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VOL.

VII, ISSUE XXV, JAN 2018 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601


An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION AND PATH FOR SEED YIELD AND ITS ATTRIBUTES IN F4 PROGENIES OF GREEN
GRAM (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) R. WILCZEK)
Shreya Sen**., Keerthiga S*., and K. G. Modha
Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingN. M. College of Agriculture
Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat
(Received: 04.10.17; Revised: 10.11.2017; Accepted: 11.11.2017)
(RESEARCH PAPER IN GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING)
Abstract
The present experiment was conducted at N M College of Agriculture, Navsari during summer 2016. It comprised of three parents Meha,
GM-4, Pusa Vishal and their 30 F4 progenies derived from the crosses Meha x Pusa Vishal (15 progenies) and Meha x GM-4 (15 progenies).
Seed yield per plant was strongly and positively associated with the yield components like pods per plant, clusters per plant, seed yield per
plant, 100 seed weight, protein content and harvest index in both the segregating populations, which indicated that, while applying selection,
more emphasis will have to be given for pods per plant, clusters per plant, seed yield per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index and protein
content. Path analysis involving two segregating populations revealed that seed yield was primarily influenced by harvest index followed by
seeds per pod, pods per cluster, clusters per pod, protein content and 100 seed weight, which had higher positive direct effect on seed yield
per plant in the segregating populations as compared to remaining traits. Harvest index exhibited maximum positive direct effect and
significant correlation with seed yield per plant in desirable direction. Hence, it would be rewarding to lay emphasis on harvest index while
developing selection strategies in greengram.
Key words: Correlation, path analysis, green gram and quantitative traits.
Introduction Materials and Methods
Pulses are annual leguminous crop used for both food and feed, The present study comprised of three parents Meha, GM-4, Pusa
belonging to family Fabaceae which is a large and economically Vishal and their 30 F4 progenies derived from the crosses Meha x
important family of flowering plants and is commonly known as the Pusa Vishal (15 progenies) and Meha x GM-4 (15 progenies) were
legume family. With the introduction of improved varieties and laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Each
promotion of better management techniques, pulse crops can continue parental / progeny row consisted of 20 plants with 45 cm x 15 cm
to be an excellent choice for farmers in the developing world and can inter and intra row spacing. The experiment was carried out during
fulfill the massive gap in productivity of pulse crops between inside summer, 2016 at the College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture,
and outside the developing world. Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Ten plants from each parent
Wilczek] is an ancient and well known, thirteen food legumes grown as well as from each F4 progenies were randomly selected for
in India and third most important pulse crop of India after chickpea recording following observations such as days to 50% flowering,
and pigeonpea. It is known by various names in India as mung, plant height, primary branches per plant, days to maturity, clusters
moong, greenbean, moongbean, mashbean, greensoy, goldengram, per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield
chickasawpea and oreganpea but the name greengram is more per plant and harvest index. For correlation coefficient, analysis of
common (Chatterjee and Randhawa, 1952). Mungbean is a self- covariance for all possible pairs of ten characters was carried out
pollinating diploid plant with 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes and a using the procedure of Panse and Sukhatme (1978) for each family.
genome size of 579 Mb/1C (Parida et al., 1990). Seeds are easily The genotypic correlations were tested using the method suggested
digestible with high nutritional value (Protein up to 28%), minerals by Fisher and Yates (1963). The cause and effect relationship
(calcium, iron (4-7mg/100g), zinc (3mg/100g), potassium and between two variables cannot be known from simple correlation
phosphorus), vitamins (folate and vitamin K) and dietary fibres. coefficient. Therefore, path analysis suggested by Wright (1921) and
Sprouted seeds of mungbean are nutritionally enhanced as ascorbic Dewey and Lu (1959) was adopted for each family separately in
acid is synthesized with increment in riboflavin and thiamine. order to partition the genotypic correlation between variables with
Yield is a complex character governed by quantitative components seed yield into direct and indirect effects of those variables on yield.
traits and the environments where it is grown. Thus, selection for Genotypic correlation coefficients of ten variables with yield were
grain yield becomes difficult unless the associations between the used to estimate the path coefficients for the direct effect of various
yield contributing characters are known. Measurement of correlation independent characters on dependent character seed yield per plant.
helps to identify the relative contribution of component characters The technique given by Goulden (1959) was followed for inversion
towards yield (Panse, 1957). The yield components have ultimate of the ‘B’ matrix using partitioning method of matrix inversion. The
influence on yield, both directly and indirectly (Tukey, 1954). indirect effects for a particular character through other characters
Splitting of total correlation into direct and indirect effects, would were obtained by multiplication of direct path and particular
provide a more meaningful interpretation of such association. Indirect correlation coefficient between those two characters, respectively.
selection through component characters with high heritability is Results and Discussion
advantageous for polygenic character like yield. Correlation analysis provides the information on nature and
Path coefficient, which is a standard partial regression coefficient, magnitude of the association of different components characters with
specifies the cause and effect relationship and measures the relative seed yield, which is regarded as highly complex trait in which the
importance of each variable (Wright, 1921). This technique is used to breeder is ultimately interested. From the table 1 to 2, it was observed
find relative contribution of component characters directly on the that seed yield per plant was strongly and positively associated with
main characters and indirectly through other characters to increase the yield components like pods per plant, clusters per plant, seed
the efficiency of selection. Therefore, correlation in combination with yield per plant, 100 seed weight, protein content and harvest index in
path coefficient analysis is an important tool to quantify the direct both the segregating populations. Pods per plant, clusters per plant,
and indirect influence of one character upon another (Dewey and Lu, 100 seed weight, seeds per pod and harvest index were found to be
1959). The present study will help to formulate selection criteria for positively and significantly associated in the progenies of the cross
evolving high yielding genotypes and to estimate the contribution of Meha x Pusa Vishal. While, pods per plant, 100 seed weight, clusters
yield components on yield and their association in green gram per plant, seeds per pod, protein content and harvest index depicted
utilizing F4 progenies.
VOL. VII, ISSUE XXV, JAN 2018 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601
An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
positive and significant association with seed yield per plant in F4 al. (2013), Patel et al. (2014), Ahmad et al. (2014), Singh and Kumar
population of Meha x GM-4. (2014), Rathor et al. (2015), Keerthinandan et al. (2016) for pods per
Similar results of significant association for these traits with seed plant; Singh et al. (2009b), Prasanna et al. (2013), Patel et al. (2014)
yield per plant have been reported by Singh et al. (2009b), Rathor et for seeds per pod; Tabasum et al. (2010), Keerthinandan et al. (2016)
al. (2015), Keerthinandan et al. (2016), Raselmiah et al. (2016) and for harvest index.
Sohel et al. (2016) for harvest index; Srivastava et al. (2008) and The genotypic association of pods per plant was significant with
Tabasum et al. (2010) for primary branches per plant, clusters per harvest index, seeds per pod, protein content and 100 seed weight,
plant and pods per plant; Biradar et al. (2007), Khajudparn and which was in accordance with the study of Srivastava et al. (2008),
Tantasawat (2011), Gadakh et al. (2013), Prasanna et al. (2013) and Kumar et al. (2010a), Rahim et al. (2010), Jyothsna and Anuradha
Keerthinandan et al. (2016) for plant height, clusters per plant, pods (2013), Prasanna et al. (2013), Javed et al. (2014) for seeds per pod;
per plant and seeds per pod; Parameswarappa (2005), Makeen et al. Srivastava and Singh (2012), Jyothsna and Anuradha (2013), Javed et
(2007) and Javed et al. (2014) for plant height and pods per plant; al. (2014), Khaimichho et al. (2014), Keerthinandan et al. (2016),
Kumar et al. (2010a) for primary branches per plant, pods per plant Sohel et al. (2016), Raselmiah et al. (2016) for 100 seed weight;
and seeds per pods; Sadiq et al. (2005) and Narasimhulu et al. (2013) Kumar et al. (2005), Singh et al. (2009b), Kumar et al. (2010b),
for clusters per plant and pods per plant; Rahim et al. (2010), Reddy Rathor et al. (2015), Keerthinandan et al. (2016), Sohel et al.
et al. (2011), Kumar et al. (2013) and Keerthinandan et al.(2016) for (2016), Raselmiah et al. (2016) for harvest index.
pods per plant and seeds per pod; Kumar et al. (2005), Kumar et al. The genotypic correlation of seeds per pod with 100 seed weight and
(2010b), Srivastava and Singh (2012), Keerthinandan et al. (2016), protein content was significant. The similar results were also
Raselmiah et al. (2016) and Sohel et al. (2016) for pods per plant. observed by Kumar et al. (2010b), Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Kumar
In general, days to 50% flowering showed positive and significant et al. (2013), Patel et al. (2014), Pathak et al. (2014), Rathor et al.
correlation with plant height, primary branches per plant. Negative (2015), Das and Barua (2015) for 100 seed weight.
and significant correlation was observed for Pods per plant in both The trait 100 seed weight manifested positive and significant
the F4 population. This finding is in accordance with Khajudparn and correlation with harvest index Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Prasanna et
Tantasawat (2011) and Gadakh et al. (2013) for plant height and al. (2013), Sohel et al. (2016), Keerthinandan et al. (2016),
primary branches per plant; Kumar et al. (2005), Biradar et al. Raselmiah et al. (2016) also reported the same.
(2007), Makeen et al. (2007), Rahim et al. (2010), Titumeer et al. While reviewing the studies on correlation made in several crop
(2014), Singh and Kumar (2014), Pathak et al. (2014), Rathor et al. plants, it has been observed that strength and direction of correlation
(2015) and Hemavathy et al. (2015) for plant height; Singh et al. in different character combinations depend on the nature of
(2009a) for primary branches per plant experimental material and environmental condition in which they
Days to maturity manifested positive and significant correlation with have been studied (Falconer, 1960). However, based on the present
pods per cluster, primary branches per plant, clusters per plant and study, it can be said that more emphasis will have to be given for
seeds per pod. The results are in agreement with previously reported pods per plant, clusters per pod, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and
by Singh et al. (2009a), Kumar et al. (2010a), Khajudparn and harvest index. From the above observations, the improvement in
Tantasawat (2011), Gadakh et al. (2013), Prasanna et al. (2013) for greengram yield appears to be possible through selection for these
primary branches per plant; Srivastava and Singh (2012), Prasanna et characters.
al. (2013), Ahmad et al. (2014) for clusters per plant; Reddy et al. Path coefficient analysis
(2011), Gadakh et al. (2013), Jyothsna and Anuradha (2013) for Path coefficient analysis provides an insight into the inter-relationship
seeds per pod of various characters with seed yield per plant. It gives more realistic
Plant height was positively and significantly associated with primary inter-relationship of characters with seed yield per plant. Path
branches per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant analysis involving two segregating populations revealed that seed
and harvest index which was in accordance with those reported by yield was primarily influenced by harvest index followed by seeds
Parameswarappa (2005), Biradar et al. (2007), Kumar et al. (2010a), per pod, pods per cluster, clusters per pod, protein content and 100
Kumar et al. (2010b), Khajudparn and Tantasawat (2011), Kumar et seed weight, which had higher positive direct effect on seed yield per
al. (2013), Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Javed et al. (2014), Patel et al. plant in the segregating populations as compared to remaining traits
(2014), Titumeer et al. (2014), Pathak et al. (2014) for primary (Table 3 - 4). Harvest index exhibited maximum positive direct effect
branches per plant; Srivastava et al. (2008), Tabasum et al. (2010), and significant correlation with seed yield per plant in desirable
Gadakh et al. (2013), Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Javed et al.(2014), direction. Hence, it would be rewarding to lay emphasis on harvest
Patel et al. (2014), Singh and Kumar (2014), Ahmad et al. (2014), index while developing selection strategies in greengram. These
Rathor et al. (2015), Hemavathy et al. (2015), Keerthinandan et al. results are in accordance with Prakash (2006), Rao et al. (2006),
(2016) for clusters per plant; Parameswarappa (2005), Makeen et al. Biradar et al. (2007), Makeen et al. (2007), Pandey et al. (2007),
(2007), Srivastava et al. (2008), Reddy et al. (2011), Kumar et al. Hakim (2008), Srivastava et al. (2008), Singh et al. (2009b), Kumar et
(2013), Patel et al. (2014), Alom et al. (2014), Ahmad et al. (2014), al. (2010b), Khajudparn and Tantasawat (2011), Tabasum et al.
Pathak et al. (2014), Keerthinandan et al. (2016) for pods per plant; (2010), Vyas (2010), Srivastava and Singh (2012), Jyothsna and
Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Keerthinandan et al. (2016) for harvest Anuradha (2013), Prasanna et al. (2013), Kumar et al. (2013),
index. Gadakh et al. (2013), Lalinia et al. (2014), Khaimichho et al. (2014),
Primary branches per plant were significantly correlated with clusters Patel et al. (2014), Das et al. (2015), Ahmed et al. (2015), Rathor et
per plant and protein content. These findings are in agreement with al. (2015), Jangra and Yadav (2015), Raselmiah et al. (2016) and
those reported by Biradar et al. (2007), Kumar et al. (2010b), Sohel et al. (2016).
Khajudparn and Tantasawat (2011), Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Javed Positive direct effect was exhibited by primary branches per plant,
et al. (2014), Patel et al. (2014). clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant and seeds per pod
Clusters per plant were significantly associated with pods per cluster, in the cross Meha x Pusa Vishal, while other characters like days to
pods per plant, and seeds per pod and harvest index. These findings maturity, plant height and 100 seed weight had negative direct effects
were similar to Sadiq et al. (2005), Srivastava et al. (2008), Singh et which was previously reported by Parameswarappa (2005), Sadiq et
al. (2009b), Tabasum et al. (2010), Khajudparn and Tantasawat al. (2005), Rao et al. (2006), Biradar et al. (2007), Hakim (2008),
(2011), Gadakh et al. (2013), Narasimhulu et al. (2013), Prasanna et Srivastava et al. (2008), Singh et al. (2009b), Kumar et al. (2010b),
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VOL. VII, ISSUE XXV, JAN 2018 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601
An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
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Table 1: Genotypic correlation coefficient of seed yield per plant with other characters in F4 population of cross A (Meha x Pusa
Vishal) in mungbean
characters DF DM PH PBP CPP PPC PPP SPP SY (g) 100 SW HI (%)
(cm) (g)
DM -0.413**
PH (cm) 0.843** -0.045
PBP 0.632** -0.394** 0.918**
CPP 0.051 0.245 0.559** 0.736**
** **
PPC 0.132 1.000 0.437 -0.204 0.643**
*
PPP -0.303 0.146 0.200 0.134 0.855** 0.680**
** * *
SPP -0.280 -0.530 -0.148 0.334 -0.328 -0.492** 0.041
** **
SY (g) -0.014 -0.723 0.108 -0.174 0.686 0.248 0.813** 0.372*
** ** **
100 SW (g) -0.289 -0.471 -0.257 -0.251 0.069 -0.472 0.475 0.424** 0.574**
* * ** **
HI (%) 0.139 -0.363 0.318 0.210 0.676 0.007 0.567 -0.002 0.482** 0.732**
PRO (%) -0.231 -0.455** -0.114 -0.327* -0.142 -0.254 -0.007 -0.055 0.081 0.116 0.511**
Table 2: Genotypic correlation coefficient of seed yield per plant with other characters in F4 population of cross C (Meha x GM 4) in
mungbean
Characters DF DM PH (cm) PBP CPP PPC PPP SPP SY (g) 100 HI (%)

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SW (g)
DM 0.083
PH(cm) 0.113 0.584**
PBP 0.002 0.484** -0.392**
**
CPP -0.294 0.481 0.875** -0.543**
** **
PPC -0.703 -0.153 -0.521 -0.020 -0.601**
* **
PPP -0.366 0.247 0.643 -0.086 0.518** 0.429**
** ** **
SPP 0.412 0.635 1.000 -0.293 0.878 -0.551** 0.610**
* ** ** **
SY (g) 0.016 -0.328 0.050 -0.537 0.443 -0.545 0.373* 0.627**
** * ** ** **
100 SW (g) -0.644 -0.149 -0.337 -0.265 -0.622 0.873 0.427 -0.041 0.299*
** ** * **
HI (%) -0.721 0.225 0.071 -0.145 0.410 0.357 0.780 -0.142 0.279 0.573**
* ** * ** **
PRO (%) -0.062 -0.067 0.178 0.316 0.424 -0.209 0.318 0.514 0.820 0.240 0.161
DF- Days to 50% flowering, DM- Days to maturity, PH- Plant height, PB- Primary branches per plant, CPP- Clusters per plant,
PPC- Pods per cluster, PPP- Pods per plant, SPP- Seeds per pod, SY- Seed yield per plant, 100 SW- 100 Seed weight,
HI – Harvest index, PRO- Protein content
** - Significant at 1.0 per cent level of probability, * - Significant at 5.0 per cent level of probability
Table 3: Path coefficient analysis of component characters towards seed yield per plant in F4 population of the cross A (Meha x Pusa
vishal) in mungbean
Characters DF DM PH PBP CPP PPC PPP SPP 100 HI (%) PRO
(cm) (g) SW (%)
(g)
DF 7.821 -3.229 6.594 4.946 0.395 1.035 -2.367 2.190 -2.263 1.084 -1.808
DM 0.859 -2.080 0.093 0.819 -0.510 -2.181 -0.303 1.103 0.981 0.755 0.945
PH(cm) -11.458 0.611 - -12.471 -7.598 -5.942 -2.725 2.014 3.497 -4.321 1.554
13.591
PBP 0.059 -0.037 0.086 0.093 0.067 -0.019 0.013 0.031 -0.023 0.019 -0.031
CPP 0.112 0.544 1.241 1.635 2.220 1.427 1.897 -0.729 0.152 1.502 -0.316
PPC 0.617 4.891 2.039 -0.951 2.999 4.665 3.174 -2.297 -2.202 0.032 -1.183
PPP -0.022 0.011 0.015 0.010 0.632 0.050 0.074 0.003 0.035 0.042 0.001
SPP(g) -1.516 -2.870 -0.802 1.809 -1.778 -2.666 0.221 5.414 2.298 -0.010 -0.297
100 SW (g) 2.084 3.394 1.853 1.804 -0.494 3.397 -3.418 -3.005 -7.199 -5.269 -0.839
H I (%) 1.041 -2.725 2.388 1.580 5.079 0.051 4.257 -0.013 5.496 7.509 3.839
PRO (%) 0.390 0.766 0.193 0.552 0.240 0.427 -0.011 0.092 -0.196 -0.861 -1.685
Genotypic correlation -0.014 -0.723** 0.108 -0.174 0.686** 0.248 0.813** 0.372* 0.574** 0.482** 0.181
with seed yield per plant
Table 4: Path coefficient analysis of component characters towards seed yield per plant in F4 population of the cross C (meha x GM-
4) in mungbean
Characters DF DM PH PBP CPP PPC PPP SPP 100 HI PRO
(cm) (g) SW (%) (%)
(g)
DF 0.282 0.024 0.032 0.001 -0.083 -0.198 -0.103 0.040 -0.181 -0.203 -0.017
DM -0.043 -0.513 - -0.248 -0.247 0.079 -0.127 -0.325 0.076 -0.115 0.035
0.299
PH(cm) 0.139 0.720 1.234 -0.484 1.080 -0.643 0.793 1.481 -0.416 0.088 0.219
PBP 0.001 -0.093 0.075 -0.192 0.104 0.004 0.017 0.056 0.051 0.028 -0.061
CPP 0.119 -0.195 - 0.220 -0.406 0.244 -0.210 -0.356 0.253 -0.167 -0.172
0.355
PPC 0.382 0.083 0.283 0.011 0.327 -0.544 -0.233 0.299 -0.475 -0.194 0.114
PPP 0.294 -0.199 - 0.069 -0.415 -0.344 -0.802 -0.489 -0.342 -0.626 -0.255
0.516
SPP(g) 0.051 -0.228 - 0.105 -0.316 0.198 -0.219 -0.360 0.015 0.051 -0.185
0.432
100 SW (g) -0.366 -0.084 - -0.151 -0.354 0.496 0.243 -0.023 0.568 0.326 0.136
0.192
H I (%) -0.687 0.214 0.068 -0.138 0.391 0.341 0.744 -0.135 0.564 0.954 0.154
PRO (%) -0.053 -0.057 0.152 0.270 0.362 -0.179 0.272 0.439 0.204 0.138 0.853
Genotypic correlation 0.016 -0.328* 0.050 -0.537** 0.443** - 0.373* 0.627** 0.299* 0.279 0.820**
with seed yield per plant 0.545**
DF- Days to 50% flowering, DM- Days to maturity, PH- Plant height, PB- Primary branches per plant, CPP- Clusters per plant, PPC- Pods
per cluster, PPP- pods per plant,
SPP- Seeds per pod, 100 SW- 100 Seed weight, HI – Harvest index, PRO- Protein content
** - Significant at 1.0 per cent level of probability, * - Significant at 5.0 per cent level of probability
Bold diagonal figures are the direct effect

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