Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY INDUSTRIAL PRACTICAL TRAINING RUVU AT BASIN

BY

DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com

+255674056520, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2018

1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the present world of competition there is a race of existence in which those are having will to
come forward succeed. Report is like a bridge between theoretical and practical working. With
this willing I wrote this particular report. First of all, I would like to thank the supreme power the
Almighty God who is obviously the one has always guided me to work on the right path of life.
Without his grace this report could not become a reality. Next to him are my parents, whom I am
greatly indebted for me brought up with love and encouragement to this stage. I am feeling
oblige in taking the opportunity to sincerely thanks them . Moreover, I am highly obliged in
taking the opportunity to sincerely thanks to all the team members of my field practical for their
generous attitude and friendly behavior. At last but not the least I am thankful to all my teachers;
Mr. Seleman Silingi, Mr. Ismail Ikhasi, Mr. Geofrey Msumari, Mr. Jean frank Mayagilo and Miss
Evaline Munisi and friends who have been always helping and encouraging me though out the
year. I have no valuable words to express my thanks, but my heart is still full of the favours
received from every person.

2
ABSTRACT
The Ruvu Basin was formed by rifting related to the break-up of Gondwanaland in the Permo-
Triassic and early Jurassic as a 'failed arm' of a triple junction. From the Middle Jurassic onwards
it evolved mainly as a passive continental margin. The structural development and basinal
characteristics are very similar, therefore, to other basins of this type such as the Gulf of Suez,
Benue Trough and Viking Graben, all of which are major hydrocarbon provinces.

The basin extends in a southwesterly direction from Tanga on the northern coast of Tanzania to
the Ruvu River. It covers an area of about 15,000 sq.km which is almost entirely onshore. The
western limit of the basin is marked by the Tanga Fault Zone, a major basement bounding fault
extending the full length of the basin and to the southeast Chole-Msanga (Kisangire) and
Kisarawe (Pugu) Highs of the Dar-es-Salaam Platform. Sediments in the Ruvu Basin span almost
the complete range found in the sedimentary basins of Tanzania from the Permo- Triassic Karoo
cropping out in the southwest to Neogene in the northeast.

Overall the terrain comprises undulating low hills and flat alluvial plains with marshland near the
rivers and black cotton soils in places which can make operations difficult in the rainy season.
Access from Dar-es-Salaam is reasonable, mainly by road. Only two deep wells have been
drilled, Makarawe-1 and Kiwangwa-1 in an area approximately equivalent to seventy U.K. North
Sea blocks. Both were dry holes although this is due to both wells testing structures which post-
date hydrocarbon generation and migration. Indeed, the wells provided encouraging results with
regard to the presence of oil-prone source rocks in the Ruvu Basin and the occurrence of Triassic
and Lower Jurassic reservoirs with good poroperms.

3
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................................................................................................ii
ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................iii
TABLE OF FIGURES...................................................................................................................................v
CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................................................1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................2
1.2 ACCESSIBILITY....................................................................................................................................2
1.3 CLIMATE CONDITION.........................................................................................................................2
1.4 PHYSIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................................2
1.5 GEOLOGICAL SETTING........................................................................................................................3
1.51 REGIONAL GEOLOGY....................................................................................................................3
1.52 LOCAL GEOLOGY..........................................................................................................................3
1.53 LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC OF RUVU BASIN........................................................................................3
1.6 TECTONIC SETTING............................................................................................................................3
1.7 MAIN OBJECTIVE................................................................................................................................4
1.8 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................................4
1.9 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM...........................................................................................................4
CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................................................5
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................................6
3.0 METHODOLOGY...........................................................................................................................6
3.1 TOOLS AND INSTRUMENT USED........................................................................................................6
CHAPTER FOUR............................................................................................................................................8
4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................8
4.1 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOLOGIES IN RUVU BASIN...........................................................................8
4.2 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES IN RUVU BASIN.................................................................................17
CHAPTER FIVE............................................................................................................................................19
5.0 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................19
5.1 RECOMMENDATION.....................................................................................................................20
5.2 REFERENCE......................................................................................................................................21

4
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Field equipments and tools............................................................................................................7
Figure 2 Igneous basement rock at Msolwa bridge.....................................................................................8
Figure 3 Abundant shells in bioclastic limestone.......................................................................................10
Figure 4 Oolitic limestone with quartz dropstones....................................................................................11
Figure 5 Contact between layers of mudstone and cementing material called calcite..............................12
Figure 6 Massive limestone with larger bivalve and gastropods................................................................13
Figure 8 Gastropod Shell imprint fossilized in mudstone...........................................................................14
Figure 7 Sandstone concretions.................................................................................................................14
Figure 9 Strata layers of mudstone and limestone in Mbwigu...................................................................15
Figure 10 Petrified wood...........................................................................................................................15
Figure 11 Ammonite..................................................................................................................................15
Figure 12 Mould sandstone.......................................................................................................................16
Figure 13 Bivalve........................................................................................................................................16
Figure 14 Sponge.......................................................................................................................................16
Figure 15 OOlite.........................................................................................................................................16
Figure 16 Cross bedding in sandstone.......................................................................................................17
Figure 17 Lamination in sandstone............................................................................................................17
Figure 18 Bedded layers in sandstone.......................................................................................................18
Figure 19 Lineament in sandstone.............................................................................................................18

5
CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Sedimentary basins are the primary locations on the continents where sufficient subsidence exists
for long-term preservation of continental sediments, and in fact may be the only locations where
significant long-term preservation is possible. Sedimentary basin is a low area in the Earth’s
crust, of tectonic origin, in which sediments accumulate. Sedimentary basins range in size from
as small as hundreds of meters to large parts of ocean basins. The essential element of the
concept is tectonic creation of relief, to provide both a source of sediment and a relatively low
place for the deposition of that sediment. But implicit in the concept of a sedimentary basin is the
existence of prolonged crustal subsidence, to make a place for a thick deposit of sediment that
might well have been deposited in an area without basinal geometry at the surface. Tectonics is
needed to make sedimentary basins, but the record of the basin itself is sedimentary.

The Jurassic rocks in Tanzania crop out along the coast belt in Tanga basin, in the north, along
which the NNE Fault Pattern is predominant, which is characterized by the NNW Fault Pattern.
The oldest sedimentary rocks in the Tanga basin comprise continental Karoo sediments and
occasionally evaporites of the Lower Jurassic to Triassic age. The sedimentary basins of
Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift
basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins.
Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one
time or another. Tectonic events largely controlled the evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania
and the Indian Ocean. These included the Karoo rifting during Permo-Triassic, the breakup of the
Gondwana Supercontinent, which started with rifting in the Triassic period, the opening of the
Somali basin in the Middle Jurassic, and the Cenozoic rifting along the East African rift system.
The Karoo rifting created a zone of weakness that led to the fragmentation of the Gondwana
Supercontinent.

Tanzania coastal basin is categorized into Tanga basin, Ruvu basin and Mandawa basin. Tanga
basin is analyzed from basement, Karoo, Jurassic and cretaceous. Tanga basin is in the coastal at
the northern part of Tanzania, which has different types of lithologies from the basement, low,
middle, upper Karoo also is divide into to lower U1 and upper U2, middle Jurassic and
cretaceous. The basin also contained the fault trending from north north east (NNE). The
attention was to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities of the lithologies in Tanga and
measuring dip and strike of bands or layers. Different layers contained fossils. Also the section
and lithological map of Tanga were taken this enabled us to determine the thickness of the
bands and the distribution of lithologies in Tanga.

1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Overall the terrain comprises undulating low hills and flat alluvial plains with marshland near the
rivers and black cotton soils in places which can make operations difficult in the rainy season.
Access from Dar-es-Salaam is reasonable, mainly by road. The basin extends in a southwesterly
direction from Tanga on the northern coast of Tanzania to the Ruvu River. It covers an area of
about 15,000 sq.km which is almost entirely onshore. The western limit of the basin is marked by
the Tanga Fault Zone, a major basement bounding fault extending the full length of the basin and
to the southeast Chole-Msanga (Kisangire) and Kisarawe (Pugu) Highs of the Dar-es-Salaam
Platform. Sediments in the Ruvu Basin span almost the complete range found in the sedimentary
basins of Tanzania from the Permo- Triassic Karoo cropping out in the southwest to Neogene in
the northeast

1.2 ACCESSIBILITY
Ruvu basin is well and easily accessible through the mainly road of Dar-es-Salaam regional to
Pwani regional and is very reasonable. But during our field work at Ruvu basin we access same
locality especially those along the road by bus comfortable without any obstruct, but same
locality were not well accessible we required to walk in foot in order to reach the locality for
more observation and description. But mostly of our locality in Ruvu basin were easily
accessible through walking by foot.

1.3 CLIMATE CONDITION


The climate of Msata village (RUVU) is the dry season and only a few of the larger streams were
flowing. Day time maximum temperatures were around 30 degree centigrade and night minimum
temperature were around 23 degree centigrade. The climate is tropical in Ruvu. In winter, there is
much less rainfall in Ruvu than in summer. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Aw. The
temperature here averages 26.4 °C. The rainfall here averages 917 mm.

1.4 PHYSIOGRAPHY
The area is characterized by well vegetation low hills, formed from variably resistant
sedimentation sequences and due to uplifting of the basin. The area is inhabited bush country,
with habitation restricted to villages along the main dare s salaam to morogoro road and limited
agriculture is practiced along the road. The topography of the Ruvu basin ranges from flat low-
lying land along the coast to the interior plateau with an elevation of 500-1000 m, and the
Eastern arc Mountains which scattered between the coast and the highland plateau, rising up to
2600 m above sea level in the Uluguru Mountains located south east and up to 2300 m in the
Nguru Mountains and Rubelo mountain located west in Ruvu basin, Ukaguru mountain located
South west of Ruvu basin plus Nguu mountain located western part of the basin. Moreover Ruvu
basin is covered by low lying and mountainous landscapes.

2
1.5 GEOLOGICAL SETTING
1.51 REGIONAL GEOLOGY
The Ruvu Basin was formed by rifting related to the break-up of Gondwanaland in the Permo-
Triassic and early Jurassic as a 'failed arm' of a triple junction from the Middle Jurassic mainly as
a passive continental margin. Generally Ruvu Basin configuration reflects the interaction of
structural elements derived firstly from rifting (predominantly northeasterly trends) and secondly
from major basement lineaments which fan from southwest to northwest and may be related to
thermal doming in the early Jurassic between Madagascar and Tanzania. Sedimentary basin are
region where considerable thicknesses have accumulated, this sediment are widespread both
onshore and offshore but the accumulation of sediment are either actively or inactively, but the
driving mechanisms of subsidence are related to the process within the earth surfaces such as
plate tectonic.

1.52 LOCAL GEOLOGY


Actually Ruvu basin contains sediments vary in age from middle Jurassic to upper Jurassic or
low cretaceous. Locally the geology of Ruvu basin consists single types of rocks such a
sedimentary rocks which resulted from different formation of such lithology cover the basin are
including limestones, mudstone, sandstones and alluvial sand and was described in term of
locality names, textures, color, visible porosity and amount of organic matter within it.

1.53 LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC OF RUVU BASIN.


Ruvu basin was mostly affected by rifting and drifting extension, but mostly part of basin was
resulted from drifting extension derived from plate tectonics. Ruvu basin stratigraphic is divided
in different ages as analyzed from basement, Karoo, Jurassic and cretaceous period but Jurassic
period in Ruvu basin divided into three categories such as lower Jurassic, middle Jurassic and
upper Jurassic, where by cretaceous period divided into lower cretaceous and upper cretaceous.

1.6 TECTONIC SETTING


Tectonic setting of this area shows that the area was uplifted and tilted and subjected under
different forces, since a lot of hills of different heights were present and bending and breking of
rock (fault and folds), both indicates different forces acted on the place during the readjustment
of the Earth.

3
1.7 MAIN OBJECTIVE
To study the deposition environment and its sequency stratigraphy where essential petroleum
system are found in Ruvu basin.

1.8 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES


To analyze the rock lithology found in term of color, texture, mineral compositions in Ruvu
basin.

To study the depositions environments and paleontology of Ruvu basin

To know the lithology which are dominant in Ruvu basin.

To study sequence stratigraphy of Ruvu basin.

To understand uses of different field geological equipment and instrument

To understand petroleum system of Ruvu basin.

1.9 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Ruvu basin has huge potentials of hydrocarbons in Tanzania and we expect to have more gas
discoveries in the near future and . Tanzania being a hotspot for hydrocarbon explorations after
substantial reserves were discovered in deep-sea offshore blocks in Lindi and Mtwara regions.
No enough natural gas resources of potential economic viability were discovered from
exploration activities carried out at some areas, in Ruvu basin, although the gas and oil
exploration company had announced in February 2016 to have discovered 2.17 trillion cubic feet
(tcf) of possible natural gas deposits, raising the nation’s total estimated recoverable natural gas
reserves to over 57 tcf The onshore reserves were found at the field licensed to the Dodsal Group
located at Ruvu basin in Coast Region.

4
CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW


The second effect is solubility of calcite in mildly acid water (the acidity of water may be due to
presence of CO2), while dolomite is only soluble in highly acidic water. Thus the calcite around
the dolomite crystals can dissolve which increases the size of the pores.(Levorsen, 1954)

Permeability is a measure of the ability of a fluid to pass through its porous medium.
Permeability is one of important to determine the effective reservoir. Porosity and permeability
are two properties describing the reservoir rock capacity with regard to the fluid continence.
Moreover, a reservoir rock can be porous without being permeable. (BERGER, 1992)

Calcite is accumulated at the bottom of the ocean from the remains of the sea shell organisms.
Calcite can absorb magnesium from the water and substitute some of its calcium molecules, thus
forming dolomite crystals. The density of dolomite is higher than the density of calcite, as a
result, pores form around the dolomite crystals inside calcite. (ALSHAKHS, 2013)

Porosity of reservoir is the property that tells how porous a rock is. It is also defined as a measure
of the capacity of reservoir rocks to contain or store fluids. The porosity is genetically classified
basing on standard sedimentologic description of reservoir rock; there are primary and secondary
porosity. (Berger, 1992)

The primary porosity types are; Inter-particle- In this type by which rock content was quickly
lost in muds and carbonate sands through compaction and cementation respectively. This type is
mostly found as siliciclastic sands while Intra particle porosity by which the porosity is made of
interiors of carbonate skeletal grains. (REYNOLDS, 1969)

Secondary porosity, the porosity formed after deposition leads to other couple of reservoirs
types. Dissolution porosity type is made of carbonate dissolution and leaching. It is also called
carbonate reservoirs. Fracture porosity which is characterized by not being voluminous. (DOTT,
1969)

A fundamental property of a reservoir rock between them is porosity. However, for


explorationists, an effective reservoir rock, the most fundamental reservoir rock property is its
permeability. Both of them are geometric properties are the result of its lithological, structural
and compositional behavior (composition). These physical compositions of a rock and the
textural properties are geometric such as sizes and shapes of the rock grains, their arrangement
system and packaging. The efficiency of reservoir rock account on different important properties.
(Berger, 1992)

5
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY
The methods that used to collect the data during our field work was random traversing through
walking by feet. And during our field work we used different equipment to collecting and
organized data as described bellows.

3.1 TOOLS AND INSTRUMENT USED


The tools and equipment used in field work during the data collection were described bellows as
follows;

Geological hammer specifically this equipment used for splitting and breaking rocks. But during
our field work we used geological hammer for breaking down a rock to get afresh sample for
description particular to determine its mineralogical composition, texture, nature and estimation
of the rocks strength.

GPS (global position system), is a satellite based navigation system. This equipment in our field
work we used in geological mapping for finding ones position, mapping lithology, measuring
elevation, storing sampling points and descriptions of formations when samples are collected.

Field notebook It is of a great significance in the field, the field note book should be hardcover
for ease when writing and should easily fit into a pocket. In our field work we used note book for
writing every piece of information we came across with along the way and we recorded details
about mineralogy, specific coordinates of outcrops, time, locality as well as geological features
like joints, sedimentary structures.

Hand held lens; In our field work we used to make the first analysis of rock samples in terms of
grain size in the field before further analysis is performed in the laboratories. The analysis needs
to be detailed and descriptive giving all properties of the sample: rock type, color, texture,
identifiable mineralogy.

6
Field camera is the only back up memory in addition to the notebook. In our field work we used
camera to take photography of lithology from different angles as possible since its very
important to take photographs of all interesting features ensuring a scale is used in each instance
and photographs are important for descriptive purposes especially during report writing and for
making presentations

Geological Compass; specifically for structural measurement of strike, dips and dip direction of
the outcrop exposed. Basically in our field work we uses geological compass to measure
orientation of geological structures, as they map in the field to analyze (and document) the
geometry of bedding planes, joints. The type of compass used during mapping was known as
Brunton compass and suunto compass.

Marker pens were used for labeling samples before they are put into the sample bags. Marker
pens were of different colors such as red, blue and black.

First aid kit: Safety in the field is always a priority nevertheless accidents cannot be ruled out
thus the need to be prepared with a first aid kit. Furthermore it is crucial that at least one person
in the field crew be trained in basic first aid techniques.

Base map; we used in our field work for showing the distribution of geological units deduced
from the outcrop shown on the field-slip.

Colored pencil; we used colored pencil in our field work specifically during the construction of
geological maps for differentiate lithology in a map

7
Figure 1 Field equipments and tools

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION


4.1 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOLOGIES IN RUVU BASIN
During the field work activities in Ruvu basin we encountered different types of lithology we
observed:

LOCALITY 1: MSOLWA RIVER (BRIDGE)


Coordinates: Longitude 0417423, Latitude 9266964, Elevation 206M, Time 11:11 am

8
The Middle to Late Jurassic transgression was followed by regression in the Early Cretaceous,
resulting in predominantly clastic sediments. The early depositional history of the coastal basins
was initiated in the Late Paleozoic, (Carboniferous?) or Permo-Triassic and continued through
the rift phase until the end of the Early Jurassic. The break up of Gondwana initiated the
formation of basement-controlled coastal and early interior basins. During the middle Jurassic
the ocean extended itself to this level and deposited marine sediment. The basement rocks have
been weathered. Msolwa is an area known for aggregates, the basement are rocks that are not
sedimentary rocks but igneous rock , older rocks and very hard formed during precambriam
example granites, grano diorite. Msolwa bridge is the contact between the basement and
Mesozoic rocks. Msolwa river represents a fault, the eastern part of the river bank contains
sedimentary rocks that are limestone and sandstone.

Figure 2 Igneous basement rock at Msolwa bridge

Measurement of Strike and dip

AREA STRIKE DIP


MSOLWA BRIDGE 380 SW 120 SE
320 SW 080 SE
380 SW 160 SE
380 SW 140 SE
300 SW 120 SE
300 SW 140 SE

9
LOCALITY 2: MSOLWA QUARRY

Coordinates: Longitude 0418322, Latitude 9216793, Elevation 216M, Time 12:25 pm

Their structures includes vein of quartz and pebble dropstones. Other limestone had very large
shell and corals, these organism lived once in a limestone when it was in liquid form. Time came
whre organisms died and their parts which were hard had to be preserved while the soft arts
disappear due to oxygen this process is known as calcification replacement by calcite (rhe
systematic replacement of organic matter by calcite),the presence of angular dropstones
(proximo deposits). The oxygen was very high though it could not dissolve all hard parts
remained; this type of limestone was grey bioclastic limestone.

Another limestone had fine to medium grains composed of sand and mud. It was formed at very
low energy level over short period of time through a cyclic deposition. There was a thin layer
which represented sandy mud layers and decreased as it went up while the sandstone increased.
Geological structure includes the inclusion of mudstone in sandstone, the mudstone is not
homogenous to the sandstone. During stratification some of the mud was induced in the
sandstone. The grain size of sandstone were fine to medium while mudstone being very fine. As
in petroleum system the sandstone could represent a reservoir but mudstone could represent a
source rock, a reservoir source rock alternating at the same time and marine being the
depositional environment. The limestones were deposited before the fault, and deposition
environment was marine environment with relative high regressive and relative high energy. The
limestone contained sand, mud, coral and sponges.

10
Figure 3 Abundant shells in bioclastic limestone

Measurements of Strike and dip

AREA STRIKE DIP


MSOLWA QUARRY 86° NE 9° SE
79° NE 14° SE
54° NE 10° SE
74° NE 28° SE
88° NE 3° SE
88° NE 12° SE

LOCALITY 3: KIKUMBI CHA MKULU

Coordinates: Longitude 0429673, Latitude 9295793, Elevation 357M, Time 05:02 pm

The limestone was present on the wind ward side of the hill which was gentle. There was a
basement which was so highly extended on one side. The hill was uplifted by a fault and the
steep ward side was formed due to basement rock which was uplifted. On top of the hill there
was grey massive oolitic fossilferous limestone which was composed of colar, sponges and
oolites.

11
Measurements of Strike and dip

AREA STRIKE DIP


KIKUMBI CHA MKULU 27° NW 14° SW
76° NW 24° SW
86° NW 12° SW
79° NW 5° SW

Figure 4 Oolitic limestone with quartz dropstones

12
LOCALITY 4: MASUGURU

Coordinates: Longitude 0441532, Latitude 9296299, Elevation 196M, Time 09:11 am

A fracture that differentiate sandstone and limestone (dewatering fracture). The petroleum
system existed was a seal limestone and reservoir sandstone, the rock was named grey
colariferous fine to medium sand limestone overlain by fine to medium grain sandstone with
mudstone inclusion. A contact between Jurassic limestone and Cretaceous sandstone composed
of only corals. There was a fault that passed between the contact. Presence of the siltstone that
formed concretion, the layer of mudstone below and the layer of sandstone below. These are
cretaceous age sediments and have the same porosity with the sediment that make songosongo
gas reservoir. The sandstone contained medium to coarse grains and formed in marine
environment, composition in the sandstone includes greenish clay cemented by silica.The matrix
being sandstone while the cement was silica, the sandstone could represent a reservoir if it was
buried under the surface.

Figure 5 Contact between layers of mudstone and cementing material called calcite

Measurements of Strike and dip

AREA STRIKE DIP


MASUGURU 69° SW 10° NE
65° SW 10° NE
10° SW 26° NE
49° SW 14° NE
59° SW 24° NE

13
LOCALITY 5: MINDUKENI QUARRY

Coordinates: Longitude 0438705, Latitude 9283142, Elevation 160M, Time 02:39 am

This limestone was characterized as a poor reservoir due to mudstone presence which reduced
the porosity, mudstone behaves like the cement. The porosity was tempered by mud limestone. A
lot of colar and shells depended on mudstone for survivor, used it as food. This rock was named
grey mud bioclastic fossilferous limestone. It was sheltered (not opened to wave action) with a
high energy shallow marine. The limestone were composed of big biovibes shells, abundant
shells, sponges and abundant colars all cemented by calcite under a marine environment. The
limestone was somehow massive, the corals were highly present at the wall.

Figure 6 Massive limestone with larger bivalve and gastropods

14
Measurements of Strike and dip

AREA STRIKE DIP


MINDUKENI QUARRY 24° SE 23° SW
20° SE 8° SW
69° SE 10° SW
69° SE 11° SW
65° SE 9° SW
10° SE 20° SW

LOCALITY 6: MBWIGU

Coordinates: Longitude 0446320, Latitude 9307038, Elevation 41M, Time 11:09 am

The lowest part of Mbwigu ridge (first layer) ; This lower part of the ridge consist of grayish like
brown clay mudstone to muddy limestone, there fine sediment were deposited under low
deposition energy, preferably during transgressive relatively deep marine. Observed within the
sediments were ammonite fossils and clay muddy concretions with dessication mark. The
concretion had variable types of central nuclear material such as pebbles quartz mineralization
these sediments were also deposited under relatively low oxygen content. These sediment
represent the source rock under normal condition when buried deep but when exposed the loose
organic matter.

Figure 8 Gastropod Shell imprint fossilized in mudstone


Figure 7 Sandstone concretions

Upper part of Mbwigu ridge (third layer);


This layer consist of medium to coarse grain sandstone which contained large sand concretion
where their grain size would make very good reservoir if they were buries deeply, the top most
layer is thick layer of sand mud limestone, this layer represents a favorable seal (cap lock) above
the reservoir.

15
Middle part of Mbwigu ridge (second layer); This layer consist of fine to medium grain
sandstone with contained fine sandstone boulder they also had the silicified wood, this sandstone
would pass for reservoir if it were deeply buried.

Figure 9 Strata layers of mudstone and limestone in Mbwigu

There were sediments which formed abundant numbers of different concretion with desiccation
marks and dewatering marks made of mudstone and sandstone. Mbwigu area is a scarp or ridge,
which had flood plain of a river. There was variety of sediment that had importance in petroleum
system. The Mbwigu ridge is characterized by large amount of reservoir than source rock and
cap lock, from the fine to coarse grain (Coarsening up sequence). The thick layer of mud with
fine grains represent that organism who lived depended on organic matter from mud example
ammonites.

Figure 10 Petrified wood

16

Figure 11 Ammonite
Figure 12 Mould
sandstone

Figure 13 Bivalve

Figure 14 Sponge

Figure 15 OOlite

17
4.2 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES IN RUVU BASIN

Structures were observed within that lithology which encountered during our field work at Ruvu
basin in different location and we term those structures as primary structures and secondary
structures. Primary structures are those structures formed during deposition of sediments while
secondary structures are those structures formed after deposition. These structures have got its
usual meaning in geology or petroleum geology, these structures are;

Cross bedding

Cross beds refers to sets of beds that are inclined relative to one another, in Ruvu basin cross-
beds well exposed in cretaceous sandstone at Msolwa Quarry.

Figure 16 Cross bedding in sandstone

Lamination

Laminated layer refers to a small scale sequence of fine layers normally smaller and less
pronounced than bedding, often regarded as planar structures one centimetre or less in thickness.
They usually caused by cyclic changes in the supply of sediment. These changes can occur in
grain size, clay percentage, mineral content and often result in pronounced differences in colour
between the laminae, but in Ruvu bain we encounter such structure at Msolwa quarry in
cretaceous sandstone.

18
Figure 17 Lamination in sandstone

Bedded layers

Bedded layer refers to the smallest lithostratigraphic unit, usually ranging in thickness from a
centimetre to several metres and distinguishable from beds above and below it, usually marked
by well-defined divisional planes (bedding planes), in Ruvu basin we encounter such structures
at msolwa quarry

Figure 18 Bedded layers in sandstone

Lineament

Lineament refers to feature in a landscape which is an expression of an underlying geological


structure such as a fault and joints. Mostly of this lineament in Ruvu basin observerd at msolwa
quarry at 0444032E, 9297106N and they originated from the main fault of Ruvu basin.

19
Figure 19 Lineament in sandstone

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION

Ruvu Basin is located to the Eastern side of Tanzania which is almost entirely onshore. The
Basin covers an area of about 66,820 km2 covering the six regions, Dar es Salaam, parts of
Coast, Morogoro, Dodoma, Tanga and Manyara, but Ruvu Basin is extends in a southwesterly
direction from Tanga on the northern coast of Tanzania to the Ruvu River. The western limit of
the basin is marked by the Tanga Fault Zone, a major basement bounding fault extending the full
length of the basin and to the southeast Chole-Msanga (Kisangire) and Kisarawe (Pugu) Highs of
the Dar-es-Salaam Platform.

The Ruvu Basin was formed by rifting related to the break-up of Gondwanaland in the Permo-
Triassic and early Jurassic as a 'failed arm' of a triple junction. From the Middle Jurassic onwards
it evolved mainly as a passive continental margin. The structural development and basinal
characteristics are very similar to other basins of this type such as the Gulf of Suez, Benue
Trough and Viking Graben all of which are major hydrocarbon provinces. But the Sediments in
the Ruvu Basin span almost the complete range found in the sedimentary basins of Tanzania
from the Permo- Triassic Karoo cropping out in the southwest to Neogene in the northeast.

Ruvu Basin was formed by rifting related to the break-up of Gondwanaland in the Permo-
Triassic and early Jurassic, resulted from plate tectonic which make the emergence of geological
structures (fault, joint, fold, bedding and laminated layer) and different lithological unit
(sedimentary rocks) various in color, texture, mineral composition and environmental deposition,
which are very essential for petroleum geologist to study petroleum system based in source rock,
reservoir and cap rock, also it bring awareness among petroleum geologist about hydrocarbon
potentiality in Ruvu basin. Moreover, Ruvu basin is very conducive and essential for geological

20
content since it composed mostly of sedimentary rock, fossil content and different geological
structures which play a big role in petroleum industry during the investigation of hydrocarbon
material.

5.1 RECOMMENDATION

Basin analysis and sequence stratigraphy field is very interesting and enjoyable field for the
students who took petroleum because it bring understanding of mostly basin lithology and
structures and leaves them with many question which will make us do their final year research
or a scientific research about basin and hydrocarbon potentiality. Also it brings the students
awareness about deposition environmental and petroleum system in general.

But this field has some difficulties to accomplish it effectively and when it will be done again
some improvements needed in.

 Enough fund or finance to the students, as the resulted to efficiently and effectively work
done by student

 Transport facilities such will have the student to reach all desired localities

 Increase number of equipment so that it will be easy to study many things.

 Communication or information should be sent early as possible to the local administrative


for increasing work performances.

21
5.2 REFERENCE

Haq, B.U. and A. Boersma, (eds.). 1978. Introduction to Marine Micropaleontology.

DELVAUX, D. (1991): The Karoo to Recent rifting in the western branch of the East-African
Rift System:

KAZMIN, V. (1980): Transform faults in the East African rift system.- In: Geodynamic
Evolution of the AfroArabian Rift System.

KREUSER, T. (1984): Source rock analysis of two Karoo basins of coastal Tanzania.- Journal of
Petroleum Geology, 7(1): 47-54; Beaconsfield.

22
KREUSER, T.; SCHRAMEDEI, R. & RULLKOTTER, J. (1988): Gas-prone source rocks from
cratogene Karoo basins in Tanzania.- Journal of Petroleum Geology, 11: 169184;

Beaconsfield.

MCCONNELL, R. B. (1947): Geology of the Namwele Nkomolo

Coal Field. Geological Survey of Tanganyika 27: 57 pp.; Dar-es-Salaam. Reprint

from the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute 44(3): 227251 and 44(4): 330-354.

Hobson GD (1975) Introduction to petroleum geology—modern tectoinc theories

Miall, A.D., 1984, Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis

Mitchell, A.H.G., and Reading, H.G., 1986, Sedimentation and Tectonics, in Reading, H.G., ed.,
Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Second Edition: Blackwell.

Haq.B.U. and Boersma.A (1978).Interdiction to Ma¬rine Micriopaleontology, Elseviers, New


York.

23
Allen, P.A., Allen, J.R., 2013. Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play
Assessment, third ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Mbede, E.I., and Dualeh, A., 1997, The coastal basins of Somalia, Kenya, and Tanzania, in
Selley, R.C., ed., Vol¬ume 3, African basins—Sedimentary basins of the world: Amsterdam,
Elsevier Science B. V., p. 211–233.

Kagya, M.L.N., 1996, Geochemical characterization of Trias¬sic petroleum source rock in the
Mandawa basin, Tanzania: Journal of African Earth Sciences,

Kejato, Kejo, 2003, The geology and petroleum potential of Tanzania: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,
Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY INDUSTRIAL PRACTICAL TRAINING AT RUVU BASIN

BY

DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com

+255674056520, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2018

24
25