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A PROJECT REPORT ON

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY ON


ORGANISATION IN MUMBAI WESTERN SUBURBAN
SUBMITTED

TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI

AS A PARTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR COMPLETING THE

DEGREE OF

MASTER IN COMMERCE SEMESTER III

BY

AKASH TIWARI

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF.

MS. DARSHIKA KARIA

MATUSHRI PUSHPABEN VINUBHAI VALIA DEGREE COLLEGE OF


COMMERCE
M.K HIGH SCHOOL COMPLEX , FACTORY LANE , BORIVALI
(WEST), MUMBAI -400092
DECLARATION

I , MR . AKASH TIWARI Student M.Com (BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ) Semester III


(Academicyear 2018-19) hereby declare that, I have completed the research project on FACTORS
INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR : A STUDY ON ORGANISATION IN MUMBAI
WESTERN SURBURBS presented in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge. This
project is previously not submitted to any University for any Degree or Diploma Course of this or any other
University.

Signature of the sudent

M.r Akash Tiwari

Certifed by

Signature of the guiding Teacher

Ms . Darshika Karia
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the University of Mumbai, for introducing M.Com (BUSINESS
MANAGEMENT)course, thereby giving its students a platform to be abreast with changing business
scenario, with the help of theory as a base and practical as a solution.

I am indebted to our Principal Prof . V . Manikandan for providing necessary facilities required for
completion of the project.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards my project guide Ms Darshika Kari whose guidance
and care made the project successful.

I would like to thank my College library for having provided various reference books and magazine related
to my project.

Last but not the least , I would like to thank my parents for giving the best education and for their support
and contribution without which this project would not have been possible.
INDEX

CHAPTER 1 :……………………………………………………………….6

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………...7

1.1 Organisation Behaviour Overview ……………………………………………….......7

1.2 Importance of Behaviour in an Organisation ………………………………………….7

1.3 Determinants in Organisational Behaviour ……………………………………………8

1.3.1 People …………………………………………………………………………….......8

1.3.2 Structure ………………………………………………………………………….......8

1.3.3 Technology ……………………………………………………………………….......8

1.3.4 Environment ………………………………………………………………………. …9

1.3.5 Nature of people ………………………………………………………………………9

1.3.6 Nature of Organisation ……………………………………………………………......9

1.4 Individual Behaviour an overview ……………………………………………………..10

1.5 Determinants in Individual Behaviour ……………………………………………….....11

1.6 Dimensions of Cognitive Psychology …………………………………………………..11

1.7 Congruence Between Manager’s and individual Behaviour …………………………….12

1.8 Factors Individual Behaviour…………………………………………………………….13

1.8.1 Abilities …………………………………………………………………………….......13

1.8.2 Gender …………………………………………………………………………………..13

1.8.3 Race ……………………………………………………………………………………..13

1.8.4 Perception ……………………………………………………………………………….13

1.8.5 Stereotyping …………………………………………………………………………….13

1.8.6 Attribution ………………………………………………………………………………14

1.8.7 Consesus ……………………………………………………………………………......14

1.8.8 Distinctiveness ……………………………………………………………………….......14

1.8.9 Consistency ………………………………………………………………………………14


1.9.0 Attitude ………………………………………………………………………………….14

1.9.1 Personality ……………………………………………………………………………….14

CHAPTER 2 : ………………………………………………………………………………….15

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………….16

2.2 Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………….17

2.3 Hypothesis …………………………………………………………………………………18

2.4 Scope of the Study …………………………………………………………………………18

2.5 Sample Size ………………………………………………………………………………..35

2.6 Sampling Method ………………………………………………………………………….36

2.7 Sample Distribution ……………………………………………………………………….36

2.8 Potential Respondents ……………………………………………………………………..36

2.9 Data collection ……………………………………………………………………………..36

2.10 primary data ………………………………………………………………………………36

2.11 Secondary data…………………………………………………………………………….36

2.12 Tools and techniques ……………………………………………………………………..36

2.13 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………..37

CHAPTER 3 :…………………………………………………………………………………..38

LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1 Individual behavior in an organization literature review …………………………………..39

CHAPTER 4 :…………………………………………………………………………………..40

DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 5 :…………………………………………………………………………………..52

SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS


Chapter 1 –

INTRODUCTION
Introduction

1.1 Organisational Behaviour and Overview

Organizational Behavior (OB) can be defined as the understanding, prediction and management of human
behavior both individually or in a group that occur within an organization. Internal and external perspectives
are the two theories of how organizational behavior can be viewed from an organization’s point of view. In
this tutorial, we will be learning in detail about both the theories
Culture has been defined in many different ways and by many different theorists. For instance, according to
Geert et al (2010) “it is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group
or category of people from others”. Kotter and Heskett (1992) noted that culture is “a set of beliefs, values
and behaviors commonldy held by a society, being derived from social anthropology as a framework for
understanding ‘primitive’ societies”. Finally, Deal and Kennedy (1982) defined culture in short as “the way
we do things around here”. When establishing and developing a company or other organization, an internal
culture will develop step by step. The purpose of its existence is to improve solidarity and cohesion,
stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity, and to improve the economic efficiency of an organization.
Like cultures in general, organizational cultures are complex and unique. They are based their individual
history, leadership and workforce. Hence, in order to improve management and let an organizational culture
have the right effect on employees, it is important to understand how organizational cultures affect employee
behavior.

1.2 Importance of Behaviour in an Organisation

While working in an organization, it is very important to understand others behavior as well as make others
understand ours. In order to maintain a healthy working environment, we need to adapt to the environment
and understand the goals we need to achieve. This can be done easily if we understand the importance of
OB. Following points bring out the importance of OB:

 It helps in explaining the interpersonal relationships employees share with each other as well as with their
higher and lower subordinates.

 The prediction of individual behavior can be explained.

 It balances the cordial relationship in an enterprise by maintaining effective communication.

 It assists in marketing.

 It helps managers to encourage their sub-ordinates.

 Any change within the organization can be made easier.

 It helps in predicting human behavior & their application to achieve organizational goals.

 It helps in making the organization more effective. Thus studying organizational behavior helps in
recognizing the patterns of human behavior and in turn throw light on how these patterns profoundly
influence the performance of an organization.
1.3 Determinants of Organisational Behaviour

There are three major factors that affect OB. The working environment being the base for all three factors,
they are also known as the determinants of OB. The three determinants are:

 People

 Structure

 Technology

People

An organization consists of people with different traits, personality, skills, qualities, interests, background,
beliefs, values and intelligence. In order to maintain a healthy environment, all the employees should be
treated equally and be judged according to their work and other aspects that affects the firm. Example: A
company offers campus placement to trainees from different states like Orissa, Haryana, Arunachal Pradesh
and many more. However, during and after training, all trainees are examined only on the basis of their
performance in the tasks assigned. Organizational Structure

Structure is the layout design of an organization. It is the construction and arrangement of relationships,
strategies according to the organizational goal. Example: Organizational structure defines the relation of a
manager with employees and coworkers.

Technology
Technology can be defined as the implementation of scientific knowledge for practical usage. It also
provides the resources required by the people that affect their work and task performance in the right
direction. Example: Introduction of SAP, big data and other software in the market determines individual
and organizational performance.

Environment
All companies function within a given internal and external environment. Internal environment can be
defined as the conditions, factors, and elements within an enterprise that influences the activities, choices
made by the firm, and especially the behavior of the employees. While external environment can be defined
as outside factors that affect the company's ability to operate. Some of them can be manipulated by the
company’s marketing, while others require the company to make adjustments. Some examples of internal
environment include employee morale, culture changes, financial changes or issues, and some examples of
external environment include political factors, changes to the economy and the company itself

The concept of OB is based on two key elements namely:

 Nature of people

 Nature of the organization

Nature of People In simple words, nature of people is the basic qualities of a person, or the character that
personifies an individual they can be similar or unique. Talking at the organizational level, some major
factors affecting the nature of people have been highlighted. They are:

 Individual Difference: It is the managerial approach towards each employee individually, that is one-on-
one approach and not the statistical approach, that is, avoidance of single rule. Example: Manager should not
be biased towards any particular employee rather should treat them equally and try not to judge anyone on
any other factor apart from their work.

 Perception: It is a unique ability to observe, listen and conclude something. It is believing in our senses. In
short, the way we interpret things and have our point of view is our perception. Example: Aman thinks late
night parties spoil youth while Anamika thinks late night parties are a way of making new friends. Here we
see both Aman and Anamika have different perception about the same thing.

 A whole person: As we all know that a person’s skill or brain cannot be employed we have to employee a
whole person. Skill comes from background and knowledge. Our personal life cannot be totally separated
from our work life, just like emotional conditions are not separable from physical conditions. So, people
function is the functioning of a total human being not a specific feature of human being.

 Motivated behavior: It is the behavior implanted or caused by some motivation from some person, group
or even a situation. In an organization, we can see two different types of motivated employees: o Positive
motivation: Encouraging others to change their behavior or say complete a task by luring them with
promotions or any other profits. Example: “If you complete this, you will gain this.” o Negative motivation:
Forcing or warning others to change their behavior else there can be serious consequences. Example: “If you
don’t complete this, you will be deprived from the office.”

 Value of person: Employees want to be valued and appreciated for their skills and abilities followed by
opportunities which help them develop themselves.

Nature of Organization
Nature of organization states the motive of the firm. It is the opportunities it provides in the global market.
It also defines the employees’ standard; in short, it defines the character of the company by acting as a
mirror reflection of the company. We can understand the nature of any firm with its social system, the
mutual interest it shares and the work ethics. Let us take a quick look at all these factors:

 Social system: Every organization socializes with other firms, their customers, or simply the outer world,
and all of its employees - their own social roles and status. Their behavior is mainly influenced by their
group as well as individual drives. Social system are of two types namely: o Formal: Groups formed by
people working together in a firm or people that belong to the same club is considered as formal social
system. Example: A success party after getting a project. o Informal: A group of friends, people socializing
with others freely, enjoying, partying or chilling. Example: Birthday party.
 Mutual interest: Every organization needs people and people need organizations to survive and prosper.
Basically it’s a mutual understanding between the organization and the employees that helps both reach their
respective objectives. Example: We deposit our money in the bank, in return the bank gives us loan, interest,
etc.

 Ethics: They are the moral principles of an individual, group, and organization. In order to attract and keep
valuable employees, ethical treatment is necessary and some moral standards need to be set. In fact,
companies are now establishing code of ethics training reward for notable ethical behavior.

Individual Behavior
It is the study of individual’s personality, learning, attitudes, motivation, and job satisfaction. In this study,
we interact with others in order to study about them and make our perception about them. Example: The
personal interview round is conducted to interact with candidates to check their skills, apart from those
mentioned in the resume.

Inter-individual Behavior
It is the study conducted through communication between the employees among themselves as well as their
subordinates, understanding people’s leadership qualities, group dynamics, group conflicts, power and
politics. Example: A meeting to decide list of new board members.

Group Behavior
Group behavior studies the formation of organization, structure of organization and effectiveness of
organization. The group efforts made towards the achievement of organization’s goal is group behavior. In
short, it is the way how a group behaves. Example: Strike, rally etc.

1.4 Individual Behaviour an overview

Employee behaviour is defined as an employee’s reaction to a particular situation at workplace. Employees


need to behave sensibly at workplace not only to gain appreciation and respect from others but also to
maintain a healthy work culture. One needs to adhere to the rules and regulations of workplace. Remember,
Office is not a place where you can shout on fellow workers, spread rumours, criticize your Boss and so on.
You just can’t afford to be rude with your team members. Be polite and speak softly. Do not forget that you
are not the only one working; there are other people around as well. Some people have a tendency to have
their lunch at their workstations only. Such a behaviour is completely unprofessional.

Male employees need to respect their female counterparts. Never ever think of sexually harassing your
female team members. Such a behaviour is unethical and not at all acceptable at workplace. One complaint
from them and your career is finished. Avoid making lewd comments, physical advances or touching them.
An individual’s behaviour has lot to do with his upbringing and family background. A child who has been
brought up in a decent family where females are respected and thought to be equal would never even in his
wildest dreams think of abusing female colleagues.

It is completely unethical to steal office property. Why do you have to take office stationery to home? Office
stationery (pens, pencils, stapler, eraser, punching machine, glue and so on) are meant to be used only in
offices and nowhere else. Avoid damaging office property. Remember, if you do not respect your
organization, you will not get respect in return.

Employees need to understand that some information is confidential and should not be discussed with
anyone. Never break your manager’s trust. Do not disclose your team’s strategies or internal policies to
others just because they are your friends. Some people tend to submit fake bills to claim more money than
actual. Individuals with such a behaviour find it extremely difficult to survive in the long run. What is the
use of submitting wrong bills? Believe me, if you are caught, you will lose in your job in no time. Such a
behaviour will not only tarnish an individual’s image but also speak ill of his family background and
upbringing.

Why do you have to use your office computer for online shopping, watching movies, paying cell phone bills,
internet bills and so on? Do not store your personal photographs or information in office computer. Avoid
browsing objectionable websites at workplace. If your office people have blocked certain sites, they must
have done it for some reasons. Please do not try to open blocked sites using through proxy server and fake
passwords. Rather than wasting our energy on unproductive things, it is always good if we concentrate on
our work.

1.5 Determinants in Individual Behaviour

Human behavior is complex and every individual is different from another, the challenge of an effective
organization is in successfully matching the task, the manager and the subordinate. Under ideal situation, a
manager would first analyze the task, then determine the required skills and assemble a team that
complement each other skills; thereby creating an enriching & conflict free team. In reality, a manager has to
use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in
individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy. In order to understand individual
behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition.

Integrated behavior model -I have formulated an abstract model of human behavior which explains the
process that produces the individual differences. Cognition is the thought process in humans that describes
how the information we constantly acquire is transformed, stored and used as knowledge in future decision
making. It includes a wide range of mental processes like visual imagery, language, problem solving,
decision making etc. The brain receives the stimuli from the external environment through the sense, which
is immediately registered in our sensory memory, which is large but keeps the information for few seconds
only. The observation process tries to match the information in the sensory memory with the previous
knowledge and creates a perception of the stimuli, thereby abstracting useful information from the sensory
memory. This abstracted information then passes to the short-term memory or the working memory, which
also caches the related knowledge from the long-term memory. The short-term memory has slightly longer
latency than the sensory memory, it is needed only till the reaction of the stimuli. The long term memory has
enormous capacity and is the primary knowledge base.

1.6 Dimensions of cognitive psychology

The cognition can be characterized by considering the process itself and its robustness. At a higher level of
abstraction, the thinking can be characterized as rational or emotional, while its robustness is determined by
it stability.

Rational Vs Emotional Thinking Rational thinking is a response based on process of logical reasoning; it
involves some form of mathematical or statistical knowledge where the process has implicit proof of its
validity. Attribution is one of the rational processes that involve determining the reason or cause of an
observed behavior.
Emotional thinking is a response based on how a person feels about the object in question. Neurologically,
emotions follow a short cut pathway to limbic response, bypassing the other cognitive thought processes. It
can be considered as most primitive response when dealing with incomplete and uncertain sensory data.
However, emotions have considerable influence on decision making and other cognitive processes even with
existence of alternate rational reasons. Emotions do bootstrap into prior emotional responses and it depends
upon a person’s belief and values.

Every stimuli creates a response which is stored in the long-term memory, repetition of the same stimuli
over a period of time, hard wires the response. These patterns of stimuli and response form a stable section
of our cognitive processes, thus as the person ages, more and more responses get hard-wired. On the other
hand, stimuli that have little or no previously recorded responses are in the evolutionary stage, the response
might change depending upon the cumulative degree of success of the previous responses.

1.7 Congruence between manager’s and individual’s behavior


Most of the text and research emphasizes the importance of individual behavior and how managers should
use this knowledge for better task- to-employee matching, what they ignore is the importance of
organization as a system. In the organizational social system, the relationship between manager and the
employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional. While the manager tries to assess the behavior of the
subordinate, the subordinate also makes a continuous effort to evaluate the manager’s perspective and adapt
to it. If this bi-directional process is successful, it would create a behavioral congruence between manager
and subordinate and would be a positive outcome. Otherwise it would lead to dissatisfaction and frustration
for both of them and would eventually lead to end of their relationship through job

1.8 Factors Influencing Individual Behavior

1.8.1 Abilities
Abilities of a person are the natural or learnt traits. Abilities can be classified into mental and physical
abilities and different task requires different level of the two. Mental abilities represent the intelligence,
person’s deductive reasoning, and memory, analytical and verbal comprehension. Physical abilities include
muscular strength, stamina, body coordination and motor skills. An individual’s self awareness of his own
abilities determines how he feels about the task, while the manager’s perception of his abilities determines
the kind of task he assigns to the individual.

1.8.2 Gender
Although, research concludes that men and women are equal in their mental abilities and job performance,
society does emphasize differences. However, absenteeism is one area where differences are found and can
be attributed to being primary caregiver to children. However, this creates a difference in self-perception of
one’s abilities, personal values and social behavior. Similarly, a manager’s personal values might influence
how he considers gender as factor in his task assignment and evaluation.
1.8.3 Race
Race and culture exert significant influence when both workplace and society have considerable diversity.
Stereotyping and attributing behavior based on race and culture are common mistakes that influence
individual behavior. It is important for both management and the staff of diverse workforce to learn about
different cultures, their values, common artifacts and communication protocols. This would create a more
comfortable corporate culture and would subdue behaviors that might be perceived as insensitive and
offensive.

1.8.4 Perception
Perception is the basic cognitive process that transforms sensory stimuli into meaningful information. Most
real life problems are multidimensional and the rational approach is often entwined with the gut feeling,
resulting in individual perception. This quells the famous notion that reality is objective and thus everyone
must perceive it the same way. Both managers and subordinates must recognize that perceptual differences
exist and often are the reason for mutual dissatisfaction.

1.8.5 Stereotyping
It is categorization of individuals on basis of single attribute, it ends up creating a generalized and simplified
belief that do not take into account other significant characteristics. Age, race and sex are the three most
common basis of stereotyping; not only they are unethical but can cost missing resources. In general,
stereotyping leads to decisions that are based on inaccurate data that can result in unfair performance
evaluations, job design or promotion. Selective Perception: It is the process of selecting only the information
that supports our pre-existing belief system, thereby eliminating the discomforting information. Selective
perception acts like a catalyst to stereotyping because people tend to notice things that fit their existing
notion and not notice things that don’t. Both stereotyping and selective perception can be beneficial only by
chance since they are based on partial information. The specific situations in which they can be positively
exploited cannot be used as reliable methods.

1.8.6 Attribution
Attribution is the process of observing behavior and then determining its cause based on individual’s
personality or situation. Attribution based on personality is due to internal causes and is termed as
dispositional attribution. It includes personality traits like shyness, arrogance, intelligence, etc. Attribution
based on external influences and situations that are outside the control of individual are termed as situational
attribution. The basic attribution framework uses three criteria mentioned below.

1.8.7 Consensus
It is the extent to which other people in the same situation might respond similarly. When behavior is
attributed to consensus, the individual is not rewarded or penalized due his personality.

1.8.8 Distinctiveness
It is the extent to which the individual’s behavior can be attributed to situations or to his personality. If the
person behaves the same way in seemingly different situations, then his behavior will be attributed to his
personality.

1.8.9 Consistency
It is the measure of the frequency of the observed behavior, how often does the behavior occurs? High
consistency is linked to dispositional attribution while low consistency is linked to situational attribution.
1.9.0 Attitude
An attitude is the abstract learnt response of an individual’s entire cognitive process over a period of time. It
is experienced as a quick response to a familiar situation without any deep reasoning; it forms the basis of
biases and attribution errors. As an example, an individual who has worked in various organizations might
develop an attitude of indifference towards organizational citizenship.

1.9.1 Personality
Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one individual from
another. The `integrated individual behavior model’ proposed above, is a framework to understand the
process by which the personality develops over a period of time
CHAPTER - 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Significance of the Study

It is very important to understand the factors that influence individual behavior in an organization for a
number of reasons as We live in a civilized society and each of us our bound to follow certain etiquette and
manners depending upon the demand of circumstances. Whether you work for a private organization,
government office or work in a local store you have to follow certain manners within the organization, here
behaviors not only imply how you talk and interact with others but it includes the employee’s attitude,
motivation and personality as well. Each of us has a unique personality and we respond differently to similar
situation, our attitude and thinking reflects in our response and usually it is the attitudes that lead to specific
behavior. An employee’s behavior in an organization not only affects him or his performance but it affects
others as well.

Organizational behavior study about how people, group and individual behave in an organization. The link
between employee’s behaviors and the organization’s cultural are deeply connected to each other. It is the
organization’s culture that sets the foundations of the strategies to be followed in order to achieve
organizational goals. The employee behavior is seen as the outward expression of an employee’s perception
of organizational culture.

There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of, Autocratic, Custodial,
Supportive, and Collegial: the organization is a reflection of its vision, mission, philosophies and values. It
directly affects the organization’s culture which in turn reflects in an employee’s behavior .
2.2 Objectives

This study is basically the understand the factors that influence an individual in an organization in Mumbai
western surburbs . The purpose is to properly find out all the behavioural changes an individual experiences
in the organization which affects him directly and also affects the organization . The life of an employee is
very tiring and monotous if he is not motivated or he is not satisfied with the job , he will keep doing the job
without any dedication and determination .

How all individuals are affected by a number of reasons in the organization , which invites a lot of physical
problems like fatigue and diseases or mental problems like stress and depression . It is the part of the
organization to take a proactive role to influencing the behavior of the individual in a positive way so it helps
the employee which indirectly helps out the organization in terms of achieving the overall objectives of the
organization . There has been a large number of resignation in the organization of the researcher i.e a bpo
firm many individuals are resigning from there present job . To unfold this issue the data has been collected
form some individuals from a particual project which has experienced a large number of reisgnations in
every quarter . since the individual are resiging their job the factors surrounding their resignation which are
directly related to their behavior are studied . The main objectives of this study is

To find out the behavioural changes of individuals

To indentify the causes that affect these changes

To know the organizations role in influencing the individual behavior

To know to individual role to improve his behavior

To understand all the factors deeply that affect the individual in the organization
2.3 HYPOTHESIS

for the hypothesis. The survey of BPO employees of Mumbai western suburbs is undertaken
there has been a sudden increase in the number of employees resigning from the organisation
due to majority of reasons, which directly influence their behaviour and the fact that they are mostly stressed
because of behavioural changes caused because of the organization

1)Changes in organisation structure – major changes in the organisation hierarchy related to the chain of
superiors might not go easy with every employee
2) changes in technology – most of the tenured employees are not able to cope up with the new technology.
3) Financial factors – the present job of the employee is not providing him enough to satisfy his financial
needs
4) Organisational politics – this is very common in every organisation. Employees who work hard are not
given opportunity to grow.
5) Time management – most of the employees are not able to manage their time with their work.
6) Change in work location – when the office is moved to new location most employee find it difficult to
travel and manage their time
7) relationship with superior – sometimes the superior might always be rude to some employees.
8) Rotational shift – most of the employees don’t like the idea of rotational shift. They do it because they
don’t have an option
9) Work load – most employees have more work load on their shoulders than they can handle
10) increment – the employees don’t get desired increment according to their needs.
11) Harassment – most of the time harassment in office go UN reported due to fear of judgment and public
shaming

13) personal factors – the employee might not be able to give in his full self-due to his personal problems
14)job satisfaction – the employee might not be satisfied by his present job which influences his behaviour

15) Job security – most employees also have the fear of being replaced.

16) Family – most people cannot give time to their families because of which their behaviour differ

2.4 Scope of the study

Approaches in Organizational Behaviour:

Factors Influencing Human Behaviour

In order to address human factors in workplace safety settings, peoples’ capabilities and limitations must
first be understood. The modern working environment is very different to the settings that humans have
evolved to deal with. The following human characteristics that can lead to difficulties interacting with the
working environment.

Attention - The modern workplace can ‘overload’ human attention with enormous amounts of information,
far in excess of that encountered in the natural world. The way in which we learn information can help
reduce demands on our attention, but can sometimes create further problems

Perception -In order to interact safely with the world, we must correctly perceive it and the dangers it holds.
Work environments often challenge human perception systems and information can be misinterpreted.

Memory -Our capacity for remembering things and the methods we impose upon ourselves to access
information often put undue pressure on us. Increasing knowledge about a subject or process allows us to
retain more information relating to it.

Logical reasoning -Failures in reasoning and decision making can have severe implications for complex
systems such as chemical plants, and for tasks like maintenance and planning.

Environmental, organizational and job factors, in brief, influence the behaviour at work in a way which can
affect health and safety. A simple way to view human factors is to think about three aspects: the individual,
the job and the organization and their impact on people’s health and safety-related behaviour.

Following figures shows that all three are interlinked and have mutual influence

The typical examples of immediate causes and contributing factors for human failures are given below

Individual factors

 low skill and competence level


 tired staff
 bored or disheartened staff
 individual medical problems

Job factors

 illogical design of equipment and instruments


 constant disturbances and interruptions
 missing or unclear instructions
 poorly maintained equipment
 high workload
 noisy and unpleasant working conditions

Organisation and management factors

 poor work planning, leading to high work pressure


 lack of safety systems and barriers
 inadequate responses to previous incident
 management based on one-way communications
 deficient co-ordination and responsibilities
 poor management of health and safety
 Poor health and safety culture.
 It is concluded that the performance of human is being strongly influenced by organizational,
regulatory, cultural and environmental factors affecting the workplace.
 For example, organizational processes constitute the breeding grounds for many predictable human
errors, including inadequate communication facilities, ambiguous procedures, unsatisfactory
scheduling, insufficient resources, and unrealistic budgeting in fact, all processes that the
organization can control.
What is Perception?

How we view and interpret the events and situations in the world about us .

FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION:


Perception is influenced by mainly three sets of factors:

i) Factors in the perceiver (perceiver variables);

ii) Factors in the target (subject characteristics);

iii) Factors in the situation (situational variables).

Factors in the perceiver include following issues:

 Self-concept of the perceiver;


 Attitudes of the perceiver;
 Motives of the perceiver;
 Interests of the perceiver;
 Experience of the perceiver;
 Expectations of the perceiver.

Factors in the target include following issues:

 Physical appearance;
 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication;
 Status;
 Occupations;
 Personal characteristics;
 Novelty of the target;
 Motion of the target;
 Sounds of the target;
 Size of the target;
 Background of the target;

Factors in the situation include following issues:

 Social context;
o Organizational role;
 Work setting;
o Location of event;
 Time.

Collectively, these three sets of factors determine our perceptions about others.

(b)

A manufacturing company making automotive parts finds that workers working on the assembly line have
poor attendance, leave for home early and are generally unproductive. They are fully unionized and resist
any attempts by management to discipline them. If you are the HR Manager of such a company, what would
you do? Discuss with reference to theories of motivation, leadership, participative management and quality
circles.
Motivation

The process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of efforts towards attaining a
goal.

Needs + Droves + Incentives

Types of motives:

Primary motives:

Some motives are un learned physiologically based such motives are termed as physiological, biological, un
learned or primary motives.

Ex: Hunger, Thirst, Sleep, Sex, Avoidance of Pain, Maternal Concern

General Motives:

Number of motives, which can neither, be classified as primary, or secondary that can be referred to as
general motives. Motive must be unlearned but not physiologically oriented.

Ex: Curiosity, Manipulations, Activity Motives, Affection motives, Love, Concern, Feelings.

Secondary Motives:

Quite a few important human motives fall in this category. The important motives of Power, achievement,
and affiliation are all secondary motives.

Leadership:

Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group towards, the attainment of pre-determined
goals.

Traditional Theories of Leadership

Trait Theories

 Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics


 Extraversion has strongest relation to leadership
 Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience also strongly related to leadership
 Agreeableness and Emotional Stability are not correlated with leadership.

Behavioural Theories

 Behaviors can be taught – traits cannot


 Leaders are trained – not born

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

 Selfactualization Needs
 Self-esteem Needs
 Social Needs or Belonging and love and affection needs
 Security Needs
 Physiological Need or Basic Needs
According to Maslow, certain concepts are relevant for understanding the needs. They are pre-potency,
deprivation, domination, gratification and activation. Pre-potency is the strength associated with the needs.

Physiological needs have greater pre-potency. Deprivation is the perception of an obstacle for satisfaction of
a need. Thus, deprived need has high pre-potency. Domination is attaching importance to a need. A deprived
need dominates the individual. In order to reduce dissonance associated with the deprivation, individuals try
to gratify by undertaking some action. Therefore, gratification is the satisfaction of the need. Gratified need
does not dominate. At the end, activation of need determine motivation. Need satisfaction activates the needs
from one level to next higher levels. Maslow believes that these repeat as a cycle until the highest level need
is satisfied. Based on the concept Maslow identified five categories of needs and their role in motivating
individuals. They are described below:

1) Physiological Needs:

Basic and primary needs required for human existence are physiological needs. They relate to biological and
are required for preservation of basic human life. These needs are Identified to the human organ in the body.
They are finite needs. They must be satisfied repeatedly until human beings die. They are not associated with
money alone. They are hunger, thirst, sleep, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. The proposition relating to
the basic needs is that they are primary motivators to any individual and once they are satisfied, they no
longer motivate. The next level need becomes important for satisfaction until the basic need is dormant.
Provision of adequate monetary rewards to satisfy these needs motivate employees in organisations.

2) Safety Needs:

Individuals seek protection from natural environment, biological danger, economic deprivation and
emotional threat from other beings and animals. For this purpose, he wishes security for himself. The
protection may be in the form of seeking a shelter and forming into primary groups to combat threat from the
natural beings. The motivational proposition are that the safety needs dominate as soon as physiological
needs are satisfied, and after individual seeks to satisfy fairly the security needs they do not motivate him. In
order to motivate employees, organisations provide fringe benefits, health and accident insurance, housing
loans, etc.

3) Social Needs:

Basically individual is a social being. He cannot live in isolation and silence. Thus, he intends to establish
relationship with other human beings and sometimes wish to rear animals. Social needs emerge from the
basic urge of individuals to associate, belong with others, make friendship, make companionship, desire to
be accepted by others and seek affection. These needs are secondary in nature. The propositions relating to
social needs are that these needs are satisfied by symbolic behaviour and through physic and psychic contact
with others in the society. They are substantially infinite and exist until the end of human life. Organisations
should provide scope for formation of informal groups, encourage working in teams, and provide scope for
interpersonal communication, interpersonal relationships and interpersonal understanding to motivate
employees.

4) Esteem Needs:

Maslow believes that people seek growth. They have natural desire to be identified and respected by others.
This instinct is called as esteem. Esteem needs are associated with self-esteem and esteem from others. The
need for power, self-respect, autonomy, self-confidence, achievement, recognition of competence,
knowledge, desire to have freedom, status and secure attention of others, appreciation are some of the esteem
needs individual wishes to satisfy. Maslow identified them, as higher order needs. The nature of esteem
needs is that they are dormant until basic, security and social needs are fairly satisfied. Satisfaction of esteem
needs produce a feeling of self-confidence, strength, capability and adequacy in the individuals.

5) Self-actualization Needs:
Self-actualization is transformation of perception and dream into reality. Individuals have inner potential to
do something different from others. Realising the full inner potential, one wishes to become what he is
capable of becoming. Attaining to the level of fulfilment of self-actualization needs is a difficult task as
individuals are not clear about their inner potentials until an opportunity is perceived. Moreover these needs
change with a change in human life. The intensity of self-actualization changes over life cycle, vary from
person to person and environment.

The following propositions are made about the motivation of individuals based on the Maslow hierarchy of
needs.

i) Five needs are classified into lower order needs and higher order needs. While physiological, safety and
security needs are lower order needs, esteem and self-actualization needs are higher order needs.

ii) Lower order needs are satisfied externally and higher needs are satisfied internally.

iii) Individuals start satisfying lower order needs first and proceed to satisfy higher order needs later.

iv) No need is fully satisfied during the life period of individuals. A need substantially satisfied no longer
motivates.

v) A need when substantially satisfied produces satisfaction and it becomes dormant. Immediately the next
level need becomes active. So Individual is continuously motivated to satisfy unsatisfied needs. So,
motivation is a continuous process.

vi) Satisfaction of lower order needs does not produce contentment. In fact, they produce discontentment to
satisfy other needs.

vii) Not all individuals have the same priority to satisfy the needs. Priorities differ from country to country
and from situation to situation.

viii) Individuals are aggressive in the satisfaction of basic needs and unconsciousness demands the
satisfaction. However, they use social consciousness in the satisfaction of other needs.

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation was considered logical and simple to understand human
motivation. The theory has received attention of practicing managers as they feel that identification of needs
of employees provides an insight to motivate them. This theory suggested that giving same reward more than
individuals’ desire will have diminishing marginal utility. This has specific significance to the practicing
manager.

Leadership & Human Behaviour

As a leader, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and others; whose support you need in
order to accomplish your goals. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and motivate them. To
understand and motivate people, you must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all
human beings. People behave according to certain principles of human nature.

Human needs are an important part of human nature. Values, beliefs, and customs differ from country to
country and even within group to group, but in general, all people have a few basic needs. As a leader you
must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivators.

Characteristics of self-actualizing people:

 Have better perceptions of reality and are comfortable with it.


 Accept themselves and their own natures.
 Lack of artificiality.
 They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and eternal
questions.
 They like privacy and tend to be detached.
 Rely on their own development and continued growth.

Sources of Stress

Rollinson (2005: 270) defines workplace stress as the conditions arising from the interaction of people and
their jobs, which are characterised by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal
functioning. Stressors in the workplace are those conditions that have the potential to result in a person’s
experiencing a situation as stressful. The degree of stress experienced and the ways in which a person reacts
to it can be influenced by a number of other factors such as personal characteristics, lifestyle, and social
support, appraisal of the stressor, life events and socio-demographic and occupational variables (Rollinson
2005). Research has indicated the following as the most common sources of job stress that could be expected
to have a measure of impact on organizational activity and employees’ sense of wellbeing and engagement
in the workplace

• Role ambiguity: This aspect relates to the amount of stress experienced by an individual due to vague
specifications or constant change regarding the performance expectations, duties, responsibility and
constraints that define the individual’s job.

• Work relationships: Poor or unsupportive relationships with colleagues and/or line managers, isolation (a
perceived lack of adequate relationships) and unfair treatment can all be a potential source of stress.

• Tools and equipment: To perform their job effectively, individuals need to feel they have the appropriate
training, resources and equipment.

• Career advancement: This aspect refers to the stress experienced by individuals as a result of a perceived
lack of opportunity to further their career prospects within the organization for which they work.

• Job security: Job insecurity is an overall concern of losing one’s job or the discontinuation of one’s job. Job
insecurity also implies uncertainty about the future.

• Lack of job autonomy: The experience of stress is strongly linked to perceptions of decision-making
authority and control. This may be due to either job constraints or workplace constraints. When there is great
interdependence between the person’s tasks and the tasks of others, the person is likely to experience stress

• Work–home interface: The demands of work have the potential to spill over and interfere with individuals’
personal and home lives. This can put a strain on relationships outside work and impact upon the level of
stress, especially when the individual experiences a perceived lack of social support at home or from friends.

• Workload: This aspect refers to the amount of stress experienced by individuals due to the perception that
they are unable to cope or be productive with the amount of work allocated to them. When people are
expected to do more than the time and resources available permit them to do, they are likely to experience
strain.

• Compensation and benefits: The financial rewards that work brings are obviously important because they
determine the type of lifestyle that an individual can lead. In addition, they often influence individuals’
feelings of self-worth and perceptions of their value to the organization.

• Lack of leader/manager support: A supportive work setting is necessary to alleviate the effects of stress in
the workplace. Employees need both tangible and emotional support, including trust and confidence,
guidance, recognition, feedback and active interest from the immediate manager.
• Aspects of the job: The fundamental nature of the job could cause stress. This includes factors such as
physical working conditions, lack of challenging and meaningful assignments, type of tasks, and amount of
satisfaction derived from the job itself

WORK-PLACE POLICIES: Workplace policies designed to decrease work-family conflict are increasingly
prevalent. These policies (e.g., flextime, part-time, flex-place) are designed to increase flexibility, improve
employee recruitment, retention, morale, and productivity and reduce employee distress, burnout, and
unplanned absences. However, many employees hesitate to take advantage of such options fearing long-term
negative career consequences. These fears are reduced in workplaces in which there is strong top-down
support. This support needs to be reflected in a host of related policies addressing work design, performance
review, promotion, seniority, and benefits. Other interventions may include: giving employees more
decision-making power, developing more economical ways of performing tasks, job re-design, or
implementing new work systems.

Bullying : Bullying at work may be defined as repeated behavior, actions and practices directed at one or
more workers, which may be carried out deliberately or unconsciously, but which are unwanted targets
causing humiliation, offence, and distress, and which may interfere with job performance and/or cause an
unpleasant working environment. Who does it impact? Bullying impacts everyone within an organization,
not just those people who are being targeted. It also impacts the families and friends of those being bullied.
People who witness bullying are also impacted by this behavior.

WORKPLACE FACTORS CAUSING STRESS

The workplace is an important source of both demands and pressures causing stress, and structural and
social resources to counteract stress. The workplace factors that have been found to be associated with stress
and health risks can be categorized as those to do with the content of work and those to do with the social
and organizational context of work Those that are intrinsic to the job include long hours, work overload,
time pressure, difficult or complex tasks, lack of breaks, lack of variety, and poor physical work conditions
(for example, space, temperature, light).

Unclear work or conflicting roles and boundaries can cause stress, as can having responsibility for people.
The possibilities for job development are important buffers against current stress, with under promotion, lack
of training, and job insecurity being stressful. There are two other sources of stress, or buffers against stress:
relationships at work, and the organisational culture. Managers who are critical, demanding, unsupportive or
bullying create stress, whereas a positive social dimension of work and good team working reduces it. An
organisational culture of unpaid overtime or “presenteeism” causes stress. On the other hand, a culture of
involving people in decisions, keeping them informed about what is happening in the organisation, and
providing good amenities and recreation facilities reduce stress. Organisational change, especially when
consultation has been inadequate, is a huge source of stress. Such changes include mergers, relocation,
restructuring or “downsizing”, individual contracts, and redundancies within the organisation.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

Individuals differ in their risk of experiencing stress and in their vulnerability to the adverse effects of
stress. Individuals are more likely to experience stress if they lack material resources (for example, financial
security) and psychological resources (for example, coping skills, self-esteem), and are more likely to be
harmed by this stress if they tend to react emotionally to situations and are highly competitive and pressured
(type A behaviour). The association between pressures and well being and functioning can be thought of as
an inverted U, with well being and functioning being low when pressures are either high or very low (for
example, in circumstances of unemployment). Different people demonstrate different shapes of this inverted
U, showing their different thresholds for responses to stress. A successful strategy for preventing stress
within the workplace will ensure that the job fits the person, rather than trying to make people fit jobs that
they are not well suited to.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORK AND HOME STRESS

Increasingly, the demands on the individual in the workplace reach out into the homes and social lives of
employees. Long, uncertain or unsocial hours, working away from home, taking work home, high levels of
responsibility, job insecurity, and job relocation all may adversely affect family responsibilities and leisure
activities. This is likely to undermine a good and relaxing quality of life outside work, which is an important
buffer against the stress caused by work. In addition, domestic pressures such as childcare responsibilities,
financial worries, bereavement, and housing problems may affect a person’s robustness at work. Thus, a
vicious cycle is set up in which the stress caused in either area of one’s life, work or home, spills over and
makes coping with the other more difficult. Women are especially likely to experience these sources of
stress, since they still carry more of the burden of childcare and domestic responsibilities than men. In
addition, women are concentrated in lower paid, lower status jobs, may often work shifts in order to
accommodate domestic responsibilities, and may suffer discrimination and harassment

INDIVIDUAL STRESS MANAGEMENT

Most interventions to reduce the risk to health associated with stress in the workplace involve both
individual and organisational approaches. Individual approaches include training and one-to-one psychology
services—clinical, occupational, health or counselling. They should aim to change individual skills and
resources and help the individual change their situation. The techniques listed in mirror the active coping
(fight/flight) and rest phases (habituation) of the stress model presented earlier. Training helps prevent stress
through: c becoming aware of the signs of stress c using this to interrupt behaviour patterns when the stress
reaction is just beginning. Stress usually builds up gradually. The more stress builds up, the more difficult it
is to deal with c analysing the situation and developing an active plan to minimise the stressors c learning
skills of active coping and relaxation, developing a lifestyle that creates a buffer against stress c practising
the above in low stress situations first to maximise chances of early success and boost self confidence and
motivation to continue. A wide variety of training courses may help in developing active coping
techniques—for example, assertiveness, communications skills, time management, problem solving, and
effective management.

ORGANISATIONAL STRESS MANAGEMENT

The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organisational level interventions, because it is
the organisation that creates the stress. An approach that is limited to helping those already experiencing
stress is analogous to administering sticking plaster on wounds, rather than dealing with the causes of the
damage. An alternative analogy is trying to run up an escalator that’s going down! Organisational
interventions can be of many types, ranging from structural (for example, staffing levels, work schedules,
physical environment) to psychological (for example, social support, control over work, participation). The
emphasis on the organisation, rather than the individual, being the problem is well illustrated by the
principles used in Scandinavia, where there is an excellent record of creating healthy and safe working
environment . Assessing the risk of stress within the workplace must take into account: c the likelihood and
the extent of ill health which could occur as a result of exposure to a particular hazard c the extent to which
an individual is exposed to the hazard c the number of employees exposed to the hazard. The analysis of
stressful hazards at work should consider all aspects of its design and management, and its social and
organisational context. Although the priority is prevention, protective measures can be introduced to control
the risk and reduce the effects of a given hazard. A detailed account of how to assess and reduce risk
associated with exposure to stressful hazards is Increasingly, legislation requires employers to assess and
address all risks to employee health and safety, including their mental health
Consequences

Pressure and stress

Pressure at the workplace is something unavoidable due to the demands of the present-day scenario in the
corporate field. As an individual it should be known that there is a thin line between pressure and stress.
Pressure is always there as it’s essential that people experience challenges within their lives that helps in
pushing themselves to feel motivated. Certain level of an increase in pressure is acceptable and can improve
performance and the quality of life. However, when that pressure becomes unmanageable, there comes the
necessity to identify the level that has altered into stress and is persistently affecting an individual’s attitude
and behaviour at the workplace. The pressure of working life can lead to stress, if it is excessive and long
term

Stress is the adverse reaction of extreme pressure, which an individual is unable to cope up with for various
reasons such as absence of proper delegation and authority to complete a certain task, not being able to
match the job demands with emotional and physical ability etc. Some of the factors of work stress include
lack of control on the job, excessive workload, poor working relationships within the workplace, repeated
stretching of working hours. It is believed that, not all individuals are same, so is the cause of stress to them.

Work-related stress It arises when people are presented with work demands and pressures that do not match
their knowledge and ability and thus challenge them to cope with it. Stress may sound to be a common factor
related to workplace and job but the pressure leads to stress when there is little or no help and support from
supervisors and colleagues. Work-related stress is often caused by the way the jobs have been designed and
the working system of an organisation, poor management, lack of support within the organisation.

Coping With Job Stress In Today’s Competitive Environment For employees in the corporate sector, the
journey in the job feels like a roller coaster ride to an extent that they lose the self control and just work with
the flow often neglecting the impact that it will have on them. Emotions are contagious and stress directly
affects the emotional state of an individual besides the physical aspects. Stress is not a negative
phenomenon;

Reducing job stress by taking care of yourself

Stress at work interferes with the ability to perform the job due to various effects of it like distraction,
headaches, feeling of depression, social withdrawal, loss of interest in the work etc. even if the individual is
passionate about the work or feels committed to it, the first thing that should come to the mind is taking care
of yourself. When the needs of the body are taken care of, the person is more active and resilient to stress.
The better one feels, the better they are equipped to combat job stress

Get Support

The most effective and vital way to get through times of stress is to reach out to family and friends. It might
not be a way out for every person but just sharing the feelings can most of the times bring down lot of stress
that’s caused mentally to an individual. For some, accepting support is a sign of weakness but at times most
family and friends feel wanted that they are being trusted enough to be confided in and it will only
strengthen the bond

Proper rest

People often avoid this simple formula of dealing with stress either by getting entangled in social gatherings
which are an obligation at times, family requirements or most of the times due to work itself. Some people
feel that they can suffer but their work mustn’t but they forget that their body is not a machine which can
work according to their needs. In short what you give, you will get back and pay for it later. For example:
Due to work overload, an employee is been called for 7 days at a stretch taking off the weekend and is not
compensated with a day off in the next week. This repeated action can cause lot of stress to an individual and
may make them feel like machinery.

Connection with your inner-self

It’s often believed that one understands oneself better than anyone else but at times ability to think and
process those feelings need connection with our inner self. Some people have strong intuitive power but
seldom use it for decision making purposes especially on the job. One should always pay attention to their
feelings and factor them into the decision making at work. If emotions are ignored, it becomes difficult to
fully understand the motivations and needs, or to communicate effectively with others.

Reducing job stress by organizing and prioritizing

It’s not always possible to do every piece of work at the same time or juggling between work and life outside
work. There comes the need of prioritizing the work within the office or outside the office because both set
of things affect the work at job. People need to understand that they are human beings and not super humans;
the need to define their own limits is necessary often to put the best foot forward at the place of work and
outside it. It’s imperative to comprehend that both the lives are equally central, the only fact is sometimes
one is important over the other but what needs to be taken care of is that those things need to be organized
and prioritized to lead a hassle free life most of the times

Don’t over-commit

Individuals have the habit to keep their plate full, trying to fit too much into one day or trying to feel
superior by undertaking jobs which will just overburden them. If those tasks cannot be eliminated they can
be prioritized as it’s not possible everything holds equal weight. Some tasks can be done later and the one
which needs more attention can be done first. People need to be realistic in their approach before committing
themselves to anything at work

Delegation of responsibility

The need to do it all by yourself approach is not worth all the time because appreciation might come your
way but in that course what all is required to be given up needs to be foreseen. It might be worth it at that
moment but might not be later. It’s the capability of an individual to think what’s beneficial in the long run.
If other people can take care of the tasks, why not let them? A person’s desire to control or oversee every
little step can attract unnecessary stress in the process. Be careful of the desires because what is wanted is
not always needed.

Role of Managers And Employers In Helping Employees Deal With Job Stress

Managers and employers play a vital role in shaping the future of employees as they are the support pillars
who can make or break any situation for them. It should be in their best interest to keep stress levels in the
workplace to a minimum level. They are sometimes the role model for an employee’s behaviour in certain
situations, as they may act like their manager in that given state. There are some organizational changes that
managers and employers can undertake to reduce stress at workplace related to the job in hand as that’s the
point of ignition for stress.

Improve communication with employees

Employees often try to be in the good books of their superiors and for that they try to create a professional
rapport with their managers. It should be the duty of the manager to strike a conversation now and then with
the employees which should be friendly and efficient and not disreputable so as to build a comfort level at
the workplace. Sharing information related to them or little feedback now and then in a good spirit can be
helpful at times.

Employee participation

 Seek and encourage participation from the employees in matters related to their job, this will increase their
commitment and build their self-esteem which will directly reduce any kind of stress as they feel
indispensable.

 Managers should make sure that the workload is suitable to employees as per their abilities and resources
to avoid any kind of unrealistic deadlines. Just to get the work done approach is not feasible time and again
Show that they are valuable and so is their time to get the things done.

 Social participation and interaction amongst employees should be arranged time after time as peers are the
workplace friends who curtail stress most of the times.

 Not having enough work at job can be a stressor for some, as an empty mind is devil’s workshop.

Role of Human Resources in Managing Work Related Stress

HR can help organizations create a culture that respects people’s personal lives and their obligations outside
work. They can also help employees set reasonable goals and expectations for themselves. When work
becomes a routine and slowly monotony creeps in, there is the challenge to break the chain and implement
ideas to create an atmosphere of connection with the organisation.

 Coach and train managers on having reasonable expectations from employees.

 Utilizing the in between break/meal time or dedicate a day or few hours to plan an event. Invite
suggestions to get employees involvement and perk-up the excitement.

 Arranging lunch meet outside the workplace boundaries, organizing a get together to have some chit chat
session or gaming session when at workplace.

 Wellness programs can also improve overall employee health and cut back on stress and sick-day losses. It
may involve bringing in a nutritionist to speak with staff, sponsoring a cooking class or subsidized gym
memberships. Organizing a company sports team can also give employees something fun to do together after
work that can build friendly teamwork and competition.

 Family-friendly policies can be incorporated by welcoming families into employee events. By maintaining
a family-friendly attitude, employees get an opportunity to engage their family members in the other half of
their lives which is spent at the workplace and around those people.

Employees who have a comfortable home life are also likely to feel more satisfied with their jobs and
maintain healthy relationships at work.

 Strengthening the Inter-personal relationships at work can also be encouraged among staff members by
developing a rewards system. For example, HR might develop certificates that colleagues can award each
other anonymously for a job well done or for displaying qualities that the company values in its policy. At
the end of the month or quarter, staff can exchange the certificates for gift certificates or prizes. This will
also make employees work better with a positive attitude.

 Turning work into play by incorporating humorous activities, anecdotes, role plays or fun training
materials into training sessions, meetings and activities as and when possible. This can help lighten up the
job environment and add an incentive for employees to participate and learn.

 The ultimate goal is for HR to remain available to resolve issues and to proactively step in and give
employees the impetus and opportunity to work together in an effective way. The HR department should set
an example for building a positive work environment by combating job stress at workplace.

Renew and Removal Strategies

Stress can be at times a positive force for some, focusing a person’s attention or say letting them prioritize
the work, perk up determination and put things in action rather than procrastinating. But at the same time,
without a clear approach in mind and calm demeanor, it can trigger negative effect and thus, loss of focus

 A person needs to renew themselves to get the grip of the situation and workload and for that the
individual needs to renew themselves which is renewal of health through exercise and sleep which are the
most common types. Other than that, removal is the another category wherein the person eludes itself from
the work struggles by spending time with friends and family, going to concerts, using relaxation techniques
by visiting the spa etc. Another fit in this can be engaging in intellectual activities or hobbies of their own
interest.

 These techniques should also be adopted by the organizations to help their employees inculcate these
habits of using renew and removal techniques. Companies should be putting efforts to spread awareness for
the same and not only that, they should help them establish regimes of such activities. As it’s said and done,

 Practice what you preach‖, organizations should put efforts by putting forth the facilities on the premises as
well.

 Example for such is financial services group USAA, whose campuses include meditation rooms, outdoor
game areas etc. Another example is, ScoopWhoop, a creative Indian internet media company, based in New
Delhi, provides their staff the opportunity to ride bicycles provided on campus and take them anywhere
around to grab some fresh air, adding badminton court and basketball court in the premises. These not only
help in rejuvenation of body but also the mind to let creative ideas flow in.

Managing Stress In The Moment All is said about managing stress which focuses on what needs to be done
and what can be done to avoid the surmounting pressure that makes place for stress to creep in. But, what is
not talked often is how to deal with it at the very moment when a person in under stress at workplace
because when an individual enters the workplace, he/she is already laden with stress wither from yesterday’s
work or home related burdens. These things just pile up even further when the person starts a new day at
work with added pressure of work. Personal and professional life is inseparable but to avoid over stressing
situations, the key is to manage stress in the moment.

Talk to yourself

When a person is under stress, people start talking to themselves unconsciously as if there are two people
inside one body. Screaming and screeching negative voices on one hand and on the other side, a calm
representative of one’s own self who is often subdued by the negative agent. Stress is the time when the
calmer agent needs to be listened to, to get hold of the situation before reacting or blasting on others.
Cooling down is very important and making yourself understand that these situations have arrived in past as
well and managing it again is not a problem. The ―I can do it‖ attitude is what matters most at this time and
this can only be done by talking to your own self.
Solicit for a friendly ear

Every person has someone who they can rely on and in the moments like these, a friendly ear comes as an
advantage. The purpose of this is not only to vent your frustrations but also giving an opportunity to the
other person to gauge on the matter presented and may be that can give a new perspective and connotations
to the situation, which the mind is not able to foresee due to blockage of negative thoughts.

Project an impression of calmness around others

Stress is contagious and so is mood. If one person talks frantically to the other, there are high chances of
getting the response in the same tone which would further create tensions between the people and around
affecting the work environment. If matters need to be resolved, work it up as it should be when faced with
the same situation but on the flip side.

Think about the time when the period of stress will be over

A break in the thought process is necessary and instilling the feeling of happiness and alleviation when the
job will be done. Slow down and process the thoughts to think over what all can be done once the burden is
over. Sometimes by channelizing these thoughts to the after work situation gives a boost to the energy levels
and a new energy is developed to do away with the tasks as soon as possible.

Conclusion

 Stress is natural and is directly related to nature of work. It is definitely controllable but it requires
employee counseling on regular time basis.

 Atmosphere of the office and manager support are the major reason of job stress. If there is cooperation
and coordination within the team and with the manager, one feels motivated to give their best.

 Friendly atmosphere at workplace reduces stress due to excessive workload. Get together party on
weekends as well as trips on tourist places in groups can help in reducing mental stress.

 It is more necessary to focus on the techniques of reducing stress as well than to know the cause of stress
alone. The appropriate way to deal with stress is to make sure there is a correct balance between good stress
and bad stress. Employees need good stress to stay motivated and productive.  Family and work are inter-
related to the extent that experiences in one area affect the quality of life in the other. So, it’s important to
strike the right balance between the two and understand the degree of priority of work and family in life.
 The managers should be friendly and should motivate the employees to push them to do better and keep
trying.

 Feedback is important but balancing the negative and positive feedback is important. Managers to need to
analyze the mood and temperament of the employee first and accordingly put forth the feedback. It should
be done on one to one basis, especially while communicating the negative feedback.

Types of groups
A group can be defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to
achieve particular objectives. A group behaviour can be stated as a course of action a group takes as a
family. For example: Strike. Types of Groups There are two types of groups an individual forms. They are
formal groups and informal groups. Let us know about these two groups.
Formal Groups these are the type of work groups created by the organization and have designated work
assignments and rooted tasks. The behaviour of such groups is directed toward achieving organizational
goals.

These can be further classified into two sub-groups:  Command group: It is a group consisting of
individuals who report directly to the manager.

 Interest group: It is a group formed by individuals working together to achieve a specific objective.
Example: A group of workers working on a project and reporting to the same manager is considered as a
command group. A group of friends chilling out together is considered as interest group or say members of a
club.

Informal Groups These groups are formed with friendships and common interests. These can be further
classified into two sub-groups:

 Task group: Those working together to finish a job or task is known as task group.

 Friendship group: Those brought together because of their shared interests or common characteristics is
known as friendship group.

Why Do People Join Groups

There is no particular reason answering why individuals join groups. Group helps individual to feel stronger,
have fewer self-doubts, and be more contrary to threats. The following points help us understand the need of
joining a group by individuals:

 Security mirrors strength in numbers. Status pinpoints a prestige that comes from belonging to a specific
group. Inclusion in a group is considered as important because it provides recognition and status.

 Self-esteem transmits people's feelings of self-worth. Membership can sometimes raise feelings of self-
esteem like being accepted into a highly valued group.

 Affiliation with groups can meet one's social needs. Work groups significantly contribute to meet the need
for friendships and social relations.

 Groups represent power. What mostly cannot be achieved individually becomes possible with group
effort. Power might be aimed to protect themselves from unreasonable demands. Informal groups provide
options for individuals to practice power.

 People may join a group for goal achievement. Sometimes it takes more than one person to accomplish a
particular task.

Group Roles

Individuals play multiple roles at the same time. Employees attempt to understand what kind of behaviour is
expected from them. An individual when presented by divergent role expectations experiences role conflict.
Group roles are divided into three types:

 Task-oriented Roles

 Relationship-oriented Roles

 Individual Roles
Task-oriented Roles

Roles allotted to individuals according to their work and eligibility is known as task-oriented roles. Task-
oriented roles can broadly divide individuals into six categories initiator, informer, clarifier, summarizer,
reality tester and information seekers or providers respectively.

 Initiator: The one who proposes, suggests, defines.

 Informer: The one who offers facts, expresses feelings, gives opinions.

 Clarifier: The one who interprets, defines, clarifies everything.

 Summarizer: The one who links, restates, concludes, summarizes.

 Reality Tester: The one who provides critical analysis.

 Information seekers or providers: The one who gives information and data.

These roles present the work performed by different individuals according to their marked designation

Relationship-oriented Roles

Roles that group individuals according to their efforts made to maintain healthy relationship in the group
and achieve the goals are known as relationship-oriented roles. There are five categories of individuals in
this category namely: harmonizer, gatekeeper, consensus tester, encourager, and compromiser.

 Harmonizers: The one who limits tension and reconciles disagreements.

 Gatekeeper: The one who ensures participation by all.

 Consensus Tester: The one who analyses the decision-making process.

 Encourager: The one who is warm, responsive, active, shows acceptance.

 Compromiser: The one who admits error, limits conflict.

Individual Roles

Roles that classify a person according to the measure of individual effort put in the project aimed is known
as individual roles. Five types of individuals fall into these roles: aggressor, blocker, dominator, cavalier,
and avoidance.

 Aggressor: The one who devalues others, attacks ideas.

 Blocker: The one who disagrees and rebels beyond reason.

 Dominator: The one who insists superiority to manipulate.

 Cavalier: The one who takes part in a group non-productively.

 Avoidance: The one who shows special interest to avoid task. These are the various roles a person plays in
an organization.

Well-Functioning Groups
We know what a group is, why it is important to form a group, and what the group-oriented roles are. Now
we need to know how to mark a group as a well-functioning group, what features are necessary for a group
to mark it as efficient? A group is considered effective when it has the following characteristics.

 Relaxed, comfortable, friendly atmosphere.

 Task to be executed are well understood and accepted.

 Members listen well and actively participate in given assignments.

 Assignments are made clear and are accepted.

 Group is acquainted of its operation and function.

 People express their feelings and ideas openly.

 Consensus decision-making process is followed.

 Conflict and disagreement centre regarding ideas or method

Group Behaviour – Example

Let us understand group behaviour with the help of an example. To work on a specific project, we make a
group of 4 members: Rohit, Raj, Sid, and Rahul. It is not possible for any one of them to complete the
project individually as it may be time consuming as well as not all the members as individuals have mastered
the skills required to complete the project. This indicates the need to come together as a group. Moving
ahead, let us specify their roles. Rohit is the initiator, as he proposes the idea of the project, Raj collects all
the information and resources required for the project and becomes the informer, Sid is the clarifier as he
interprets the data and saves refined information, and Rahul is the summarizer as he concludes the result of
the project that is what do we achieve by the end of our project. These are the task-oriented roles. When a
group of people come together and present their ideas there is a fair chance of collision. Rohit tries to resolve
all the disagreements and disputes in the first place and acts as a harmonizer, Sid makes sure that everybody
is giving their full support and effort in the project and acts as a gatekeeper, Raj is the one encouraging
everyone and motivating them when they fail to try harder to complete the project and is the encourager,
while Rahul tests the project at each stage and examines the major decision to be made and is the consensus
tester. These are the relationship-oriented roles of each member. Individually, each of them have different
tasks to fulfill. Rohit tries to be the group leader and impose his ideas on others and we consider him as the
dominator, Rahul is always up with excuses to avoid the task given to him and acts as avoider, Raj is the one
who opposes everything but is never up with some new idea and becomes the blocker, while Sid takes part
in every group activity in a non-productive way and becomes the cavalier.

Reference Groups

It is a group to which a person or another group is compared. Reference groups are used in order to examine
and determine the nature of a person or other group's features and sociological attributes. It is the group to
which a person relates or aspires to link himself or herself psychologically. It is important for deciding a
person's self-identity, attitudes, and social ties. It becomes the ground of reference in making comparisons or
contrasts and in judging one's appearance and performance. These groups act as a benchmark and contrast
needed for comparison and evaluation of group and personal characteristics. An example of a reference
group, would be the certainty of wealth. An individual in India with an annual income of Rs.15, 00,000 may
consider himself rich if he compares himself to those in the middle income strata, who earn roughly Rs.3,
00,000 a year. However, if the same person considers the relevant reference group to be those in the top
0.5% of households in India, those making $1.8 million or more, then the individual's income of Rs. 15,
00,000 would make him seem rather poor
2.5 Sample Size

The sample size is determined considering 3 factors

The level of precision – the data collected is accurate enough which can tell the researcher , whether it is a
positive hypothesis or a negative hypothesis or a null hypothesis , for this study the sample has been
collected from a project of 50 indivuduals , that has been experiencing a lot of resignation .

The confidence interval is the statistical measure of the number of times out of 100 that results can be
expected to be within a specified range. For example, a confidence interval of 90% means that results of an
action will probably meet expectations 90% of the time. The basic idea is to see that the responses were not
unreal and done on the basis of personal experiences .

Degree of Variablitiy - Depending upon the target population and attributes under consideration, the degree
of variability varies considerably. The more heterogeneous a population is, the larger the sample size is
required to get an optimum level of precision. Note that a proportion of 55% indicates a high level of
variability than either 10% or 80%. This is because 10% and 80% means that a large majority does not or
does, respectively, have the attribute under consideration.There are number of approaches to determine the
sample size including: using a census for smaller populations, using published tables, imitating a sample size
of similar studies, and applying formulas to calculate a sample size
2.6 Sampling Method

Simple random sampling has been undertaken for the purpose of this project

And the analysis of study of a particular project individual is considered in a

Detailed manner to know the indepth causes of behavioural changes . the questionare was given to
employees who were mostly affected by the organizatioSample distribution

2.7 The survey was made with the help of google forms using google docs

And it was was circulated through whatsapp in the organizations group

For collecting the responses .

2.8 Potential respondents -The responses were from 50 individual ranging from different age group, race ,
gender , status , personality and educational background .

2.9 Data collection – the data is collected from various sources

2.10 Primary data – the primary data is collected from the internet relating to the problems and issues faced
by employees as a whole in the organization as an overall problem

2.11 Secondary data- the secondary data is collected from a project of a bpo firm that has been experiencing
a lot of resignations since the last quarter due to increased stressed and a lot of changes internal and external
which has affected the individuals .

2.12 Tools and techniques used

The techniques used was using google forms by making the questionare relating to

The factors that affect the individual behavior a lot . The responses so collected has been presented in a chart
i.e pie diagram to understand the psychology of the employees working in the organization .
2.13 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The perceived influences that the individual experience related to his behavior varies from ogranisation to
organization as in this case the experiences of the employees of a bpo firm is studied and researched . Apart
from this every individual is different with a different persceptive so it is very difficult to measure

The results of this study reflect these shortcomings . As the research is restricted to the employees of a
particuarl project and not the whole organization which is huge consisting of many employees and types of
different projects . This study is also restricted only to Matushri Pushpaben Vinubhai Valia College of
Commerce . The study findings cannot be generalized in the characterstics and work culture of institutes
could be different from individual to individual at the same level in the organization
CHAPTER – 3

LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN AN ORGANISATION AN OVERVIEW

There is a certain way individuals behave in a particular situation. No two individuals behave in similar
ways. There are individuals who find it difficult to handle stress whereas there are certain individuals who
have the ability to face unforeseen circumstances with a smile.

Employee behaviour is defined as an employee’s reaction to a particular situation at workplace. Employees


need to behave sensibly at workplace not only to gain appreciation and respect from others but also to
maintain a healthy work culture. One needs to adhere to the rules and regulations of workplace. Remember,
Office is not a place where you can shout on fellow workers, spread rumours, criticize your Boss and so on.
You just can’t afford to be rude with your team members. Be polite and speak softly. Do not forget that you
are not the only one working; there are other people around as well. Some people have a tendency to have
their lunch at their workstations only. Such a behaviour is completely unprofessional.

Male employees need to respect their female counterparts. Never ever think of sexually harassing your
female team members. Such a behaviour is unethical and not at all acceptable at workplace. One complaint
from them and your career is finished. Avoid making lewd comments, physical advances or touching them.
An individual’s behaviour has lot to do with his upbringing and family background. A child who has been
brought up in a decent family where females are respected and thought to be equal would never even in his
wildest dreams think of abusing female colleagues.

It is completely unethical to steal office property. Why do you have to take office stationery to home? Office
stationery (pens, pencils, stapler, eraser, punching machine, glue and so on) are meant to be used only in
offices and nowhere else. Avoid damaging office property. Remember, if you do not respect your
organization, you will not get respect in return.

Employees need to understand that some information is confidential and should not be discussed with
anyone. Never break your manager’s trust. Do not disclose your team’s strategies or internal policies to
others just because they are your friends. Some people tend to submit fake bills to claim more money than
actual. Individuals with such a behaviour find it extremely difficult to survive in the long run. What is the
use of submitting wrong bills? Believe me, if you are caught, you will lose in your job in no time. Such a
behaviour will not only tarnish an individual’s image but also speak ill of his family background and
upbringing.

Why do you have to use your office computer for online shopping, watching movies, paying cell phone bills,
internet bills and so on? Do not store your personal photographs or information in office computer. Avoid
browsing objectionable websites at workplace. If your office people have blocked certain sites, they must
have done it for some reasons. Please do not try to open blocked sites using through proxy server and fake
passwords. Rather than wasting our energy on unproductive things, it is always good if we concentrate on
our work.
CHAPTER – 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVOIR IN AN ORGANISATION IN MUMBAI WESTERN
SURBURBS

What is your Age ?


○ 21-30
○ 31-40
○ 41-50
○ 51-60

Educational Qualification
○ Graduate
○ Postgraduate
○ MBA
○ Other

Do you enjoy what you do at your job ?


○Yes
○ no
○ OTHER

Are you satisfied with your current Job


○ YES
○ NO
○ Maybe

What can you say about your workin environment and conditions
?
○ satisfactory
○ Dis satisfactory
○ cant say
○ Other

Could you do much better on the job if the conditions are


changed ?
○ yes
○ no
○ maybe
Is your work environment safe ?
○ strongly disagree
○ disagree
○ neutral
○ agree
○ strongly agree

Does your job affect your family ?


○ yes
○ no
○ maybe

Do you tend to have frequent argument with your supervisor and


colleagues
○ yes
○ no
○ maybe

Do you engage in exercise to improve your behavior towards


work ?
○ yes
○ no
○ maybe

How good is the relationship between you and your co-worker ?


○ good
○ bad
○ cant say
○ other

Do you have any health related problem related to pressure or


stress at work ?
○ yes
○ no
○ maybe

What is the most stressful part of your job ?


○ dealing with superiors
○ time management
○ job security
○ organizational politics

Were you ever harassed in the workplace ?


○ verbally
○ physically
○ mentally
○ not at all
○ other .

Is your salary satisfying your cost of living ?


○ no
○ maybe
○ yes
○ other

Which socio-cultural factors of fellow employees affectyou the


most ?
○ values
○ manners and customs
○ religion
○ tenure
○ other

Which has been the most stressful factor influencing your


behavior ?
○ education
○ gender
○ number of dependents
○ abilities
○ other

Data Analysis
Data Analysis
As per this the most of the individual were stressed due to time management
then organizational politics and dealing with the superiors is same
and lastly job security
so this is a H1 = positive Hypothesis
As per this chart the working environment for the employees is satisfactory for most of the
employees so in this case this doesn’t influence the individual behavior

So this is a H0 – a negative hypotheis .


in this case most of the individuals were not harassed in the organization as
the organization takes immediate action in case of any harassment at work place against
the cluprits so this is a H0 – a negative hypothesis
most of the individuals do not get into argument with others so this does not influences their
behavior
so this is a H0 – negative hypothesis
the employee behavior is direcly influenced by their working conditions

if the conditions are good it influences the individual in a positive way or vice versa
so this is a H1 – positive hypothesis
Most of the employee are not satisfied with their current job so they resign for better
opportunitites
because the not satisfied workers are infulences very badly
so this is an H1- positive hypothesis
CHAPTER – 5

SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS


Conclusions
It may be noted that the employee’s behaviour is very important for every organisation
especially for its growth and expansion.

The employee’s behaviour can be improved by following methods.

1) Work enrichment – organizing fun at work at least once in a week to reduce stress
2) strict rules – strict rules to be adopted in the organisation against any kind of harassment.
3) Employee growth – proper growth opportunity to be provided to people who deserve it.
4) Career development – if the employees get a proper career path their behaviour improves
5) employee friendly relations – if the superior subordinate relation is good the employee feels comfortable.
6) employee friendly policies – if the organisation is providing better policies including transport , cafeteria
, leaves , pension and post-retirement benefits his behaviour will be positive towards the organisation and
towards himself
7) integrity – if the organisation considers the employees as an individual strength
rather than just an asset to the organisation his behaviour is improved
8) Suitable environment – The organisation must provide a positive environment for the employees in terms
of ventilation , lighting and seating .
References

WWW.wikipeida.org

WWW.linkedn.in

WWW.employeeconcern.in

WWW.workplaceproblems.in

www.stressatwork.in

WWW.employeebehavior.in