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CONDITIONALS (sąlygos sakiniai)

 Are used to express a general truth or a scientific fact. We can use when (= whenever) instead of if
in this case.
IF + PRESENT SIMPLE and in main clause PRESENT SIMPLE
If/When you mix red and yellow, you get orange.
 Are used to express real or very probable situations in the present or future. We can use when
instead of if. If means that something may happen. When means that something will definitely
happen.
If he calls, I‘ll tell him the news. (but he might not call). When he calls, I‘ll tell him the news. (he
will definitely calls)
IF + PRESENT SIMPLE/PRESENT CONT./PRESENT PERFECT CONT. and in main
clause FUTURE/IMPERATIVE CAN/MAY/MIGHT/MUST SHOULD/COULD + PRESENT
BARE INFINITIVE
If i get paid today, I‘ll treat you to a meal tonight.
If I finish the project on time, Imay take a few days off.
If the fire alarm goes off, evacuate the building immediately.
If they are studying, I won‘t make any noise.
If she hasn‘t cooked dinner, we will order a takeaway.
 Are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to fact in the present and, therefore, are
unlikely to happen in the present or future. We call use were instead of was for all persons in the if-
clause.
IF + PAST SIMPLE/PAST CONTINUOUS and in mani clause WOULD/COULD/MIGHT +
PRESENT BARE INFINITIVE
If I got up early, I would arrive at work on time.
If we were earning more money, we could buy a house by the sea.
If I were you, I would attend a computer course.
 Are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past. They are also used
to express regrets or criticism.
IF + PAST PERFECT/PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS and in main clause
WOULD/COULD/MIGHT + PERFECT BARE INFINITIVE
If they had invited us, we would have gone to the party.
If he had been listening, he might have heard what the teacher said.
 Use will or would after if when we make a polite request or with expressions such as I don‘t care,
I wonder, I doubt, etc. We can use should after if when we talk about something possible but not
likely to happen.
If you will call me later, I will be able to talk to give you an answer. (polite request)
I wonder if they‘ll be back on time.
If someone should try to break into the house, call the police.
 Use mixed condintionals
If I liked pop music, i would have come to the concert with you.
If you hadn‘t left the map at home, we wouldn‘t be lost now.

WISHES (norui išreikšti)


 Use to say that we would like something to be different in the present.
I WISH/IF ONLY + PAST SIMPLE/PAST CONTINUOUS
I wish/if only I were a millionaire. (but I‘m not)
I wish/if only we were travelling by train. (but we aren‘t)
 Use to express regret about something which happened or didn‘t happen in the past.
I WISH/IF ONLY + PAST PERFECT
I wish/if only I had taken their advice. (but I didn‘t)
 Use to express polite imperative or desire for a situation or someone‘s behaviour to change.
I WISH/IF ONLY + SUBJECT + WOULD
I wish/if only you would stop playing your music so loudly.
I wish/if only the wind would die down.
 After the subject pronouns I and w,we use could instead of would.
I wish I could come with you.
 Use were instead of was after wish or if only.
If only he was/were more patient.