe, Hans-Willi Raedt, And Kevin Sweeney, " Examples Of FEM
Application In Manufacturing Technology", Journal Of Material Processing
Technology, 120, 450-457, 2002.

72
24. A.M. Gagalla And N.F. Petrofes, Materials And Manufacturing Processes,
Vol.5, No.2, 253, 1991.
25. T.C. Lee And W.S. Lau, Materials And Manufacturing Processes, Vol.5, No.4,
635, 1991.
26. Robert D Cook, David S. Malker, Michael E. Plesha, Concepts And
Applications Of Finite Element Analysis {3"^ Edition), John Wiley And Sons,
1989.
27. Desai, Abel, Introduction To Finite Element Method, A Numerical Method For
Engineering Analysis, CBS Publishers And Distributors, 1987.
28. P. Shankar, V.K.Jain, T.Sundarajan, "Analysis Of Spark Profile During EDM
Process", Machining Scienceand Technology, 1(2), 195-217, 1997.
29. Vinod Yadav, Vijay K. Jain, And Prakash M. Dixit, " Temperature Distribution
During Electro-Discharge Abrasive Grinding", Machining Science And
Technology, 6(1), 97-127,2002.
30. R. Delpretti, Dr. D.F. Dauw, " Geometrical Simulation Of The EDM Die-
Sinking Process", Annals Of The CIRP, Vol 37(1), 191-196,1988.
31. Operating manual for Electric Discharge Machine Model T-3822 , Electronica
Engineering, Mukund Nagar , Pune
32. F.-T. Weng , M.-G. Her, "Study of the Batch Production of Micro Parts Using
the EDM process", Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2002) 19:266-270 2002
Springer-Verlag London Limited.

73
APPENDIX A

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF SINGLE SPARK EDM PROCESS

Applicable ANSYS ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical,


Products: ANSYS Structural
Interactive Time 60 to 90 minutes
Required:
Discipline: Coupled field (thermal followed by structural
analysis)
Analysis Type: Transient followed static
Element Types Quad 4 node 55, Quad 4 node 42
Used:
ANSYS Features solid modeling, complex load application,
Demonstrated: deformed shape,temperature and stress displays;
image capturing

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
This example demonstrates the coupled field analysis (a transient thermal
analysis follwed by static structural analysis) of single spark EDM process.
An axis- symmetric model is considered and the whole analysis is carried
out on the 2D surface equivalent of the model. While defining the material
properties the variable heat conductivity and the variable specific heat is
considered with each of them varying with the temperature hitherto.
The material properties used in the analysis are listed in Appendix C.

SOLUTION APPROACH
A thermal analysis using Quad 4 node 55 element will be performed first.
The results of this thermal analysis stored in the "*.rth" file are the applied
as input to the structural analysis (using Quad4 node 42 element) and stress
results are obtained. The overall material removal is due to effect of both
the melting of work piece and due thermal spalling of material. An
important step in the analysis is to apply the complex equation based heat
flux and convection loads. The results of the analysis are listed down in a
file and results obtained from analysis are used to calculate the material
removal rate (MRR) of model by using them in a computer programme.

SUMMARY OF STEPS

PREPROCESSING
74
1. Specify the title
2. Set preferences
3. Define element type and options
4. Define material properties
5. Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
6. Mesh the model
7. Apply the Heat flux and Convection loads -
8. Apply the boundry conditions
SOLUTION
1. Set the analysis type
2. Set output controls
3. Define load step options for transient analysis
4. solve
POST PROCESSSSSING
1. Read the result set
2. Plot the dof Temp and Von mises stress solution for nodal
solution
3. List the nodal dof solution
4. Plot temperature &stress on depth and radial paths defined on
graph
5. Exit ANSYS programme.

75
INTERACTIVE STEP BY STEP SOLUTION

> PREPROCESSING

1.Specify title
Utility menu -^file -^ change title
[ i 1 Change Title
S;:-iII
[/TITLE] Enl-er new title \ .: Thermal analysis of single spark EDt^l prJDcess

- ' ""OK " I '••':.' Cancel ' * • Help

a. Enter the title " Thermal analysis of single spark EDM


process".
b. Press OK.
2.Set preferences
Main menu -^preferences

ftlPrererences for GUI Filtering


M
'tKEYWl/fE-^-l
Individual • ,- " • I t.i I •• " L '
> 1 '

c 1 I
I, . ^ t »

r ••i^r-'ii '. d '

T Magnetic-Edge

r" High Frequency

F Electric
Note If no indu'iduaj disciplines arc selected they v'lil all shoiv. yi nJ:^ ^5s'.^v ^&.
i _ _

^ Discipline options , ,
' * ^ h-Method

C p-I'lethod struct

, -, 1- - •, .•.! Ir r*. p-Mefhod Electr.

OK. - ' Cancel Help

a. Turn on the "Thermal" option


b. Turn on the "h-method"
c. OK
76
3.Define element type
Main menu -^preprocessor -^element type -^ add/edit/delete
a.Add
b.Choose solid family of Elements
c.Choose quad 4 node 55 element
d.OK
e. Close IQ Element Types

> 'i -
Defined Element Types;
.ype 1 PLANE55

! s

'/\

1 tl i .X.CV .A V—"^ - I .«V ^FKT t*'-^ :—I

i_|i <:p Help I

4.Defme material properties


Main menu-^ preprocessor -^ Material props -^ Material model
a. Enter 1.93 ell for EX (young's modulus)
b. Enter 0.29 for PRXY (poisson's ratio)
c. Enter 7900 for DENS (density)

d. Enter 0.1490000E+02, 0.2260000E+02, 0.2800000E+02,


0.3170000E+02 at temperatures 300,800,1200,1500 for
KXX ( variable thermal conductivity)
e. Enter 0.4770000E+03, 0.5820000E+03, 0.6400000E+03,
0.6820000E+03 at temp. 300,800,1200,1500, fore
(specific heat)

77
5 5 Conductivity for Material Number I
s^:i.
^••'B .»—J filSpeclRc Heat for Material Number 1
ft: ill
Conductivity (Isotropic) for Material Number 1 Specific Heat for Material Number 1

iJ3s#*- K iemm^em-'ii^^ii^if^^l^ - -&.-»>ir»f ."^a^s» •J4


.Temperatures' 300 00 1200 r i'>V ... .
Temperatures 1800 1200 1500
|KXX |I4,9 (22,6 W C'":- p82 J64G" !682l

IjVl
Add Temperature Delete .Temperature Graph ; Add Temperature Delete Temperature 'Graph I
fr»
if OKc?ff¥calcel. l' .Help OK Cancel Help 1

ANS^
JUH 29 2005
11:33:23

2S0 SCO 'SO 1000 12S0 1500


375 625 875 1125 1375
TEMP

78
f. Click 'Graph' on conductivity and specific heat window
to see the graphical variation of respective properties with
temperature
g. Material-> Exit
fllRectangle by 2 Comet's %M
P/,Pick- '•<";
S A *.*."•

UP X
5 .Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
Mainmenu -^Preprocessor -^Modeling -^
Create -^Area -^Rectangle -^By 2 corners >Globa.l<jX?=-,
1 *"« 1^,*

a. Give x,y=0 Y
Width, height =.00125 Z

b. OK "P X
6. Mesh the model ""P *V
M(3/« menu-^Preprocessor -^Meshing-^Mesh tool ji/idth .0^25
a. Click on 'set' button in front of "AREA" inci^hti * .QQ125I
t V ^ *
b.Select the area and click apply
C.Enter the Element edge length=.0000125 OK •
d.OK Reset { Cancel
Main menu-^Preprocessor->Meshing-^Mesh tool Help
a.Click Mesh
b. Select area and apply
c.OK
d.Close Mesh tool
^ E l e m e n t Size a t Picked Areas 2<1
. i ••,
[ AESIZE] Element size at picked areas

SIZE Element edge lengthF-? • > 1 25e-005

N ^f'
^^IL Sff^ |[ Help

!^t"^lr:r«f*^'
7. Apply Heat flux and convection
•t* M(3z« menu-^Preprocessor-^Load-^Define
Load-^Apply -^Thermal -^Function -^Define/Edit
a. Click on 'multivalued function based on regime variable'
b. In box designate 'x' as regime variable
c. Click on 'Regime 1' tab
d. Set the range for x from 0 to .000125
e. Write the expression for heat flux in result box

79
f. Write comment and save file.
<* Main menu"^Preprocessor->Load->Defme Load-> Apply
•^Thermal^Function->Read file
a. Browse for the saved file (saved in last step) and open it
b. In function loader opened give title
c. Input values of any constant quantities asked by function loader
d. OK
FnFunction Editor QlFunction Loader
• File Edit Help - t Jtu • f7 Commentj .
I *
I' heal f'jxFinal
Fundfon Regime 1 iReg me Z (Reg me 3 I Reg rre 4 | Regime S ] Regime 6 |

Regime 1 Limits -^—:— * "

p.O ;<= X <=• 000125


T Table parameter nanie ^ - . ^ ^ - ^ ^ . . ^ _ , . ^^ ^ „,—rr^—
, ' |1- .- - ' • ~" .
,>. y- -^
iMu. r-L±'
<ryj.Airgi.a- 1 "Jtr—^ •' ' ' ' • • — —
, < |,' jfiuxng
f^esjltV|i(1 "S'C 08)*^*i)V,rfk 4 "^nt > (Rl^2))Vi3 H"-

^^T^^^ ^,..^1l^^^.^-^i^.4,.-^H'lHt^ l 'Funrtion ' Regime 1 | ^«-


* V - *
*
' \ V ^ •
L'ST r Equa'^ion — —T-"—T^—"—=~
TK'E VJ. '
( ) GRAPH Result = ((4 45'( 08)"v"irexp(( 4 5r((M/R)"21)l/(314'(R'2)) . jjj

MIN ASIN e "X


•• - «" ' . . . » ,

r^AX \ SIN
I ' I- g 1' I ' I~ I •
Ra Acqs.', jp'^x r Consta-it Va'ues',—^
1J_A^

STO r COS LOG s;


v™
INS MEM, . A ™ _ ^ ^SyRT_ ., 1 12
x'-a 2' R|0C0125
TAN 1 :-. |. E
- r
1
T •* ^ '' ^ «, '^"^ \ f-
r
INV ATftN2 r
••--^-i OK Cancel- t» Help
' -," V

e. In ANSYS command box write instructions to select the nodes to


apply heat flux load as follows:
nsel,s,loc,y,.00125
nsel,R,loc,x,0,.000125
sf,all,HFLUX,%fluxing%

f To view heat flux load applied on model


Utility menu^Plot controls^symbols
a. Choose Heat flux from'surface load symbols'
b. Choose 'Arrows' from ' show Press and convect as'
c. OK

80
[fPDC] Boundary condition symbol
ISs'l •
fS" All ESC+Reaution d
C" All Applird BCs

r^ All Reactions

r^* None

f^ Tor ZndividLial
IniliMrlunI symhol \ch dl ilnn(s)
1 ^ Applied EJC'i
to Ln d i s p l ^ / r d
17 Pfictions

1 7 (Miscellaneous

t/PGF] SurFac^ Load Sym'jol':



VisFbillty key for shells
> :
i. Plot symbols In rolor ,

Show pros and conVect as

, C/f B r ] Dr.dy Load Symbols

^how curt a n J fluids as

[ / P I C F ] Elf m Init Cond Symbol':


. •* '

r/P'>VMn] o t h e r SymhoKt
CS ,,ocal coordnato sj^stem
- - jk I~)OfF
NDIR Nodal coordinate%ysti-m
. njOfF
E S / S Elf-mi-nt coord'nato s><s ^
' r~,OtF
. LDIV Line element divisions ft
- '*•. . ,''v«t."
LDIR I inc direction-. » V»
• [wf i,hfd
3:
. r~.OfF
K*' ' - . . • ? » ,
Help

f. Similarly apply the convection using function editor and function


loader and applying convection on nodes from command box as
nsel,s,loc,y,.00125
nsel,R,loc,x,.000125,.00125
sf,all,conv,%coneqn%

S.Applv the boundary condition


Main menu->Preprocessor->Load->Defme Load->Apply
-^Thermal^Heat flux-> on lines
a. Select the two vertical and bottom line and click apply
b. Give constant heat flux=0 in opening window
c. OK
d. OK
FTlApply HFLUX on lines
'il
I [SFL]"Apply HFLUXon'linesasV'•*A^- Constant value
r • • •, .'-TJ 7 ; - •r*"^ mil J.- >•••• imf r' — f t " — - ^ •- ^

If.Constant value then:,


i VALl'Heat flux * . ^-i>.- v«i*„ ,
— - . , - J
; - Optional HFLUX values'at end 2 offline - . -

(leave blank for uniform HFLUX) ,

. VALJ Heat flux

OK 1 Apply Cancel" Help


ElEHE'FrS /m
JUL i 200S
01:36:42

HEAT FLUX LOAD APPLIED ON MODEL


KLKHKHTS AN
CONV-HCOE JUL 4 ZOOS
500 01:59:38

Single spark

CONVECTION APPLIED ON MODEL

82
> SOLUTION

•Set analysis type


Main menu -> solution -^Analysis Type -> New Analysis
a. Select 'Transient'
b. OK «r"- ^
C. S e l e c t ' F u l l ' ' tANTYPEj-TypeofanaW, •;''

d. OK - •' ^' '-*' ' ' ? H ^ r|'steady-state J

<V Transient

(^Substructuring

'l"
'V I
Help
/!.'*•:%,'i-,

2. Set output controls


Main menu -^ solution -^Load step options -^
-^Output control -^DBR/Result file
a. Select every sub step
b. Ok
m Controls for Database and Results File Writing ^
• [OUTRES] Coiitrpls'for Datal^ase and Results File'Writing | .

Item Item to be controlled' 1 All Items . zl


FREQ File write frequency

C Reset

C None

C At time points

C Last substep

(* Every substep

C Every Nth substp


Value of n'

(Use negative TJ for equally spaced data) '


• Vf
'-.f" 1: ">*
Cname Component name • All entities
H-
i - for which above setting is to be applied _ ; ^ , . „ , ^ 4 '•-

4 i f f A ^ •'fl
"V
T5 Apply Cancel Help
OK

•-v •'f ¥f
J
83
3. Define load step options for transient analysis
Main menu -^ solution -^Load step options -^
Time/Frequency-^Time and sub steps
a. Enter .0001 for 'Time at the end of load step'
b. Enter 15 for 'No. of substeps'
c. Select' stepped'
d. Enter 50 for ' Max no. of sub steps'
e. Enter 10 for 'Min no. of sub steps'
f. OK
MTime and Substep Options

TIME] Tirr _ T - ' r , •• T*^ -- J.. - nw , *. •

•r-ls ;Stl :,*•* r ^^v'^f?:-.-.^


» 1
[AUTOTS] ' t

, 1*

, f» h j - i . r 1 r
i -* 1 1- *» .
[NSUBST]lli n T • • M >• f f t .•' •>

Use I > - I J S C . I . ' .', „


':r |7iic-
f

'[TSRES] T I \ f -tj i - '


Ti ti

fT

t-rritSZ - ' - 3 -
t *•
r •

"Note. TSR--1 I . .1^ Jl ' ''


r'- s
elpmer • I T ^L I I P T ' ' •• i J " 'i
( 1, • ' V.
or cHi I

4V IV
F > « « I

.*\t> : ' { T * ' > I • *f * ,*"*i'<fe''^|Tf«w-f^|*'• H r

4. SOLVE
Main menu-> solution-^solve-^ Current LS
a. Close any warning messages appearing
b. Press OK when solution is done

84
> POSTPROCESSING

1 .Read the result set


Main menu -^ General Postproc -^Read Result -^ Last set

2.Plot the dof solution TEMP for nodal solution


Main menu -^ General Postproc -^Plot Result-^
Contour Plot -^nodal solution
a. Select DOF solution and Temperature
b. OK
fiiContour Nodal Solution Data ;'x
IPLNSOL] Contour Nodal Solution Data
Item,Comp Item to be contoured \ Temoerature TEMP
Flux & gradient
Contact

i s m "Sp'SW^?':
Temperature TEMP

KDND Items to be plotted:

C^Def shape only

^ r"!>Def + undeformed

^ABf§#srdre-

s
iOrneConfe
::^%:|J^^
'^,5-^"if.V|*.-4 % { § ^ | ^ » ^ j , 0 ^ 2 Corner^ inidsfdeM^ •

7 " '•"t^'^-'-^'^-.-'rrtAllap'pllcabte

i^i t-^^i

3. List the nodal dof solution


Main menu -^ General Postproc -^List Result-^ Nodal sol
c. Select DOF solution and Temperature
d. OK
e. Save the result file

85
iAiit:i«mRn.-mm?fi7ii .-^^
[PRNSOL] List^Nodal Solution-

IterrijComp Item to be listed


'^p '
' m\% iiit
©OF sdiutiori" jerature TEMP
Flux & gradient-
Nonlinear Items

ii i^ T „ ^ _c"-2'"jre
„„,t TEMP

.>*- .

OK , AppI/ .j-:r
- "-^•:)".

4.Plot temperature, on depth and radial paths defined, on graph


Main menu -^ General Postproc -^Path operation -^
Define path -^By Location
a.Enter path name (eg radial)
b. Enter no of points=2
c. Enter no of data set and divisional 0
d. OKI:i Q l B y Location ill
—^ * N • 1 »-' * * J ,

i'o ''S^i'¥^kS^iil^'^iP^.i*if'^ !Z 1 a^

r ~ T !• r 1 1 •• r-r . - kr . ^ •. ^ 'I
-

^ir *,'H r r

--•r'i
2- •• ?

Q l By Location in Global Cartesian '2i


-[PPATH]_Crf*' •' '-
NPT Pathc r ••

X,Y,Z."Locati 1'

csl;;inte?f.' .
..v5ii«-"«ip-> -"'
NOTE: The r r L-1 '
•Ti ' It 1
•' V ' the nurrr*

* •A
" • • *

«
• • • 'VL - h
**t^ _
H-
f. Enter path point no= 1
g. Give its location in Global coordinate system as
0,.00125,0
h. OK
i. Now enter path point no=2
j . Give global coordinates as .00125,.00125,0
k. OK
1. Cancel

Main menu-> General Postproc^Path operation->Map on to path


a. Give the label as 'temp'
b. Select DOF Solution and Temperature
c. OK
MMap Result Items onto Path
i [PDEF] MapResu't Items onto Path
i^-
'Lab User label for Item ' tempi

I Item,Comp Item to be mapped, • ji_-^ DOF solution Temoerature TEMP


r -: Fluy & Q'adient
Elem table item

(.:• * -.'*t?-. ' *">.'

'I Temperature TEMP

Average results across element p ' Yes

[/PBC] Show boundary cond tion symbol

J 5how path on display,?*.,' .1 •.,. i

'W%a* >^ ^-••.W.rr

OK Cancel Help

•' - ^ 7 * \ ^ - ' ' ' - t ^ *"'*?•


irf«»^;f^^«(Sfi*v • ^ */f 't- =i'?^''
r>

Main menu -^ General Postproc ~^Path operation -^


-^Plot path item -^ On Grapl !.<• , X
a. Select S a n d T e m p b . O K '. r'nTn-.-iTHWatu-vs^i^^^ji^-u^E 'T^S
c. Similarly plot the^ < [PLPATH]K|th Plot tin Graph f
L f b i ^ f S S ^ f a l K d . .' ^

'• ,'rt* -ffify- f:.-


temperature variation along - YG
ZG
path with global coordinates
as 0,0,0 and 0,0.00125,0 „J
ie along depth I %'¥ »Vi

-'OK Apply Cancel Help

87
Now the structural anlysis is carried out with results from
thermal analysis as input.
> PREPROCESSING

2. Set preferences
Main menu -^preferences

M Preferences for GUI Filtering


^iil
[KEYWWMETH] P;eferJncesMGUI Filtering;, K. .J.^.
• Ifidi^ual disciplined) to's&^^l'GUI > *• ' - r.'W*'
iftf 42
: • rtThermal /

'.'i.r:ANS¥S Fluid
'I. rfaOTRANCFD
Electroroagnettci
P.Magnetlc-Nodal-

P:Maonetlc-EdQe

r- •• -•

iNotesIf no Wividi - ' ' "' "' > \\-, ;*.


, Discipline options

* r^r-'i-^3-.i
•' •^»' I

•j/.'i.fTI r '• j;S?Tei [" h-j


IF
'' '..«r.
fuRectangte by 2 Corners.
h. Turn on the "structural" option C Pick C Unpiclc
i. Turn on the "h-method" (IP X
j . OK
'Global X

3.Define element type |WP X v ,


Main menu -^preprocessor -^element type -^ MP, V '
add/edit/delete 'width .00125
a.Add IHclghti; t - . .001251
b.Choose solid family of Elements \ f ' • ^ " s ^ -^"^v^^

c.Choose quad 4 node 42 element


OK pqj^is
Reset "jf "Cancel
d.OK Help

88
e. Close
4.Create 2D model with appropriate dimensions
Mainmenu^Preprocessor-^ Modeling-^
Created Area^Rectangle^By 2 comers
a. Give x,y=0
Width, height = 00125
b.OK
5. Mesh the model
Main menu->Preprocessor->Meshing->Mesh tool
a. Click on 'set' button in front of "AREA"
b.Select the area and click apply
C.Enter the Element edge length=.0000125
d.OK
Main menu->Preprocessor-^Meshing->Mesh tool
a.ClickMesh IMBuSSSHlSSHMHIHIMH^ ...2d
b. Select area and apply [RESIZE] Ele,rents,ze-.tp,ck,-da'ea^ ^.*. W
C.OK • SIZE_Eleirent edgeIsnsth ; . | i.25e-005

d.Close Mesh tool • \ '-. , - i ' *'

7.Apply Loads and boundary condition


• Main menu->Preprocessor->Load^Defme
Load^Apply->Structural->Temperature->FrOm Thermal Analysis
a. Provide Load step no. and substep no or the specific time point
(Here enter .0001 for the time point)
b.Browse for (Jobname)*.rth file and open it
c. OK
d. Apply displacement boundary conditions as follows
Main menu-^Preprocessor^Load^Define
Load->Apply-> Structural->Displacement-> on lines
Select the bottom and left vertical lines. Click apply
Select the UX from dropdown list and enter value=0
Click apply
Again select bottom line. Click Apply
Select UY from Drop down list and enter value=o
OK
e. Similerly apply force boundary condition FX=0 on top and two
vertical lines, and FY=0 on top and right vertical lines using GUI
Mainmenu^Preprocessor^Load->Defme
Load->Apply-^Force/Moment-> on nodes

> SOLUTION
89
1.Set analysis type
Main menu-> solution^ Analysis Type-> New Analysis
e. Select 'staticiiSINew Analysis
[ATJTrTrJ - _ T V ' p * ' o r " c ' m l y a s ^ ' ' ' ^ ^^
lu
f. OK
rjKterirSirlic

rz Spa'ctrum
r.ElgonBucklhg

2. Set output controls


Main menu^ soIution->Load step options^
Output control^DBR/Result file
c. Select every sub step
d. Ok
3. SOLVE
Main menu^ solution-> solved Current LS
Close any warning messages appearing and press OK when done
> POSTPROCESSING

1 .Read the result set


Main menu-> General Postproc^Read Result^ Last set

2.Plot the dof solution stress for nodal solution


Main menu^ General Postproc->Plot Result^
Contour Plot->nodal solution
a.Select DOF solution and Temperature (b.) OK
Von-mise stress contour plot
3.List the nodal dof solution
Main menu-> General Postproc-^List Result^ Nodal sol
a. Select stress and Principal
b. OK
c. Save the result file
(A sample result file of nodal stress is given in Appendix D2)

4.Plot temperature, on depth and radial paths defined, on graph


Main menu^ General Postproc->Path operation->
Define path ^ By Location
a.Enter path name (eg radial)
b. Enter no of points=2
c. Enter no of data set and division=10
d.OK
d. enter path point no=l
e. Give its location in Global coordinate system as 0,.00125,0
I OK
g. Now enter path point no=2
h. Give global coordinates as .00125,.00125,0
i. OK
j . Cancel

Main menu^ General Postproc^Path operation^Map on to path


d. Give the label as'SEQV
e. Select DOF Solution and Von-mise stress
f OK
Main menu-> General Postproc->Path operation->
•^Plot path item-^ On Graph
a. Select S and SEQV
b. OK

91
">"'!r5i I iij I 11 inM.

Stress variation along radial direction

c. Similarly plot the stress variation along path with global


coordinates as 0,0,0 and 0,0.00125,0 ie along depth

92
APPENDIX B

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE MQDET.

The material properties used for the model are as follows:


S.NO.PROPERTIES VALUE(SI UNITS) TEMPERATURE(K)
1. Young's Modulus (EX) 0.193el2 300

2. Density (DENS) 7900 300

3. Thermal conductivity 0.1490000E+02 300


(KXX) 0.2260000E+02 800
0.2800000E+02 1200
0.6820000E+03 1500

4. specific heat 0.4770000E+03 300


(C) 0.5820000E+03 800
0.6400000E+03 1200
0.6820000E+03 1500

5. Poisson's ratio 0.29 300


(PRXY)

6. Coefficient of thermal 0.1780000E-04 300


expansion(ALPX)

The ANSYS command line programme for applying material


properties is as follows:
/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 8.0 UP20030930 11:40:14 06/29/2005
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.3000000E+03,
MPDATA,EX , 1, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.1930000E+12,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, l,0.3000000E+03,
MPDATA,DENS, 1, 1, 0.7900000E+04,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, 0.3000000E+03, 0.8000000E+03, 0.1200000E+04,
0.1500000E+04,
MPDATA,KXX, 1, 1, 0.1490000E+02, 0.2260000E+02,
0.2800000E+02, 0.3170000E+02,

93
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, 0.3000000E+03, 0.8000000E+03, 0.1200000E+04,
0.1500000E+04,
MPDATA,C , 1, l,0.4770000E+03,0.5820000E+03,
0.6400000E+03, 0.6820000E+03,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.3000000E+03,
MPDATA,PRXY, 1, 1, O.OOOOOOOE+00, 0.2900000E+00,
MPTEMP
MPTEMP, 1,0.OOOOOOOE+00,
MPDATA,ALPX, 1, 1, 0.1780000E-04,

94
APPENDIX C

The ANSYS command line programme for analysis of model is as


follows:
/BATCH
/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 8.0 UP20030930 01:46:28 07/04/2005
/TITLE,single spark
!*
/NOPR
/PMETH,OFF,0
KEYW,PR_SET,1
KEYW,PR_STRUC,0
KEYW,PR_THERM,1
KEYW,PR_FLUID,0
KEYW,PR_ELMAG,0
KEYW,MAGNOD,0
KEYW,MAGEDG,0
KEYW,MAGHFE,0
KEYW,MAGELC,0
KEYW,PR_MULTI,0
KEYW,PR_CFD,0
/GO
!*
/COM,
/COM,Preferences for GUI filtering have been set to display:
/COM, Thermal
I*

/PREP7
!*
ET,1,PLANES 5
!*
I*

MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP,1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
MPDATA,DENS,1„
MPDATA,DENS,1„7900
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPDE,DENS,1
MPDATA,DENS,1„7900

95
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP,1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
MPDATA,EX,1„
MPDATA,EX,l„.l93el2
MPDATA,PRXY,1„
MPDATA,PRXY,1,,29
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,3 00
MPDE,EX,1
MPDE,PRXY,1
MPDATA,EX, 1 „ 1.93E+011
MPDATA,PRXY,1„0.29
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,0
MPTEMP,2,300
UIMP,1,REFT„,
MPDATA,ALPX,1„
MPDATA,ALPX, 1 „. 178e-4
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,3 00
UIMP,1,REFT„,
MPDE,ALPX,1
MPDATA,ALPX, 1 „ 1.78E-005
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPTEMP,2,800
MPTEMP,3,1200
MPTEMP,4,1500
MPDATA,KXX,1„14.9
MPDATA,KXX,1„22.6
MPDATA,KXX,1„28
MPDATA,KXX,1„31.7
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP, 1,300
MPTEMP,2,800
MPTEMP,3,1200
MPTEMP,4,1500
MPDATA,C,1„477
MPDATA,C,1„582
MPDATA,C,1„640
MPDATA,C,1„682

96
BLC4,0,0,.00125,.00125
FLST,2,l,5,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
AESIZE,P51X,.0000125,
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0
!*
CM,_Y,AREA

CM,_Y1,AREA
CHKMSH,'APIEA'
CMSEL,S,_Y
!*
AMESH,_Y1
!*
CMDELE,_Y
CMDELE,_Y1
CMDELE,_Y2
!*
!*
ANTYPE,4
!*
TRNOPT,FULL
LUMPM,0
!*
FLST,2,3,4,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,1
FITEM,2,-2
FITEM,2,4
/GO
!*
SFL,P51X,HFLUX,0,
FLST,2,90,1,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,203
FITEM,2,-291
/GO
!*
SF,P51X,CONV,500,350
/STAT,GLOBAL
FLST,2,2,l,ORDE,2
FITEM,2,291

97
FITEM,2,-292
/GO
!*
SF,P51X,CONV,500,350
/STAT,GLOBAL
SAVE,start from here,db,F:\FROMC~l\YOGITH~l\MODELS~l\
*DEL,_FNCNAME
*DEL,_FNCMTID
*DEL,_FNC_C1
*DEL,_FNC_C2
*DEL,_FNC_C3
* SET,_FNCNAME,'fluxing'
*DIM,_FNC_C1„2
*DIM,_FNC_C2„2
*DIM,_FNC_C3„2
*SET,_FNC_C1(2),100
*SET,_FNC_C2(2),12
*SET,_FNC_C3(2),.000125
!/INPUT,.\WORK\eqn.000125\heatflu.func
*DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,22,2
I
! Begin of equation: {X}
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1), 0.0, -999
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1), 1.0, 99, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,4,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,5,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,6,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,7,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,8,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,9,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,10,1), 0
* SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,11,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,12,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,13,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,14,1), 0

98
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,15,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,16,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,17,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,18,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,19,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,20,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,21,1), 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,22,1), 0
End of equation: {X}

Begin of equation: ((4.45*(.08)*v*i)*exp((-


4.5)*(({X}/R)^2)))/(3.14*(R^2))
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,2), .000125, -999
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,2), 0.0
* SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,2), %_FNC_C 1 (2)%
* SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,2), %_FNC_C2(2)%
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,2),%_FNC_C3(2)%
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,2), 0.0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,2), 1.0, -1, 0, 4.45, 0, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,2), 0.0, -2, 0, .08, 0, 0, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,2), 0, -3, 0, 1, -1, 3, -2
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,4,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 1, -3, 3, 17
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,5,2), 0.0, -2, 0, 1, -1, 3, 18
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,6,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,7,2), 0.0, -3, 0, 1, 0, 0, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,8,2), 0.0, -4, 0, 1, -1, 2, -3
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,9,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 4.5, 0, 0, -4
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,10,2), 0.0, -3, 0, 1, -4, 3, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,11,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 1, 2, 4, 19
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,12,2), 0.0, -4, 0, 2, 0, 0, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,13,2), 0.0, -5, 0, 1, -1, 17, -4
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,14,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 1, -3, 3, -5
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,15,2), 0.0, -1, 7, 1, -1, 0, 0
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,I6,2), 0.0, -3, 0, 1, -2, 3, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,17,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 19
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,18,2), 0.0, -2, 0, 1, 19, 17, -1
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,19,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 3.14, 0, 0, -2
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,20,2), 0.0, -4, 0, 1, -1, 3, -2
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,21,2), 0.0, -1, 0, 1, -3, 4, -4
*SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,22,2), 0.0, 99, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0
! End Of equation: ((4.45*(.08)*v*i)*exp((-
4.5)*(({X}/R)^2)))/(3.14*(R^2))

99
nsel,s,loc,y,.00125
nsel,R,loc,x,0,.000125
sf,all,HFLUX,%fluxing%
/STAT,GLOBAL
FINISH
/SOL
!*
TIME,.0001
AUTOTS,-!
NSUBST,15,20,10,1
KBC,1
!*
TSRES,ERASE

/STAT,GLOBAL
/STATUS,SOLU
SOLVE
FINISH
/POSTl
SET,LIST,999
SET,LAST
/EFACE,!
!*
PLNSOL,TEMP, ,0,
PRNSOL,TEMP,
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,102
!*
PATH,radial,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
!*
PDEF, ,TEMP, ,AVG
/PBC,PATH, ,0
100
PLPATH,S,TEMP
/UI,COPY,S AVE,JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,1
!*
PATH,vertical,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
I

PDEF,STAT
!*
PDEF, ,TEMP, ,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,TEMP
/UI,COPY,S AVE, JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 1 GO
/DIST,1,1.08222638492,1
/REP,FAST

/BATCH
/COM,ANSYS RELEASE 8.0 UP20030930 02:25:05 07/04/2005
!*
/NOPR
/PMETH,OFF,0
KEYW,PR_SET,1
KEYW,PR_STRUC,1
KEYW,PR_THERM,0
KEYW,PR_FLUID,0
KEYW,PR_ELMAG,0
KEYW,MAGNOD,0

101
KEYW,MAGEDG,0
KEYW,MAGHFE,0
KEYW,MAGELC,0
KEYW,PR_MULTI,0
KEYW,PR_CFD,0
/GO
!*
/COM,
/COM,Preferences for GUI filtering have been set to display:
/COM, Structural
I*

/PREP7
!*
ET,1,PLANE42
!*
MPREAD,'stressmodelpropertiesVmp','F:\from c\yogithesis\textresultsV
!*
BLC4,0,0,.00125,.00125
FLST,2,l,5,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
AESIZE,P51X,.0000125,
MSHAPE,0,2D
MSHKEY,0
!*
CM,_Y,AREA

CM,_Y1,AREA
CHKMSH,'AREA
CMSEL,S,_Y
!*
AMESH,_Y1
!*
CMDELE,_Y
CMDELE,_Y1
CMDELE,_Y2
!*
!*
ANTYPE,0
FLST,2,2,4,ORDE,2
FITEM,2,1
FITBM,2,4
1*

102
/GO
DL,P51X, ,UX,0
FLST,2,l,4,ORDE,l
FITEM,2,1
!*
/GO
DL,P51X, ,UY,0
FLST,2,301,1,ORDE,4
FITEM,2,1
FITEM,2,-2
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,-400
!*
/GO
F,P51X,FX,0
FLST,2,201,1,ORDE,3
FITEM,2,2
FITEM,2,102
FITEM,2,-301
!*
/GO
F,P51X,FY,0
ALLSEL,ALL
SAVE,start here stress,db,F:\FROMC~l\YOGITH~l\MODELS~l\
LDREAD,TEMP,„.0001, /startfromhere'/rth',''
FINISH
/SOL
!*
ANTYPE,0
/STATUS,SOLU
SOLVE
FINISH
/POSTl
SET,LAST
/EFACE,!
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PRNSOL,S,PRIN
NPLOT

103
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,102
!*
PATH,radial,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
/PBC,PATH,1
/REPLOT
/PBC,PATH,0
!*
AVPJaN,0,,
!*
PDEF, ,S,EQV,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,SEQV
/UI,COP Y,S AVE,JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
NPLOT
FLST,2,2,1
FITEM,2,202
FITEM,2,1
!*
PATH,veritica,2,30,20,
PPATH,P51X,1
PATH,STAT
!*
AVPRIN,0,,
!*
PDEF, ,S,EQV,AVG
/PBCPATH, ,0
!*
PLPATH,S,SEQV
AJI,COPY,S AVE, JPEG,GRAPH,COLOR,NORM,PORTRAIT„ 100
FINISH
! /EXIT,ALL

104
APPENDIX D

The Visual BASIC programme for finding out the overall material
removal rate (MRR) due to temperature is as follows:

Dim Element(l To 10000, 1 To 4) As Integer, i As Integer, j As Integer, k


As Integer, _
1 As Integer, m As Integer, n As Integer, p As Integer, q As Integer, _
r As Integer, s As Integer, t As Integer, TempoElem As Integer

Dim Tmpt(l To 10201) As Double, stress(l To 10201) As Double, _


NodeTemp As Double, XCorTemp(l To 4) As Double, YCorTemp(l To 4)
As Double, _
Nodestress As Double, XCorTempl(l To 4) As Double, YCorTempl(l To
4) As Double, _
xlCor(l To 2) As Double, radX As Double, Radius(l To 100) As Double,

Xcor(l To 10201) As Double, Ycor(l To 10201) As Double, COUNT 1 As


Integer, Varl As Double, _
Elemnum As Double, xTemp(l To 4) As Double, yTemp(l To 4) As
Double, yTempl As Double, _
xTempl As Double, Area As Double, VolTemp(l To 100) As Double,
TotalTempVol As Double, TotalstressVol As Double, Totalvol As Double
Dim numlayer As Integer, H As Double, C01JNT2 As Integer,
Radiusstress(l To 100) As Double, Volstress(l To 100) As Double
Private Sub Command l_Click()
H = 0.0000125
Dim NodeFilepath As String, TempFilePath As String, _
CordFilePath As String, StressFilePath As String
NodeFilepath = App.Path + "\node.txt"
TempFilePath = App.Path + "\temp.txt"
CordFilePath = App.Path + "\cord.txt"
StressFilePath = App.Path + "\stress.txt"
Open NodeFilepath For Input As #1
Open TempFilePath For Input As #2
Open CordFilePath For Input As #3
Open StressFilePath For Input As #4
Dim res As Integer
res = MsgBox("reading elements", vbOKOnly, "msg")
F o r i = l To 10000
Forj = l T o 4
105
Input #1, Element(i, j)
Nextj
Next i
res = MsgBox("press ok to start reading TEMPERATURE & stress values
for nodes", vbOKOnly, "CONFIRM")
F o r k = l To 10201
Input #2, Tmpt(k)
Input m, Xcor(k), Ycor(k)
Input #4, stress(k)
Next k
Close #1
Close #2
Close #3
Close #4

r=0
Forp = l To 100
Forq=lTolOO
xTempl = Xcor(Element(q + r, 1))
COUNT1=0
C0UNT2 = 0
For I = 1 To 4
NodeTemp = Tmpt((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTemp(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTemp(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
Nodestress - stress((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTempl(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTempl(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, I)))
If IsNumeric(Textl .Text) Then
If NodeTemp >= CDbl(Textl.Text) Then
C0UNT1=C0UNT1+1
End If

IfC0UNTl>2Then
If XCorTemp(l) > xTempl Then
Radius(p) = XCorTemp(l)
Else
Radius(p) = xTempl
End If
'Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))

106
End If
Else
res = MsgBoxC'PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL
TEMPERATURE", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
If IsNumeric(Text2.Text) Then
If Nodestress >= CDbl(Text2.Text) Then
C0UNT2 = C0UNT2 + 1
End If

IfCOUNT2>2Then
If XCorTempl(l) > xTempl Then
If XCorTempl(l) > Radius(p) Then
Radiusstress(p) = XCorTempl(l)
Else
Radiusstress(p) = 0
End If
End If

End If
'Textboxl .Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl .Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))

Else
res = MsgBox("PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL stress
value", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
Nextl
Next q
r = r+ 100
Area = 3.14 * Radius(p) * Radius(p)
VolTemp(p) = Area * H
Volstress(p) = ((3.14 * Radiusstress(p) * Radiusstress(p) * H) -
VolTemp(p))
If(Volstress(p)<0)Then
Volstress(p) = 0
End If

Nextp

107
Fors = l To 100
TotalTempVol = TotalTempVol + VolTemp(s)
TotalstressVol = TotalstressVol + Volstress(s)
Next s
Totalvol = TotalTempVol + TotalstressVol
Textbox2. Visible = True
Labels .Visible = True
Textbox2.Text = "VOL REMOVED =" + CStr(Totalvol)
TextBox3. Visible = True
Label4.Visible = True
TextBox3.Text - "VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS =" +
CStr(TotalstressVol)
Textbox4.Visible = True
Textbox4.Text = "VOL REMOVED dUE TO temp =" +
CStr(TotalTempVol)

End Sub
Private Sub Text3_Change()
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()

End Sub

108
THE USER INTERFACE FOR EXECUTING THIS PROGRAMME IS
GIVEN BELOW IN PICTORIAL FORM.

SI.PR03ECT uHisl
ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL VOLUME BEMOVEO dUE TO STRESS
.TEMPERATURE IN BOX
VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS
*1600 '34114G4S7125E-10

ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL STRESS AND VOLUME REMOVED DUE TO TEPMPERATURE


PRESS START
VOL REMOVED dUE TO temp =0
^t^'
304e8

VOL REMOVED =3.4114G497125E-10


fMRR=

Programme for creating this interface is as


follows:

VERSION 5.00
Begin VB.Form Forml
Caption = "PROJECT"
ClientHeight = 3465
ClientLeft = 60
ClientTop =450
ClientWidth = 8940
LinkTopic = "Forml"
ScaleHeight = 3465
ScaleWidth = 8940
StartUpPosition = 3 'Windows Default
Begin VB.TextBox Textbox4
Height =735
Left = 4995
Tablndex = 9
Top = 1350
Width =3915
End
Begin VB.TextBox TextBox3
Height =615
Left = 4905

109
MuItiLine = -1 True
Tablndex = 8
Top - 315
Width = 3960
End
Begin VB.TextBox Text2
Height = 735
Left = 90
Tablndex = 5
Top = 1620
Width = 3420
End
Begin VB.TextBox Textl
Height = 615
Left - 45
Tablndex - 2
Top = 495
Width = 3495
End
Begin VB.TextBox Textbox2
Height = 615
Left = 4995
MuItiLine = -1 'True
Tablndex = 1
Top = 2520
Width = 3780
End
Begin VB.CommandButton Commandl
Caption = "START"
Height = 735
Left = 90
Tablndex = 0
Top = 2520
Width = 2055
End
Begin VB.Label Label5
Caption = "VOLUME REMOVED DUE TO
TEPMPERATURE"
Height = 285
Left = 4995
Tablndex = 10
Top = 1035

110
Width =3615
End
Begin VB.Label Label4
Caption = "VOLUME REMOVED dUE TO STRESS"
Height =315
Lejft = 4905
Tablndex = 7
Top = 0
Width =3165
End
Begin VB.Label Label2
Caption = "ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL STRESS AND
PRESS START"
Height = 495
Left = 0
Tablndex = 6
Top =1125
Width = 3405
End
Begin VB .Label Label3
Caption = "MRR="
Height =255
Left = 4275
Tablndex = 4
Top = 2760
Visible = 0 Talse
Width =735
End
Begin VB.Label Label 1
Caption = "ENTER VALUE OF CRITICAL TEMPERATURE
IN BOX"
Height = 495
Left = 90
Tablndex = 3
Top = 0
Width = 3390
End
End
Attribute VB_Name = "Forml"
Attribute VB_GlobalNameSpace = False
Attribute VB_Creatable = False
Attribute VB_PredeclaredId = True
111
Attribute VB_Exposed = False
Dim Element(l To 10000, 1 To 4) As Integer, i As Integer, j As Integer, k
As Integer, _
1 As Integer, m As Integer, n As Integer, p As Integer, q As Integer, _
r As Integer, s As Integer, t As Integer, TempoElem As Integer

Dim Tmpt(l To 10201) As Double, stress(l To 10201) As Double, _


NodeTemp As Double, XCorTemp(l To 4) As Double, YCorTemp(l To 4)
As Double, _
Nodestress As Double, XCorTempl(l To 4) As Double, YCorTempl(l To
4) As Double, _
xlCor(l To 2) As Double, radX As Double, Radius(l To 100) As Double,

Xcor(l To 10201) As Double, Ycor(l To 10201) As Double, COUNTl As


Integer, Varl As Double, _
Elemnum As Double, xTemp(l To 4) As Double, yTemp(l To 4) As
Double, yTempl As Double, _
xTempl As Double, Area As Double, VolTemp(l To 100) As Double,
TotalTempVol As Double, TotalstressVol As Double, Totalvol As Double
Dim numlayer As Integer, H As Double, C0UNT2 As Integer,
Radiusstress(l To 100) As Double, Volstress(l To 100) As Double

Private Sub Command l_Click()


H = 0.0000125
Dim NodeFilepath As String, TempFilePath As String,
CordFilePath As String, StressFilePath As String
NodeFilepath = App.Path + "\node.txt"
TempFilePath = App.Path + "\temp.txt"
CordFilePath = App.Path + "\cord.txt"
StressFilePath = App.Path + "\stress.txt"

Open NodeFilepath For Input As #1


Open TempFilePath For Input As #2
Open CordFilePath For Input As #3
Open StressFilePath For Input As #4

Dim res As Integer

112
res = MsgBox("reading elements", vbOKOnly, "msg")
F o r i = l To 10000
Forj = l T o 4
Input #1, Element(i, j)
Next j
Next i
res = MsgBox("press ok to start reading TEMPERATURE & stress values
for nodes", vbOKOnly, "CONFIRM")
F o r k = l To 10201
Input #2, Tmpt(k)
Input#3,Xcor(k),Ycor(k)
Input #4, stress(k)
Nextk
Close #1
Close #2

Close #3
Close #4

r=0
Forp= 1 To 100
F o r q = l To 100
xTempl = Xcor(Element(q + r, 1))
COUNT 1 = 0
C0UNT2 = 0
For 1 = 1 To 4
NodeTemp = Tmpt((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTemp(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTemp(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
Nodestress = stress((Element(q + r, 1)))
XCorTempl(l) = Xcor((Element(q + r, 1)))
YCorTempl(l) = Ycor((Element(q + r, 1)))
If IsNumeric(Textl.Text) Then
If NodeTemp >= CDbl(Textl.Text) Then
COUNT 1 = COUNT 1 + 1
End If

IfC0UNTl>2Then
If XCorTemp(l) > xTempl Then
Radius(p) = XCorTemp(l)
Else

113
Radius(p) = xTempl
End If
'Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible - True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))
End If
Else
res = MsgBoxC'PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL
TEMPERATURE", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
If IsNumeric(Text2.Text) Then
If Nodestress >= CDbl(Text2.Text) Then
C0UNT2 = C0UNT2 + 1
End If

IfCOUNT2>2Then
If XCorTempl(l) > xTempl Then
If XCorTemp 1 (1) > Radius(p) Then
Radiusstress(p) = XCorTemp 1 (I)
Else
Radiusstress(p) = 0
End If
End If

End If
Textboxl. Visible = True
'Label2.Visible = True
Textboxl.Text = "RADIUS =" + CStr(Radius(p))

Else
res = MsgBox("PLEASE ENTER VALID CRITICAL stress
value", vbOKOnly, "ERROR")
Exit Sub
End If
Nextl
Next q
r = r+100
Area = 3.14 * Radius(p) * Radius(p)
VolTemp(p) = Area * H
Volstress(p) = ((3.14 * Radiusstress(p) * Radiusstress(p) * H) -
VolTemp(p))
114
If(Volstress(p)<0)Then
Volstress(p) = 0
End If

Next p
Fors= 1 To 100
TotalTempVol = TotalTempVol + VolTemp(s)
TotalstressVol = TotalstressVol + Volstress(s)
Next s
Totalvol = TotalTempVol + TotalstressVol
Textbox2.Visible = True
Label3. Visible = True
Textbox2.Text - "VOL REMOVED =" + CStr(Totalvol)
TextBoxS .Visible - True
Label4.Visible = True
TextBox3.Text = "VOL REMOVED dUE TO STRESS =" +
CStr(TotalstressVol)
Textbox4,Visible = True

Textbox4.Text = "VOL REMOVED dUE TO temp =" +


CStr(TotalTempVol)

End Sub -----^^-^.,

Private Sub Text3_ChangeQy''' ' H

End Sub ', %

115