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The Environmental Condition and Coral Reefs of Belakang

Padang Island, Batam City, Indonesia


a*
Aunurrahman , Agung Suryanto b
a
Doctorate Programme, Fishery and Marine Sciene, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
b
Fishery and Marine Sciene Faculty, Diponegoro University, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia

ar t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t
The purpose of research is to determine the condition of the environment and coral reefs in
Received DDMMYY Belakang Padang Island, Batam City. Observation of coral reef by line intercept transect
Received in revised form DDMMYY method is 5 observation point at depth 3 m and 10 m with transect length 50 m.
Accepted DDMMYY
Observation of seawater quality is done in five observation points. The analysis of coral
Available online DDMMYY
reef health status refers to the Decree of State Minister of Environment Number 04/2001
on Criteria of Raw Damage to Coral Reef. Seawater quality analysis refers to the Decree of
Keywords: Coral health the Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Marine Water Quality Standard Appendix III
Water Quality with the allocation of biota. The results showed Based on the observations, in general, the
Belakang Padang Island area of coral reef cover in the area of Rear Island Padang ranged from 21.06% 67.38%
with the range of bad category to good. The water quality condition for all parameters is still
in accordance with the specified quality standard.

1. Introduction It is estimated that 19% of the world's coral reef


Industrial activities, plantations, livestock, tourism, ecosystems have been permanently damaged and 60%
and settlements allegedly contribute to a degradation of of these values are caused by human activities (Baum
aquatic environmental quality (Diop et al, 2014). et al., 2015). Pollution from human activities is a major
Changes in the use of coastal areas have the potential cause of the declining health of coral reefs (Johan et al.,
to cause negative impacts on environmental 2015). Fisheries and tourism activities contribute to the
degradation. (Kakisina et al., 2015) decline of coral reef health (Brown et al 2001). Tourism
Coral reefs are important ecosystems that have high activity is one of the causes of coral reef damage, either
biodiversity because they contain food sources and mechanically or through pollution generated from these
provide protection for living biota (Cátia et al., 2016). activities (Ferrigno, 2016).
The coral reef is an organism in the form of limestone Belakang Padang Island is one of 180 islands
rock (CaCO3) which is strong enough to resist the style located in the north of Batam City. The rapid
of sea waves. While the dominant organisms live here development of the area in the city of Batam one of
are coral animals that have lime skeletons, and algae Belakang Padang Island causing the increasing
many of which also contain lime (Vernon, 2010). demands of physical development, so that a lot of lands
Manikandan (2006) stated that coral reef ecosystems that switches the function to become an area developed
serve as economic and ecological service providers. as an industry, plantation, livestock, tourism, and
Coral reefs are one of the most endemic marine settlement.
ecosystems that are currently receiving the most Activities undertaken in the coastal area of Pulau
pressure (Lasagna et al., 2014, Michaela, 2017). Coral Belakang can cause degradation of waters environment
reef ecosystems are strongly influenced by coastal quality as well as damage to coral reef ecosystem. Until
development activities (Van der Meij et al., 2010). now there has been no research that examines related
to it.
The purpose of this research is to know the
environmental condition and health status of coral reefs
in Belakang Padang Island, Batam City, Indonesia.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62 81393877324.


E-mail address: aunurrahmancbp@gmail.com.
Picture. 1. Sampling Location

2. Material and method criterion with percentage of cover area 0 - 24,9%, medium
criterion with percentage of cover area 25 - 49,9%, good
2.1. Study sites criterion with percentage of cover area 50 - 74.9% and
very good criteria with percentage of cover area 75 -
Belakang Padang Island is located in the northern part of 100%.
Batam Island with a geographical position at coordinates
1o 9 '0.225 "LU-103o.53 27,148" BT (Fig 1). The area of 2.2.2. Water Quality
2
Padang Rear Island is 68,4 Km .
Water quality sampling is done at 6 points similar to
2.2. Data collection coral reef observation. Parameters taken include:

2.2.1. Percent coral cover Table 1.


Parameters of water quality and equipment used
Coral reef inventory is done by LIT (Line Intercept Parameters Units Equipments
Transect) method (English et al., 1997). Observation Temperature o Thermometer
stations of coral reef ecosystems were determined Salinity C Refractometer
Dissolved oxygen ‰ Titrasi Winkler
purposively based on the representativeness of study pH mg/L pH meter
sites. Line transects were used to describe coral Transparency meter Secchi disk
community structures by looking at the live coral cover, Total Suspended Solid mg/L Gravimetric
dead coral, substrate form (sand, mud), algae and other
biota existence. Coral specs are expected to be recorded Seawater quality analysis refers to the Decree of the
as a form of coral growth (life form). Observation of coral Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Marine Water
reefs is done in 6 points. Quality Standard Appendix III with the allocation of biota.
The transect line starts from a depth of 3 m and 10 m
or in-depth where still found coral reefs (± 25 m) of the 3. Results and Discussion
coastline following the contour line depth pattern. The
transect length used is 50 m which its placement is The development of Belakang Padang Island,
parallel to the shoreline. The data that have been especially industry, plantation, livestock, tourism, and
obtained are then grouped according to their respective settlement contribute to the condition of coral reefs in the
categories. After grouping, each of the categories (i) is region. Human activities in coastal areas will put pressure
calculated by the total length of the transition to obtain the on the environment that will cause disturbance to the
value of the coral cover percentage. condition of coral reefs (Ferrigno, 2016). Coastal areas
The analysis of coral reef health status refers to receive anthropogenic stresses (Mateus, 2016).
Decree of State Minister of Environment Number 04/2001 Development activities will have a negative impact on the
on Criteria of Coral Reef Damage Standard with bad
environment (Nilgun, 2015). Increasing human a homogeneous tendency that is 23 o/oo.The dissolved
populations of coastal areas can lead to pollution of oxygen values range from 7.4 to 8.8 ºC. The highest
waters due to pollutants produced (De'ath., Et al, 2010). values are obtained at the 5th and lowest sampling point
Water quality is an illustration of how conditions or at point 1.
physical and chemical characteristics are. Aquatic habitat Some water quality parameters especially suspended
in meeting the needs of the organism in it as a habitat to solids and dissolved oxygen parameters are close to the
live. In this study, an observation of water quality was permissible threshold. The high values of suspended
done in order to see the condition of the waters at this solids can block the entry of sunlight and will ultimately
time. affect the photosynthesis process of the zooxanthellae
Table 2 shows brightness values ranging from 5 to 6. (Galvao, 2013). Increased sediment causes disruption to
The value of suspended solids ranges from 11.21 / L to coral reefs, such as increased coral mortality, decreased
18.10 mg / L. The highest values are obtained at the coral growth, changes in species composition, and
sampling point 2 and the lowest at point 7. Temperature changes in fish communities (Michaela, 2017).
values range from 28.9ºC to 29.9 ºC. The highest values Observations on the condition of water quality indicate
are obtained at sample 3 and lowest point at point 7. The that all parameters are still in accordance with the quality
pH values range from 8.11 to 8.2. The highest value is standard which is determined based on the Decree of the
obtained at the point of sampling 4 and the lowest at point Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Marine Water
3. The salinity value based on the observation result has Quality Standard Appendix III with the allocation of biota.

Table 2
The Results of Water Quality Observation
Results
No Parameter Unit Baku Quality
Point I Point II Point III Point IV Point V Point VI
1 Brightness Meters >5 6 6 5 7 7 7
2 Suspended solids (TSS) mg/L 20 15,35 18,10 14,16 15,21 12,55 12,13
o
3 Temperature C 28-30 29.6 29.7 29.9 29.7 28.9 29.1
4 pH - 7-8.5 8.17 8.13 8.11 8.2 8.13 8.12
o
5 Salinity /oo 33-34 23 23 23 23 23 23
6 Dissolved Oxygen (DO) mg/L >5 7,4 7,7 8,5 8,3 8,8 8,6

The main causes of coral reef damaged to include m. Coral reef at 3m depth is dominated by submassive
fishing practices using poison or explosives, coral mining, coral species while at 9m depth is dominated by massive
pollution and fisheries activities (Arifin, 2004). coral species.
Based on the observations, generally, the condition of The observation at point 3 shows the percentage of
coral reefs in the area of Belakang Padang Island in coral cover 43,40% at depth 3 m and 36,20% at depth 9
comparison with the criteria based on the Decree of the m. Coral reef at 3m depth is dominated by folios coral
State Minister of Environment Number 04/2001 on species while at depth 9m is dominated by submassive
Criteria of Raw Damage of Coral Reef is in moderate coral species.
condition, except at 2nd observation point at 9 m depth. The observation at point 4 shows the percentage of
The condition of coral reefs at that point is in the bad coral cover 40.50% at 3 m depth and 33.52% at a depth
category. The condition of coral reefs with good category of 9 m. Coral reefs at 3m depth are dominated by
is found only at observation points 5 and 6 on each of the massive coral species whereas at a depth of 9m is
depth criteria. dominated by submassive coral species.
Table 3 shows at point 1 showing the percentage of The observation at point 5 shows the percentage of
coral cover 43,10% at depth 3 m and 42,18% at depth coral cover 65.32% at depth of 3 m and 52.16% at a
9m. Coral reef at 3m depth is dominated by folios coral depth of 9 m. Coral reef at 3m depth is dominated by
species while at depth 9m is dominated by submassive branching coral species, while at 9m depth is dominated
coral species. by submassive coral species.
The observation at point 2 shows the percentage of
coral cover 25,34% at depth 3 m and 21,06% at depth 9
Table 3.
Percentage of coral coverage
Category
Sampling Location Depth
LC DC A B AB
3m 43.10% 16.70% 24.60% 2.20% 13.40%
1
9m 42.18% 4.74% 13.76% 7.32% 32.00%
3m 25.34% 2.16% 46.42% 3.06% 23.02%
2
9m 21.06% 4.00% 0.42% 10.38% 64.14%
3m 43.40% 13.60% 31.40% 3.40% 8.20%
3
9m 36.20% 13.88% 1.48% 3.14% 45.30%
3m 40.50% 9.64% 20.44% 2.64% 26.78%
4
9m 33.52% 4.44% 9.98% 11.24% 40.82%
3m 67.38% 23.08% 0.24% 2.84% 6.46%
5
9m 41.58% 6.02% 7.76% 5.70% 38.94%
3m 65.32% 5.72% 8.84% 8.10% 12.02%
6
9m 52.16% 13.56% 0.10% 8.16% 26.02%
Note. BP : Belakang Padang LC : Live Coral; DC : Dead Coral; A : Algae; B : Biotic; AB : Abiotic

Figure 2. Coral reefs at the point of observation 1

Figure 3. Coral reefs at the point of observation 2

Figure 4. Coral reefs at the point of observation 3

Figure 5. Coral reefs at the point of observation 4


Figure 6. Coral reefs at the point of observation 5

Figure 7. Coral reefs at the point of observation 6

4. Conclusion
Based on the observations, generally, the condition of Nilgun Guneroglu, Cengiz Acar, Abdulaziz Guneroglu,
coral reefs in the area of Belakang Padang Island in Mustafa Dihkan, Fevzi Karsli, Coastal land degradation
comparison with the criteria based on the Decree of the and character assessment of Southern Black Sea
State Minister of Environment Number 04/2001 on Criteria landscape, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume
of Coral Damage Standard is in moderate condition, 118, Part B, 2015, Pages 282-289, ISSN 0964-5691,
except at 2nd observation point at 9 m depth. The https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.03.013.
condition of coral reefs at that point is in the bad category. Johan, O., Bengen, D.G., Zamani, N.P., Suharsono, ,
The condition of coral reefs with good category is found Sweet, M.J.,2015. The distribution and abundance of
only at observation points 5 and 6 on each of the depth black band disease and White Syndrome in Kepulauan
criteria. Seribu, Indonesia. Hayati J. Biosci. 22, 105–112.
The condition of water quality shows for all parameters M. Mateus, D. Almeida, W. Simonson, M. Felgueiras, P.
is still in accordance with the quality standard that is Banza, L. Batty, Conflictive uses of coastal areas: A
setting based on the Decree of the Minister of case study in a southern European coastal lagoon (Ria
Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Water Quality Standard de Alvor, Portugal), Ocean & Coastal Management,
Appendix III with the allocation of biota. Volume 132, 2016, Pages 90-100, ISSN 0964 - 5691,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.08.016.
Acknowledgments Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 04/
2001 tentang Kriteria Baku Kerusakan Terumbu
The authors would like to thank Dr. Poedjiono Wahyu Karang
Purnomo for his guidance and assistance during this Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup No 51
research. The author also expressed his gratitude to the tahun 2004 tentang Baku Mutu Air Laut
Government of Batam City, through the Department of Baum, G., Januar, H.I., Ferse, S.C.A., Kunzmann, A.,
Fisheries and Marine Sciences which has given an 2015. Local and regional impacts of pollution on coral
opportunity to the author to conduct research activities in reefs along the Thousand Islands north of the
the area of Belakang Padang Island. Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. PLoS One 10 (9),
e0138271.
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