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"It is said that people who are dyslexic have a greater appreciation for color, tone, and texture.

are incredibly visual, and have an acute sense of two-dimensional and three-dimensional form. So it
should come as no surprise that artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, and Jackson Pollock are
said to have had

Communication neuroscience is the study of how the brain and nervous system control the sending,
receiving, and understanding of messages. In humans, most messages are sent using spoken language
and are received by listening to other speakers. As such, understanding the brain bases of speech
perception and production are at the core of our lab’s research. In addition to the content of our
speech, when we speak our voices convey a wealth of information about who we are, where we’re
from, and how we feel. We pay attention to all these cues about other people when we interact with
them. We can even share ideas across vast time and distance through reading and writing.

Our research approaches these questions about human communication from two avenues. First, we
conduct insightful behavioral experiments to discover the factors that enhance, limit, or differentiate
our communicative capacities. Second, we utilize sensitive, state-of-the-art technologies for human
brain imaging (including structural and functional MRI, EEG, and neuromodulatory techniques) to
understand the dynamic neural systems that support communicative behaviors. Our approach is
grounded in a systems neuroscience framework — we want to understand whether complex
communicative behaviors like speech and language can be understood as extensions of general-purpose
processes for perception and learning.

Reversing words or letters when reading or writing. These signs are often labeled dyslexia. But the same
signs may point to visual problems.

Reversing letters is common up to second grade, but this usually stops by third grade. Several visual-
perceptual problems make it hard for a child to distinguish differences between certain letters, such as
“qp” and “db”. All four are nearly identical except for the direction of the loops.

Many children’s eyes “jump” back or forward, scanning and processing words or letters in incorrect
order. Others have a restricted visual span and can grasp only a fraction of a word at a time. In this
workshop, you’ll learn to tell the difference between visual reversals and Dyslexia.


The impact that dyslexia has is different for each person and depends on the severity of the condition
and the effectiveness of instruction or remediation. The core difficulty is with word recognition and
reading fluency, spelling, and writing. Some dyslexics manage to learn early reading and spelling tasks,
especially with excellent instruction, but later experience their most debilitating problems when more
complex language skills are required, such as grammar, understanding textbook material, and writing

Dyslexia can also affect a person's self-image. Students with dyslexia often end up feeling "dumb" and
less capable than they actually are. After experiencing a great deal of stress due to academic problems,
a student may become discouraged about continuing in school

“Sadly, here in the Philippines, a lot of us know so little about dyslexia. That is why we often
misunderstand children with this condition as ‘slow,’ ‘always behind,’ or worse ‘stupid,’" said Deidre
Jude Taino, founder of The Reading House, a literary center in San Juan aimed at helping children with
learning disabilities.

Padilla echoed this concern, adding that intelligence is not the issue. “Children with dyslexia often do
well in preschool where expectations are still manageable because of the little demand in reading and

“Difficulties manifest when they enter kindergarten or grade 1 especially when they attend a traditional
school. What happens is they became too busy and overwhelmed with the mechanical task of word
reading that little processing space is left for comprehension.”

The earlier a child learns ways on how to manage his condition, the better. “We want to start helping
them while they are still in the early years of learning how to read,” said Taino.

Signs and symptoms

Preschool children who show early signs of literacy difficulties may be considered at risk for having
dyslexia, said Padilla. Here are common signs of the condition:
speech delay or difficulties

difficulty identifying names or labels of things

has difficulty saying long words (spaghetti as “pis-get-ti”)

difficulty learning to write letters

difficulty following verbal and written instructions

reverses b-d, p-q; inverses u-n, w-m; transposes (interchanges) letters in words (e.g. day - dya)

difficulty in spelling and writing sentences

“A child with dyslexia mainly has difficulty recognizing words. Pairing rhyming words together may be
difficult for them already,” said Taino. “They also commit some reading errors, such as omitting or even
inserting words or letters when reading. Some children also tend to substitute words that are graphically
similar. For instance, a child with dyslexia might read ‘staring’ as ‘starting’ or ‘poster’ as ‘painter.’”

Here are sample assessments from a child with dyslexia provided by The Reading

In this scene, Ishaan and his classmates are given a surprise maths test, which he does not know
how to do. He stares at the questions in boredom, and starts to enter the stage of his own imagination.

VS Reality

This is fairly accurate because Dyslexics are known to be "right-brain dominant" (BDA, 2007), thus are
stronger in terms of creativity. According to Sally.S (2013) Dyslexics have "vivid imaginations. They are
disoriented in time and space. They daydream excessively”, and many other websites also list
daydreaming or "switching off" as symptoms of Dyslexia.

Scene 3: Ishaan's Tremendous Improvement in grades

S Reality:

Dyslexics tend to have poor time management, much like Ishaan. It has been listed in many online sites
such as Dyslexia Victoria Online (2011) that "time management is difficult, if not impossible for many ",
and that being distracted is listed in many sites as one of the signs of a Dyslexic person
This scene portrays the traits of Dyslexic Ishaan accurately as it corresponds to the reality that Dyslexics
are easily distracted and might lose their sense of time.

Scene 2: Ishaan in the math test

Myth #2: Dyslexia is about reversing letters.

The most basic sign of dyslexia is not “reversed letters.” The word dyslexia actually means “poor with
words or trouble reading.” Some common symptoms include:

Difficulty transferring what is heard to what is seen, and vice versa.

Struggles pronouncing new words.
Poor at distinguishing similarities/differences in words (for example no and on).
Weak at letter sound discrimination.
Low reading comprehension.
Myth #3: Dyslexia is a lifelong label.
Dyslexia doesn’t need to be a permanent diagnosis. In fact, studies show that 85% of reading struggles
are caused by one or more weak cognitive skills, which are the underlying skills the brain uses to focus,
think and process information. With dyslexia, the weakest cognitive skills tend to be phonemic
awareness and auditory processing. If these weaknesses are at the root of reading struggles, that can be
good news, since cognitive skills can be targeted and strengthened with intense mental exercise.

The process of strengthening weak skills using mental exercise is called brain training. One of the most
effective forms of brain training is one-on-one, where clients work face-to-face with brain trainers who
customize workouts, create accountability, and keep things challenging and fun. LearningRx is a pioneer
and leader in one-on-one brain training, with 80 brain training centers nationwide.

Myth #4: There’s nothing parents can do to help.

Someone diagnosed with dyslexia needs intensive one-on-one attention. And if weak skills are causing
the struggle, there are some things you can do to help your child improve phonemic awareness and
auditory processing skills. Here are three games that may help:

Sound segmenting games: Say a two-sound word, like bee and have the child tell you which sounds are
in the word. Then start to increase to three-sound words like cat. This builds auditory segmenting which
is necessary for spelling when children get older.
Phonetics using building blocks: Help develop analytical skills by using blocks to make up nonsense
words starting with two to three blocks. Create a nonsense word, then have the child remove one block
and add a new one while verbally trying to figure out what the new word sounds like.
Have your child cognitively assessed. A cognitive test is the best way to identify weak skills that may be
affecting a child’s ability to process sounds and/or to read.
To learn more about the link between dyslexia and cognitive weaknesses, contact a LearningRx Brain
Training Center near you. And to know for sure if weak cognitive skills are impacting your child’s reading
experience, LearningRx offers a one-hour Cognitive Assessment that can give you the answers you’re
looking for.

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Understanding dyslexia
Despite its prevalence, dyslexia is commonly misunderstood and can be difficult to diagnose, causing
emotional, social and educational struggles.

Here’s what’s known about it: As with many learning disabilities, people are born with dyslexia and it is
often shared across generations. It doesn’t go away-you can’t outgrow it or take medication for it. It
occurs in people of all races and income levels.

Research indicates that the brains of people with dyslexia are organized differently than those without
the disorder, causing difficulties processing printed content into meaningful information. At the same
time, many people with the disorder are exceptionally bright and creative. They may struggle with
processing information in printed form, but they often have exceptional talents and strengths in other
areas-a fact borne out by the remarkable number of highly accomplished leaders in business, the arts
and other fields who have dyslexia.

What to do about it
There’s no cure, but dyslexic individuals can adjust and succeed with the right educational support and
accommodations. For instance, experts often recommend audiobooks for students, as they are
recognized for their effectiveness in improving comprehension, reducing the stress of studying, and
helping children regain their confidence in the classroom.

Parents and students can share their stories and help others find answers and resources to manage the
condition as quickly and easily as possible throughExplore1in5.org. The site is optimized with video and
audio content for those who struggle to read print and is filled with input from dyslexics of all ages.

Visitors are encouraged to share a video story or upload a blog post about their dyslexia tribulations and

The idea is that through community awareness efforts and sharing real-life dyslexia stories, common
misconceptions will be alleviated and individuals will be encouraged with resources and a sense of hope.
The 1in5 Initiative is powered by Learning Ally, a national nonprofit that provides audiobooks and
educational solutions to support all people who learn differently.

You can find further facts and advice online at www.Explore1in5.org. North American Precis Syndicate,
What is dyslexia?

Dyslexia is most commonly associated with trouble learning to read. It affects a child’s ability to
recognize and manipulate the sounds in language. Kids with dyslexia have a hard time decoding new
words, or breaking them down into manageable chunks they can then sound out. This causes difficulty
with reading, writing and spelling. They may compensate by memorizing words, but they’ll have trouble
recognizing new words and may be slow in retrieving even familiar ones.

Dyslexia is not a reflection of a child’s intelligence — in fact it’s defined as a gap between a student’s
ability and achievement. Some youngsters with dyslexia are able to keep up with their peers with extra
effort at least for the first few grades. But by the third grade or so, when they need to be able to read
quickly and fluently in order to keep up with their work, they run into trouble.

With help and strategies for compensating for their weakness in decoding, students with dyslexia can
learn to read and thrive academically. But dyslexia is not something one grows out of.

How common is dyslexia?

It is estimated that as many as one in five kids has dyslexia, and that 80 to 90 percent of kids with
learning disorders have it. Dr. Sally Shaywitz, co-director of the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity,
notes that many children go undiagnosed as struggles in school are incorrectly attributed to intelligence,
level of effort or environmental factors.

Although experts used to say that dyslexia occurred more often in boys than in girls, current research
indicates that it affects boys and girls equally.

Signs of dyslexia

A young person with dyslexia may:

 Struggle with learning even simple rhymes

 Have a speech delay
 Have trouble following directions
 Repeat or omit short words such as and, the, but
 Find it difficult to tell left from right In school, children with dyslexia are likely to:
 Have difficulty sounding out new words
 Lack fluency compared to other children their age
 Reverse letters and numbers when reading (read saw as was, for example)
 Find it difficult to take notes and copy down words from the board
 Struggle with rhyming, associating sounds with letters, and sequencing and ordering sounds
 Stumble and have difficulty spelling even common words; frequently they will spell them
phonetically (hrbr instead of harbor)
 Avoid being called on to read out loud in front of classmates
 Become tired or frustrated from reading

Dyslexia affects children outside of school as well. Kids with dyslexia may also:

 Find it difficult to decode logos and signs

 Struggle when trying to learn the rules to games
 Have difficulty keeping track of multi-step directions
 Struggle with getting the hang of telling time
 Find it especially challenging to learn another language
 Become incredibly frustrated, which can effect their mood and emotional stability
 Social and emotional impacts of dyslexia

Dyslexia affects a lot more than reading — it can also impact a child socially. “A dyslexic person who has
word-finding difficulties can have trouble with their expressive language,” says Scott Bezsylko, the
executive director of Winston Preparatory School, which specializes in teaching kids with learning
disorders. “That has a social impact, in addition to your difficulties with reading and writing, that make
you feel not so good about yourself.”

Kids with dyslexia — particularly those who have yet to be diagnosed — often suffer from low self-
esteem because they worry that there is something wrong with them, and are often accused of not
trying hard enough to learn to read. “A lot of our work with dyslexic kids is to help them rediscover that
they are smart and capable,” notes Beszylko, “because they’ve stopped believing in themselves.”

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How is dyslexia diagnosed?

If your child isn’t meeting expectations for reading, as parents you can ask the school district to perform
an evaluation and share the results with you. The evaluation will test your child’s intellectual capacity
and reading skills, to see if there is an achievement gap. It should also rule out other potential causes
like environmental factors or hearing impairment.

The school should then make recommendations on how they can support your child and maximize her

If you are unhappy with the quality of the evaluation, you can also secure a private evaluation by a
psychologist, a neuropsychologist, a reading specialist, a speech and language therapist, an educational
evaluator or a school psychologist. This external evaluation can also be used to advocate for your child
and get the accommodations and services she might need.

When should a child be evaluated?

Dyslexia can begin to reveal itself at a young age, and there are preschool evaluations that look at the
child’s awareness of the sounds that make up words, and ability at word retrieval. However, Dr.
Matthew Cruger, director of the Learning and Development Center at the Child Mind Institute, suggests
waiting until kids are at least six years old and have had some formal instruction in reading to seek out a
formal evaluation.

But Dr. Shaywitz notes that as soon as a gap between intelligence and reading skills is apparent — and
evidence shows it can be seen in first grade — it’s a good idea to get help. Schools sometimes encourage
parents to wait until the third grade to see if their child truly needs an intervention, but Dr. Shaywitz
argues that the earlier intervention is important not only to help kids catch up but to boost their fragile
self-image, which is damaged by continuing struggle in school and comparisons with peers.

How to help kids with dyslexia

A dyslexia diagnosis does not mean your child will never learn to read. Dr. Cruger says there are a
number of programs that can help, which might include these features:

Multi-sensory instruction in decoding skills

Repetition and review of skills

Intensity of intervention — that is, more than being pulled out of class once a week for extra help

Small group or individual instruction

Teaching decoding skills

Drilling sight words

Teaching comprehension strategies, to help kids derive meaning from what they’re reading

Reading programs that been shown to help kids with dyslexia include:

The Wilson Method

The Orton-Gillingham Approach

Preventing Academic Failure (PAF)

The Lindamood-Bell Program


Dr. Cruger points out that traditional tutoring may actually be counter-productive for a child with
dyslexia, particularly if it is not a positive experience. “If the child hates the experience of reading help,
it’s not helpful,” Dr. Cruger notes. “And it’s not treating the source of the problem, the decoding

Instead, Dr. Cruger emphasizes that one of the most important ways to help kids with dyslexia is to
make them more comfortable reading. This can be done in part by celebrating even small victories and
accomplishments, while focusing less on correcting their errors.

Related: Preparing for College With Dyslexia

Accommodations for kids with dyslexia

Kids with demonstrated dyslexia are eligible for accommodations in school. “Dyslexia robs a person of
time,” Dr. Shaywitz explains, “and accommodations give the time back to her.” Accommodations may
Extra time on tests

A quiet space to work

The option to record lectures

The option to give verbal, rather than written, answers (when appropriate)

Elimination of oral reading in class

Exemption from foreign language learning

Other ways to support a child with dyslexia

One of the best ways to support a child with dyslexia — or any child who is struggling — is to encourage
those activities that she likes and feels good at, whether it is music, joining a sports team or anything
else that helps build her confidence.

To help reinforce that dyslexia is not a marker of intelligence, it can also be helpful to talk about
successful people — like Whoopi Goldberg and Steven Spielberg — who have also been diagnosed with

Other things that may help your child with dyslexia include: pizza

Listening to audio books as an alternative to reading

Typing on a computer or tablet instead of writing

Apps that can make learning fun by turning decoding into a game

Using a ruler to help kids read in a straight line, which can help keep them focused

Emotional support

Dyslexia can result in frustration, embarrassment, avoidance and low self-esteem as a result of
difficulties performing tasks that seem to come naturally to others. Demystifying the learning disorder
with your child can help him develop the tools —
Yes. In other words, being told something is fleeting, being taught something is more memorable but
learning something is unforgettable. Benjamin Franklin’s words, rather tidily define the debates that
have surrounded the theory and practice of teaching and is very often used as the motto for the theory
of experiential learning. This is perfectly understandable, as although Franklin was self educated and an
avid reader, he learnt through experience. A simple modern example of learning through experience is
best demonstrated in learning to drive; yes there is theory; yes there is teaching; but you actually have
to do it to learn. It could be said that Franklin’s statement nicely sums up the modern teaching methods
that are now actively employed to engage and encourage students and make learning more memorable.
However, his words do say a little bit more and to appreciate this, we have to consider the
contemporary context. Franklin was a man of the Enlightenment; the age of reason and of empirical

Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn." It's so true. Teachers can
lecture, and it'll go in one ear and out the other. If you teach me something, I'll remember it. A teacher
must *involve* - that is the true definition of teaching..