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INTERNSHIP SEMINAR REPORT

on

EARTH STATION COMPLEX

Work carried out at

DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, BENGALURU

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

Bachelor of Engineering Degree

in

Telecommunication Engineering

of

Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi

by

SHABARISH S. USN: 1BI15TE039

Under the guidance of


Prof. Jamuna M.
Assistant Professor
Department of Telecommunication Engineering
B.I.T., Bengaluru.

DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BENGALURU -560004

2018-2019
BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
K. R. Road, V. V Pura, Bengaluru-560004
Department of Telecommunication Engineering

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the Internship Seminar entitled “EARTH STATION COMPLEX” carried out
DOORDARSHAN KENDRA, BENGALURU, by SHABARISH S. (USN:1BI15TE039),
bona fide student of Bangalore Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment for the award of
Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Telecommunication Engineering of the Visvesvaraya
Technological University, Belagavi during the year 2018 -19. It is certified that all
corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment has been incorporated in the report
deposited in the Departmental Library. The Internship Seminar Report has been approved as it
satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Internship Work prescribed for the said
Degree.

Guide HOD Principal


Prof. Jamuna M. Dr. S. Shanthala Dr. Aswath M.U.

External Viva: [For Internship only]

Name of the Examiners Signature with date

1.

2.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It would be our privilege to express my heartfelt gratitude and respect to all those who guided
me in the completion of this Internship.

I’m highly indebted to Rajya Vokkaligara Sangha trust for introducing a great Educational
Institute for studies.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to our Principal, Dr. Aswath M. U., for providing an
excellent academic environment which enable me to complete the Internship.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Head of Department, Department of


Telecommunication Engineering, Dr. S. Shanthala, for her constant support.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my Internship guide, Prof. Jamuna M.,
Assistant Professor, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, for her constant support
and guidance during the Internship.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Niranjan, Deputy Director (Engg.),
Doordarshan Kendra, Bengaluru, for his constant support and guidance during the
Internship.

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to our Internship Coordinator, Prof. N. Shruthi.,
Assistant Professor, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, for her constant support
and guidance during the Internship.

I’m great full to all the Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff, Department of Telecommunication
Engineering, who have been an inspirational support.
ABSTRACT

Interning at Doordarshan Kendra was an opportunity to learn about real time communication
systems. In this report, a brief introduction on Doordarshan is given and then a discussion on
various television broadcasting systems used in Doordarshan is made. The primary focus in
this report is on Earth Station Complex. There are two types of transmission of Doordarshan
Channels. One is Terrestrial Transmission and the second one is Satellite Transmission.

There are three terrestrial transmitters, whose properties are discussed in this report. Out of the
three, two are analog transmitters and one is digital transmitter. The block diagram of the signal
flow of these transmitters are discussed in this report.

The main block of the Satellite Transmission is the 2+1 Chain Room. A block diagram of the
signal flow in the 2+1 Room is shown and a brief explanation on the same is given in this
report. Finally a discussion on DSNG (Digital Satellite News Gathering), which is a mobile
earth station used for outside broadcasting is made in this report.

i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SL. NO TOPIC PAGE NO.
Acknowledgement
Abstract i
Table of Contents ii
List of Figures iii
List of Tables iv
List of Abbreviations iv
About the Company v
1 Objectives 1
2 Introduction 2

2.1 Doordarshan 2
2.2 DD Chandana 3
2.3 Different Sections of DDK, Bengaluru 3

3 Internship Discussion 4

3.1 Terrestrial Transmission 4


3.2 DD1 - DD National 5
3.3 DD2 – DD News 6
3.4 Digital Terrestrial Transmission 6
3.4.1 DVB T2 6
3.4.2 Harris 6kW Transmitter 7
3.5 Earth Station 9
3.5.1 2+1 Chain Room 10
3.6 Digital Satellite News Gathering 12

4 Weekly Report 13

5 Conclusion 17

References 18

ii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Title Page No.

2.1 Organization Overview 2

3.1 Overview of Television Transmission 4

3.2 Block Diagram of DD1 Transmitter 5

3.3 Block Diagram of DD2 Transmitter 6

3.4 General Block Diagram of Digital Transmitter 8

3.5 Block Diagram of Harris 6kW DTT 9

3.6 Basic Block Diagram of Earth Station 10

3.7 Block Diagram of 2+1 Room 11

3.8 Typical DSNG Setup (1+1 Configuration) 13

3.9 DSNG Van 13

3.10 TVU Pack Block Diagram 14

iii
LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Name of the Particulars Page No.

3.1 Satellite Details of Earth Station 12

3.2 DSNG Parameters 14

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations Descriptions
AIR All India Radio
CAR Central Apparatus Room
CCU Camera Control Unit
DDK Doordarshan Kendra
DTT Digital Terrestrial Transmission
DSNG Digital Satellite News Gathering
Digital Video Broadcasting — Second Generation
DVB-T2
Terrestrial
ENG Electronic News Gathering
LED Light Emitting Diode
MCM Master Control Module
MSR Master Switching Room
OB Outdoor Broadcasting
PCM Processor Control Module
PCR Production Control Room
VTR Video Tape Recording

iv
ABOUT THE COMPANY

Doordarshan (DD) is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is


one of India’s largest broadcasting organizations in terms of studio and transmitter
infrastructure. Recently, it has also started broadcasting on digital terrestrial transmitters. The
DD provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional
India, as well as overseas through the Indian Network and Radio India.

DD Chandana is one of the regional channels of Doordarshan Network, providing programs


mainly in Kannada including different dialects and local variations. The first city to have
Doordarshan Kendra in Karnataka was Gulbarga. It was opened as a continuity of Satellite
Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) on 3rd November 1979. On 1st January 2000, the
regional channel became a 24 hours channel.

The DDK Bengaluru has young staff of Engineers guided by Mr. Niranjan,
Deputy Director (Engg.). It was a great opportunity for me to spend time with the staff of
Doordarshan Kendra, Bengaluru. I gained immense knowledge by interning here at
Doordarshan Kendra Bengaluru.

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1. OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the internship are listed below.

 Gain Industrial Exposure


The primary objective of the Internship is to gain industry exposure. As an engineer it is
important to gain industrial knowledge, so that real time problems can be analyzed. A
knowledge, on what scale engineering concepts learned in a classroom are being
implemented, is obtained.
 Learn Basics of Terrestrial and Satellite Transmission
Learning the basics of terrestrial and satellite transmission is the secondary objective of this
program. An overview on television broadcasting through terrestrial transmitter as
television services provided through satellite was given.
 Obtain Practical Knowledge
This internship provided an opportunity to experience live examples of the use of signal
processing techniques and various digital modulation techniques. Overall, obtaining a
practical knowledge on communication concepts is also an objective of the internship.
 Develop Professional Skills
One of the objectives of the internship was to develop professional skills. Skills such as
leadership, mentoring, conflict resolution, etc. are certain skills which are essential to
become a successful person. In this program, such skills are tacitly conveyed. By spending
time around professionals in a work place such skills can be learnt tacitly.

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2. INTRODUCTION
2.1 DOORDARSHAN
Doordarshan is a public service broadcaster founded by Government of India and owned by
Broadcasting Ministry of India. It is one of the two division of Prasar Bharati. It was initially
started as an experiment in Delhi on 14th September 1959, with a small transmitter and a
makeshift studio. Regular transmission started in 1965 with a five minute news bulletin as a
part of All India Radio. Television service was separated from radio on 1st April 1976. In 1982
Doordarshan became a national broadcaster.

Prasar Bharati is the parent body of Doordarshan and its board members are appointed by
Government of India through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. It is a statutory
autonomous body setup by an Act of Parliament and comprises of the Doordarshan Television
Network and All India Radio. An overview of the organization is shown in Figure-1.1.

Doordarshan operates 35 channels. Out of which 8 all India channels, 11 regional-language


satellite channels, 15 state networks, an international channel, a sports channel namely DD
sports, and other channels such as DD Bharati, DD Urdu and DD Kisan.

Doordarshan has 67 studio centers all over the country, including 17 major studio centers at
State capitals, a Regional Production Centre at Guwahati and 49 other studio centers located in
various cities. Doordarshan also provides DTH services.

MINISTRY OF
INFORMATION AND
BROADCASTING

PRASAR BHARATHI

AKASHVANI DOORDARSHAN

Figure 2.1: Organization Overview

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2.2 DD CHANDANA
DD Chandana is one of the regional channels of Doordarshan Network, providing programs
mainly in Kannada including different dialects and local variations. The first city to have
Doordarshan Kendra in Karnataka was Gulbarga. It was opened as a continuity of Satellite
Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) on 3rd November 1979. On 1st January 2000, the
regional channel became a 24 hours channel.

Doordarshan Kendra, Bengaluru is located on the northern side of the Bangalore city. This
Kendra has a studio complex consisting of main studio, continuity studio, Outside Broadcasting
Van (OB Van), Electronic News Gathering (ENG) production facility, Satellite Earth Station
and a 6KW Digital Terrestrial Transmitter.

2.3 DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF DDK BENGALURU


Doordarshan Kendra Bengaluru consists of the following important sections and subsections.
The overall functioning of the Doordarshan is embedded in to these sections. They are:

 Studio
 Studio 1 and Studio 2
 Video Tape Recording Room (VTR)
 Production Control Room (PCR)
 Camera Control Unit (CCU)
 Master Switching Room (MSR)
 Central Apparatus Room (CAR)
 Graphics
 Electronic News Gathering (ENG)
 Earth Station
 Playback Server Room
 2+1 Room
 Digital Terrestrial Television

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3. INTERNSHIP DISCUSSION
3.1 TERRESTRIAL TRANSMISSION
Digital terrestrial television broadcasting allows the transmission of about ten or more digital
services in a single frequency channel, whereas analog broadcasting is limited to only one
service in one frequency channel. There are three terrestrial transmission services in
Doordarshan Kendra, Bengaluru. They are:

 DD1 – DD National
 DD2 – DD News
 DTT - 5 Video Channels + 3 Radio Channels

The DD1 and DD2 are analog transmitters. DTT stands for Digital Terrestrial Transmitter. As
the name suggests is a digital transmitter. An overview of transmission system in DDK
Chandana is given in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Overview of TV Transmission

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3.2 DD1 – DD NATIONAL


A block diagram of DD1 transmitter is shown in Figure 3.2. The features of DD1 transmitter
are as follows:

 DD1 is an Analog Transmitter.


 It was manufactured by NEC.
 The power of the Transmitter is 10kW.
 Transmission occurs in VHF band Channel-5.
 The video frequency is 175.25MHz.
 The audio frequency is 180.75MHz.
 It covers an area of 70km of radii.

As the figure indicates, the audio and video signals are fed to the exciter. There are two exciters
in which one acts as a standby. The amplitude modulation is performed on video signal and
frequency modulation is performed on audio signal, in the exciter. The signal from the exciters
are then fed to a power amplifier which amplifies the modulated signal.

The service hours of DD1 channel are as follows.

 5:27Hrs to 6:00Hrs: National Services (DD National)


 06:00Hrs to 09:00Hrs: Regional Services (DD Chandana)
 09:00Hrs to 15:00Hrs: National Services (DD National)
 15:00Hrs to 19:00Hrs: Regional Services (DD Chandana)
 19:00Hrs to 00:00Hrs: National Services (DD National)

Antenna
Video V
Exciter
Audio Circuits (A) A Visual Power
V V
Exciter
Amplifier
Switching Diplexer
A
V Circuits A Aural Power
Video Exciter
Amplifier
Audio Circuits (B)
A

Figure 3.2: Block Diagram of DD1 Transmitter

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3.3 DD2 – DD NEWS


The features of DD2 transmitter are as follows.

 Manufactured by Harris.
 It is an analog transmitter.
 It works in VHF Band Channel – 7.
 The output power of the transmitter is 1KW.
 Video Frequency of the channel is 189.25MHz.
 Audio Frequency of the channel is 195.75MHz.
 It covers an area of 40km radii.
 Its total service hours are 05:58 to 00:30Hrs, which accounts to 18Hrs 32min.

A block diagram of the transmitter is shown in Figure 3.3. Its working is similar to the DD1
transmitter. The output of the exciter is given to an auto gain controller which controls the
amplitude of the modulated signal, so that it remains constant. It is then amplifier and fed to
the diplexer. The diplexer multiplexes the audio and video signals and then sends to the
antenna.3

Antenna
Video Exciter V
V
AGC PA
Audio Circuits A
Driver V
(A) Exciter
Switching Diplexer
Exciter A
Video V Circuits
Circuits PA
Audio
(B) AGC
A A

Figure 3.3: Block Diagram of DD2 Transmitter

3.4 DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION


3.4.1 DVB-T2
There are many DTT broadcasting standards world over, such as Advanced Television Systems
Committee (ATSC, USA), Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting: (DTMB, China),
Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T, Europe) and Integrated Services Digital
Broadcasting-Terrestrial (ISDB-T, Japan) focus on stationary reception with home TV sets and
high-mounted rooftop antennas. Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), 1-Seg, DVB-H and
DVB-T2 Lite are mobile TV standards.

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India has adopted DVB-T2 Standard, which is second generation of DVB and has highest data
capacity. The DVB-T2 system is an OFDM-based broadcasting standard used not only for
stationary reception, but also for mobile applications.

Doordarshan is transmitting all free-to-air channels in analog format since 15th September
1959. It is necessary to migrate to digital terrestrial broadcasting as the world is moving away
from analogue to digital broadcasting. Going digital will provide multiple channels, better
video and audio quality, provide signals for mobile and portable devices like mobiles, tablets,
PC etc. and other value added services, besides it will allow the government to free up
frequency spectrum which can be used for new services like mobile, wireless broadband and
potentially more TV services and channels.

Some advantages of DTT Transmission are as below:

 Analog TV (ATV) is subject to interference, such as ghosting and snowing, depending


on the distance and geographical location of the TV receiving the signal. These
interferences are not seen in Digital TV
 Digital TV supports Standard Definition TV (SDTV) High Definition TV (HDTV) and
Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV).

DTT Transmitters have been installed in 19 Cities namely - Ahmadabad, Jalandhar,


Aurangabad, Kolkata, Bangalore, Lucknow, Bhopal, Mumbai, Chennai, Patna, Cuttack,
Raipur, Delhi, Ranchi, Guwahati, Indore, Srinagar, Hyderabad and Thiruvananthapuram. The
signal from these Transmitters will be available up to about 60-70kms in all directions in fixed
mode and 25-30kms in mobile mode from the TV Tower. In mobile reception there may be
some gaps where signal may not be available at present. DTT Services will be expanded to 64
cities in coming days.

3.4.2 HARRIS 6KW TRANSMITTER

The properties of the DVB-T2 transmitter used in digital terrestrial transmission are as follows.

 It is a digital transmitter.
 It is manufactured by Harris.
 It works in UHF band channel -24.
 Transmission frequency is 498MHz. It has a bandwidth of 8MHz.
 Power of the Transmitter is 6kW.
 It provides 5 video services namely DD National, DD Sports, DD News, DD Bharati,
DD Chandana.

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 It also provides three radio services namely AIR Ragam, AIR Kannada, FM Rainbow.
 It has a liquid cooling system.
 It covers a radius of 50km.

The basic setup of the digital transmitter is shown in Figure 3.3. The block diagram of the
transmitter is shown in the Figure 3.4.

Pre Driver Intermediate Power


Exciter
Unit Amplifier

Antenna
Power
Combiner
Amplifier

Figure 3.4: General Block Diagram of a Digital Transmitter

As shown in Figure 3.4 the transmitter consists of exciter, pre-driver unit, intermediate power
amplifier, power amplifier, combiner and transmitting antenna.

Exciter contains elements such as oscillator, modulator and audio processor. It is used to drive
the transmitter. The intermediate power amplifiers are used to pre amplify the signals. The
power amplifiers are used to amplify the signal in various stages so that it helps in effective
transmission of the signal. The combiner, combines the output of power amplifiers and feeds
it to the antenna for transmission.

The Figure 3.5 shows the block diagram of Harris 6kW transmitter. There are two exciters
seen, in which one is a standby. The Transmitter Control Unit (TCU) is the controlling system
of the transmitter. It monitors the working of the transmitter modules and it is also responsible
for the protection of the modules. The TCU contains Master Controller Module (MCM) which
controls all critical transmitter functions. The Processor Control Module (PCM) in TCU is used
for enhanced monitoring, fault log maintenance and web remote connectivity. The TCU also
consists of a Graphical User Interface with a touch screen LED display. There are totally 12
power amplifier modules. Each module accounts for an amplification of 500W. Hence a total
of 6kW power amplification is achieved with 12 amplifiers.

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Figure 3.5: Block Diagram of Harris 6kW DTT

The Power amplifiers are followed by a RF combiner circuit. The output of the combiner is
given to a directional coupler. A channel filter is placed before the directional coupler in order
to eliminate the noises present. The outer part of the directional coupler can be visualized as a
7-port patch panel where the signals of equally distributed powers are fed to upper and lower
antenna present in the tower. Using the principles of Propagation of Electromagnetic waves the
signals are radiated out at the frequency of 4898MHz.

3.5 EARTH STATION


The earth station is an uplink center from which the signals are fed to the satellite for
transmission in a specified area covered by the satellite. The signal is up-linked from earth
station and received (or down-linked) by many down-link centers in TV broadcasting. The
basic block diagram of the setup is shown in the Figure 3.6.

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UP-LINK DOWN-LINK

EARTH STATION DOWN-LINK CENTER

Figure 3.6: Basic Block Diagram of Earth Station

The earth station in DDK Bengaluru mainly consists of the following:

 Playback Server Room


 2+1 Chain Room

In Playback Server Room, the tape format programs are dumped into the server. This is called
Ingestion. These files are usually stored with particulars e.g. name of the Program, type of tape,
and details of tape with start and stop readings followed by day and date. In INGESTION
system we recall these particular files and perform clean cutting operation by setting SET-IN
and SET-OUT points and save this files to make them ON-AIR. Now, In PLAYBACK system,
the clean cut saved files are arranged orderly as per cue sheets given by Program Staff.

3.5.1 2+1 CHAIN ROOM

The term “2+1” denotes that there are two chains denoted to two services which are being up-
linked and one chain which is a standby. The two services are

 DD Chandana
 Chandana Feed

If anyone of the above chains fail, the standby chain will take over in place of the failed chain.
The block diagram of 2+1 chain room is shown in Figure 3.7.

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DD Chandana and
Encoder 1
Modulator
Chandana Feed MUX-1
1

Junger
Encoder 2
Router

Watermark Modulator
MUX-1
Encoder 3 2

Up
SSPA-A
Converter
1 Router
Combiner 3dB
Splitter (2x1)
Up
SSPA-B Converter
2

Up-Link Parabolic Dish


Antenna
Figure 3.7: Block Diagram of 2+1 Room

The basic block diagram of the 2+1 Set-Up Room is shown in the Figure 3.7. The working of
the 2+1 setup is as follows.

 The SD-SDI output from the playback room is fed in to the 2+1 room.
 The junger is used to modify the sound density and loudness level of the digital audio.
 The feed line is used during live news program.
 The SD-SDI input is 270mbps but the maximum allocated data transfer rate is 9.375mbps
therefore compression is done in MPEG-2 format for audio and MPEG-4 for video in the
Encoder. Thereby the output of encoder is 8.6mbps.
 The output of encoder is fed to a multiplexer which give a Transport Stream as output.
 For the purpose of transmission over long distances modulation is done for which
modulator is employed.
 The Modulation used here is QPSK. The baseband input signal is modulated over a carrier
frequency of 70MHz to obtain a sinusoidal modulated wave.

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 The output is fed to a router since only a single encoder and modulator is functioning in
one cycle of operation. The router is basically a selective circuit.
 The 3dB splitter is employed to split an RF input signal into many outputs. No losses occur
in 3dB splitter. The output of the splitter is fed to an Up-Converter which combines input
signal with a local oscillator signal to produce an RF signal of frequency 6.203MHz.
 The RF signal requires sufficient power for Transmission. Hence SSPA’s are used which
are built using MOSFET’s.
 Since these signals are in Microwave range waveguides are used to transmit signal from
SSPA to Parabolic Dish Antenna.

Table 3.1: Satellite Details of Earth Station

Earth Station Parameters

Satellite GSAT-17, 93.5˚ E

Service DD Chandana

Up-Link Frequency 6203.5MHz

Down-Link Frequency 3978.5MHz

Symbol Rate 6.25MSPS

FEC (Forward Error Correction) 3/4

Modulation QPSK

Azimuthal Angle 128.25˚

Elevation Angle 66˚

Transponder C.07

3.6 DIGITAL SATELLITE NEWS GATHERING (DSNG)


DSNG system is used as a mobile Earth Station. To perform live broadcasting from a remote
place where any physical link like optical fiber, transmission wire, radio link are not available,
then satellite link is the only way to send the raw footage to the main TV station system together
with a mini program control system. The signal flow of the DSNG system is given in
Figure 3.8.

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Figure 3.8: Typical DSNG Setup, (1+1 Configuration)


The digital audio and video are obtained as outputs from the OB Van. For live outdoor
recordings OB (Outdoor Broadcasting) Van is used. The compression standard is MPEG-2.
There are two types of DSNG systems which operates in C-band and Ku- band. They are

 Fly away type.


 Van type.

DSNG setup comprises Encoder (MPEG2-MPEG4), Modulator (DVB-S/S2), Up-Converter,


HPA (SSPA) and Parabolic Dish Antenna. Redundancies are provided at encoder, modulator,
up-converter and HPA level with switching devices at each stage. The Figure 3.9 shows a
DSNG Van with a Dish Antenna at the top. The parameters of DSNG are given in Table 3.2.

Figure 3.9: DSNG Van

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Table 3.2: DSNG Parameters

Satellite GSAT-16, for Ku band 55˚E

GSAT-17, for C band 93.5˚E

Up-Link Frequency 13774MHz

Down-Link Frequency 12527MHz

Symbol Rate 2.9 MSPS

FEC (Forward Error Correction) 3/4

Azimuthal Angle 240˚

Elevation Angle 60˚

Transponder K.01

In case of failure of the DSNG then a backup system known as TVU pack is employed. A TVU
pack is a small system which accepts video and audio signals from any source and compresses
it and sends over a mobile network to be transmitted further to satellite. A block diagram of
TVU Pack is shown in Figure 3.10. It has multiple dongles, which enables the use of multiple
service providers for transmission. In case of failure of one service provider another service
provider is chosen immediately.

BSNL/JIO/A
TVU PACK IRTEL CAR/MSR
NETWORK

EARTH
STATION

VIDEO AUDIO

SATELLITE

Figure 3.10: TVU Pack Block Diagram

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4. WEEKLY REPORT

WEEK 1: STUDIO
During the first week of the internship I learnt about the two studios at DDK. There are two
studios in DDK. Studio-1 is used for programs which require big sets and variety of
backgrounds. Programs such as “Shubhodaya Karnataka”, “Thatt Antha Heli”, etc. are the few
of which that are shot here. Studio-2 is used for live telecast of daily News. PCR, MSR, CAR
and VTR are few sections involved in production of the programs. These are the places where
the background processing takes place. I also learnt about audio control, vision mixing, and
lighting control, different types of lights available and different types of microphones that are
used while shooting the programs.

WEEK 2: EARTH STATION, TRANSMITTER AND DTH


In the second week of the internship, I was involved in learning about Transmitter and Earth
Station Complex. During this time, I learnt about Analog and Digital Terrestrial Transmission.
I was able to identify the advantages of digital transmission over analog. I learnt about DVB-
T2 standard that is used in terrestrial transmission.

In the earth station complex I learnt how the video and audio signals are modulated and up-
converted to up-link the signals to satellite through antenna. I also leant about the satellites that
DDK is currently using for telecasting. Then I learnt about Casper CG server, which is used to
queue the programs that need to be telecasted according to the list provided by the production
department. I also learnt about different antennas involved in up-linking, down-linking and
terrestrial transmission of the signals. A briefing on DTH was also given in this week.

WEEK 3: ENG SECTION AND EDITING


In the third week I learnt about the editing process. I was briefed about the software tools used
in editing the videos. Editing is of two types i.e. Linear Editing and Non Linear Editing. Adobe
Photoshop, Adobe CS, Canopus, Avid HD are some of the tools used for editing.

In the ENG section I learnt about different cameras such as DVC Pro, XD Cam and NS Cam
used in outdoor news gathering and also different microphones used for recording the sound. I
also learnt about TVU Pack which is a standby for DSNG.

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WEEK 4: OB VAN, DSNG AND HANDS-ON SESSION ON


AUDIO CONSOLE
In the final week of my internship I learnt about OB Van and DSNG. OB Van is used for
Outdoor Recording such as live events. The DSNG Van is a mobile earth station which is used
to up-link the video and audio signals recorded by OB Van to the satellite for Live Telecast.

In the second half of the week, I was given an opportunity to handle the audio console. I learnt
how to manage the amplitude of the voices collected using microphone. I learnt how to set-up
microphones on a set. I also learnt how to separate the sounds on different instruments and
isolate them so that its quality can be enhanced.

WEEKLY REPORT TABLE


WEEK NO. TOPIC SIGNATURE OF SIGNATURE OF
EXTERNAL INTERNAL
SUPERVISOR SUPERVISOR
Mr Niranjan Prof. Jamuna M.
Deputy Director (Engg.), Assistant Professor
DDK, Bengaluru BIT, Bengaluru

Week 1 STUDIO SECTION

Week 2 EARTH STATION,


TRANSMITTER AND
DTH
Week 3 ENG SECTION AND
EDITING
Week 4 OB VAN, DSNG AND
HANDS-ON SESSION ON
AUDIO CONSOLE

Department of Telecommunication Engineering, B.I.T. 16


Earth Station Complex 2018-2019

5. CONCLUSION

In this report a detailed discussion of Earth station complex and Transmitter at DDK Bengaluru
has been made. Block diagrams of various transmitters are explained in this report. Interning
at Doordarshan was a good opportunity for me to develop practical knowledge on the concepts
that I had been learning throughout my course in a classroom. With this Internship I gained
knowledge on how real time transmitters and receivers work. I also learnt about the steps
involved in shooting a program to till it gets telecasted on a TV.

The internship gave deeper insights on fundamentals of Television Broadcasting. This


internship helped me to strengthen my knowledge base. It was a good experience overall.

Department of Telecommunication Engineering, B.I.T. 17


Earth Station Complex 2018-2019

REFERENCES

[1] Doordarshan Kendra Bengaluru Files Transmitter and Earth Complex.


[2] Hand-outs on OB Coverage for TV Report at DDK Bengaluru.
[3] http://www.ddchandana.gov.in/

Department of Telecommunication Engineering, B.I.T. 18